2479 Articles
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Medium 9781475837575

Pitts

Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Invited Paper

Applying Implementation Science to the Development of a Self-Regulation Intervention for Students with Significant Behavior Problems

A Proactive Approach

Donna Spencer Pitts

Michelle M. Cumming

Ann P. Daunic

Alyssa L. Scafidi

Stephen W. Smith

Kristen M. O’Brien

Courtney E. Allen

ABSTRACT: The effective use of evidence-based practices in educational settings is an ongoing concern, and there is growing consensus that desired outcomes are achieved only when programs are implemented thoughtfully and thoroughly. To encourage the integration of research findings into interventions that are feasible and usable within authentic settings, researchers in the field of implementation science have identified key drivers that promote effective implementation. We assert that educational researchers must incorporate core components of implementation science as they develop interventions and not just at the implementation stage. In this article, we provide an account about developing and piloting a self-regulatory intervention for adolescents with emotional and behavioral disorders, through the lens of implementation science. We introduce the intervention, outline the implementation framework that guided our development work, provide examples of barriers encountered, and discuss how we used implementation drivers to analyze and make adjustments to the curriculum for successful delivery.

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Medium 9781475837575

Markelz

Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

A Review of Interventions to Increase Behavior-Specific Praise

Andrew Markelz

Mary Catherine Scheeler

Jonte C. Taylor

Paul J. Riccomini

ABSTRACT: Classroom management is important for student achievement and teachers’ well-being. Research supports behavior-specific praise (BSP) as an evidence-based practice of classroom management, however, its reliable use by teachers remains elusive. A literature review was conducted to identify interventions designed to increase teachers’ use of BSP and the effects of mastery training on maintenance results. Twenty empirical studies, involving special-education and general-education teachers, were analyzed. Findings identify training, performance feedback, self-monitoring, and tactile prompting as interventions to increase teachers’ use of BSP. Participants who were trained to mastery demonstrated higher and more stable BSP rates during maintenance. Results suggest interventions countered suppressing contingencies of BSP such as insufficient opportunities to practice, lack of reinforcement, and cognitive overload.

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Medium 9781475837575

Dexter

Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Effects of a Modified Daily Progress Report for Check In/Check Out at the Elementary Level

Courtney A. Dexter

Kathy L. Ruhl

Douglas D. Dexter

ABSTRACT: In an effort to examine a way to modify check in/check out (CICO) to enhance effectiveness, the current study assessed changes to the daily progress report (DPR) component. A multiple-baseline-across-participants design was used, with three sets of student/teacher pairs in an elementary school, to examine how modifying the DPR to reflect specific, positively worded, operationalized behaviors impacts the DPR as a visual prompt for student behavior and teacher feedback. Results indicate all teachers demonstrated increased levels of behavior-specific feedback, with three demonstrating an improved affirmative to corrective feedback ratio. All students demonstrated a reduction in problem behaviors and increased exhibition of prosocial behaviors. Furthermore, students and teachers rated the modified DPR as effective and easy to use. Implications for practice and implementation guidelines are also discussed in this article.

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Medium 9781475837575

Cozad

Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Effects of Classwide Interventions on Computational Fluency

A Synthesis of the Literature

Lauren E. Cozad

Paul J. Riccomini

ABSTRACT: Learning and applying mathematics requires a seamless blend of critical knowledge of concepts, vocabulary, procedures, computation, and problem solving. Students with mathematics difficulties struggle early and often with many of these ideas, but frequently experience difficulty developing computational fluency. Mathematics classrooms are becoming more and more diverse, often requiring teachers to implement interventions with many students. Classwide intervention (e.g., programs that allow differentiation for an entire class of students) is one avenue by which students are able to acquire, increase, and maintain fluency. The body of research on classwide interventions targeting computational fluency is reviewed. Findings indicate that classwide interventions are effective in increasing computational fluency among students both with and without mathematics difficulties. Implications for practice and future research are presented.

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Medium 9781475837575

Neddenriep

Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Reading and Understanding Informational Text Using the Listen-Reread-Adapt and Answer-Comprehend (LRAAC) Intervention

Is Fluency Enough?

Christine E. Neddenriep

Natalie D. Rose

Kali J. Olson

Shawna P. Loniello

Celine M. Santos

Stephanie L. Koenigsman

Jenna M. Mathew

ABSTRACT: How can students’ understanding of informational text be improved? Is fluency alone sufficient to improve their comprehension of informational text? The Listen-Reread-Adapt and Answer-Comprehend (LRAAC) intervention combines a repeated readings intervention with listening passage preview as well as a question-generation intervention to improve students’ reading fluency and comprehension of informational text. Three third-grade students were included in the intervention. Using a multiple-baseline design across participants, the effects of the fluency intervention were evaluated alone and then in combination with the comprehension intervention on participants’ number of words read correctly per minute and the percentage of the passage the participants comprehended per minute. A functional relation was established between the participants’ increased fluency and the implementation of the repeated readings intervention with listening passage preview. With the addition of the question-generation intervention, participants demonstrated improved understanding of informational text as well. In addition, students reported satisfaction with the intervention indicating that they learned strategies that were helpful and useful to them in the classroom. Limitations and implications for practice with regard to the use of the LRAAC intervention are discussed.

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Medium 9781475848533

Black Masculine Caring and the Dilemma faced by Black Male Leaders

Murakami, Elizabeth; Tran, Natalie Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Lisa Bass

Kendrick Alston

Black Masculine Caring and the Dilemma faced by Black Male Leaders

Abstract: The status of Black males in schools and society continues to be concerning, as Black males appear to fall behind other groups in almost every arena, particularly educationally, socially, and professionally. Yet despite their social standing, Black male administrators are often placed in, and have taken on, the charge to serve in high need schools where they oversee the education of Black males and other disadvantaged students. Therefore, there are many Black male students who have Black male administrators. This places them in a position to make a difference in lives of the Black male students and the other students they serve from less privileged backgrounds. This conceptual article discusses the professional challenges faced by Black male leaders and how they choose to lead schools despite these challenges. Tenants of the Black Masculine Caring (BMC) framework are introduced which illuminate ways in which Black male administrators practice interpersonal and institutional care, and how the way they care for students impacts school culture and climate. This article contributes to the literature on school leadership, as all school leaders, regardless of their race, or the race of their students, are expected to maintain positive school cultures and climates in which students are emotionally supported (Blankstein, 2004; Murphy and Torre, 2014). Implications for educational administrators are discussed.

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Medium 9781475848533

Toward a theory of Engaged School Leadership: Positive psychology and principal candidates’ sense of engagement and their preparedness to lead engagement

Murakami, Elizabeth; Tran, Natalie Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Karen Stansberry Beard

Toward a theory of Engaged School Leadership

Positive psychology and principal candidates’ sense of engagement and their preparedness to lead engagement

Abstract: This study explored principle licensure students’ sense of engagement, program effectiveness, and preparedness to lead engagement focused on academic achievement. Data analysis using attributes of effective preparation programs, and positive psychology constructs (e.g., flow) found Goal Achievement, Commitment, and Accomplishment significantly related to flow. Flow was significantly related to Engagement, while Care was significantly related to Commitment and Coping. Perhaps more significantly, the findings yielded seven characteristics of Engaged School Leadership Theory (ESTL) development. Adding to both principal preparation and positive psychology literature, this study offers conceptual understandings toward an emerging theory of Engaged School Leadership.

Key Words: Engaged School Leadership Theory, Principal Preparation, Positive Psychology, Flow, Engagement, Program Effectiveness, Mixed Method Research, Mixed-Method Sequential Explanatory Design

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Medium 9781475848533

The Role of Trauma in Leadership Socialization

Murakami, Elizabeth; Tran, Natalie Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Noelle W. Arnold

Azadeh F. Osanloo

René O. Guillaume

Christa Boske

Wendi Miller-Tomlinson

The Role of Trauma in
Leadership Socialization

Abstract: There is fertile ground to expand the ideas of resilience and growth as two important skills in leadership (Bell, 2009). Little research has examined how trauma and violence are reappropriated in post-trauma contexts. In fact, resiliency and adaptive strategies often influence life and career choices (Wolin & Wolin, 1993). Although this literature base has grown, little attention has been paid to the long-term impact of IPV on battered women’s career development and stages. This article examines the influence of life trauma on the socialization and practice of two Black female principals. Their responses to pain, suffering, trauma, and violence highlight women’s agency and their ability to create their own good from pain (Mitchem, 2002).

Key Words: Trauma, Violence, Social Cognitive Career Theory, Educational Leadership, Leadership Socialization

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Medium 9781475848533

Special Issue Introduction: The Psychology of Educational Leadership

Murakami, Elizabeth; Tran, Natalie Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Karen Stansberry Beard

Noelle Witherspoon Arnold

Ty-Ron M. O. Douglas

Special Issue Introduction

The Psychology of Educational Leadership

While there are many definitions of leadership, one implicit theme across all is the importance of psychological phenomena and processes in leading and following (Bell, 2003). Considerable research has been devoted to explicating the traits and characteristics of individual leaders; however, less has been devoted to leadership in context and as existing in an ecology of its own (Witherspoon Arnold, forthcoming). For example, this leadership ecology is influenced by how leaders make meaning of their leadership and the effectiveness of their leadership in and across contexts (Beard, 2015; 2016). The complex and demanding role of leadership requires examination of the employment of psychological levers, buffers, and mediators that impact leadership understandings, behaviors, and practices.

Personality models represent a standardization of leadership and have largely failed (Haslam, Reicher, & Platow, 2011) to inform or predict leadership effectiveness. Stodgill’s (1948) predictive indicators of leadership were found to be unpredictable when testing could not control for context. Moreover, Strodbeck and Mann’s (1956) subsequent research revealed that the meanings associated with standardized leadership concepts was highly variable. While psychology has expanded beyond the “great man” ideas of leadership, field educational leadership has moved more slowly than other fields in exploring the psychology of leadership and practice in context. While educational leadership has explored leadership as a negotiation of epistemologies, ontologies, and axiologies, and not a static end result (Witherspoon & Taylor, 2010), it has not systematically assessed the variations in leadership across educational ecologies.

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Medium 9781475848533

Diversifying Approaches to Educational Leadership: The Impact of Tradition in a Changing Educational Landscape

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James S. Wright

Noelle W. Arnold

Muhammad Khalifa

Diversifying Approaches to Educational Leadership

The Impact of Tradition in a Changing Educational Landscape

In their 2007 article, Pounder and Johnson addressed the need for the discipline of Educational Administration to link more qualitative works to quantitative works and critical and social justice frameworks to the traditional ones, to help dispel the notion that the Educational Leadership/Administration discipline “is narrow in its theoretical and methodological foci” (p. 271). While the strong history of objective and positivist research in our discipline and its impact on our field is acknowledged, the question remains: is that enough? In our answer to that queston, we argue for more epistemological and theoretical diversity, namely explorations of approaches that center on leadership frames that have academic but also socioemotional outcomes for students. It is also important for an educator to know that the needs of students include material emotional, social, and psychological concerns (Dei, 2003). This theoretical article utilizes Pounder and Johnson’s (2007) challenge to diversify frames and research approaches in Educational Administration and discusses humanities based approaches. We also discuss socioemotional (Social Emotional Learning: SEL) outcomes for each frame and approach (Osher et al., 2016). We end with implications for the field.

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Medium 9781475848533

Knowing Leadership: Students of Color (Re)considering Togetherness with Leaders and Authority Figures

Murakami, Elizabeth; Tran, Natalie Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Ty-Ron M. O. Douglas

Jennifer M. Beasley

Emily R. Crawford

Juan A. Ríos Vega

Cayce McCamish

Knowing Leadership:

Students of Color (Re)considering Togetherness with Leaders and Authority Figures

Abstract: Drawing on Bauman’s (1995) conceptualization of various forms of togetherness and Giroux (2005) and Anzaldúa (2007) explication of border theory, this paper presents findings of a research study that investigates how students of color come to know leaders and authority figures. Findings suggest that students identified “leaders” in part based on their relationships and connections with them and the perceived benefit of such connection. Family members and teachers were considered leaders when students’ relationships with them reflected Bauman’s (1995) “being-for” perspective, as characterized by positive role modeling and empathy. In schools, teachers—rather than school administrators—were most often described as leaders. These relationships were commonly associated with disciplinary issues and the enforcement of rules, and a colorblind system. Implications suggest that relationship characteristics in the borderlands of schools influence the perception of effective school leadership and school authority for students of color.

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Medium 9781538114025

Retrieval, Repair, and the Possibility of a Christian Humanism

Pro Ecclesia Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Retrieval, Repair, and the Possibility of a Christian Humanism

Hans Frei and George Lindbeck as Theologians

Joseph L. Mangina

It has become customary to associate the names of Hans Frei and George Lindbeck with the exercise of charity in theological discussion. It was Frei, after all, who coined the phrase “generous orthodoxy,” his shorthand for a theology poised somewhere between the liberalism of The Christian Century and the evangelicalism of Christianity Today.1 Anyone who knew these two men will testify to their kindness, their graciousness, and their insistence on the charitable reading of opponents. Especially in the highly polarized cultural and political climate of our own time, their warm Christian humanism stands out as a model to be emulated.

But we should also not fool ourselves: Frei and Lindbeck could at times be highly polemical. On the big issues confronting Christian theology in their day, they thought they were right—that their views were best poised to secure the faithfulness and liveliness of catholic tradition as it moved into the future. Whatever else “post”-liberalism may be, it surely involves the judgment that modernist Protestant theology got some important things wrong.

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Medium 9781538114025

The Mother, the Sinners, and the Cross

Pro Ecclesia Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

The Mother, the Sinners, and the Cross

Pergolesi’s Stabat Mater and Bach’s Tilge, Höchster1

Chiara Bertoglio

1. An electronic version of this article with live links to musical performances is available at the website of the Center for Catholic and Evangelical Theology, www.e-ccet.org/feature-article.

1. Introduction

This paper analyzes the theological, spiritual, confessional, artistic, and cultural issues posed by Johann Sebastian Bach’s adaptation of Pergolesi’s setting of the Stabat Mater as a German Psalm paraphrase suitable for use in the Lutheran Church. These twin compositions actually represent four distinct and yet intertwining works: the Medieval Latin lyrics of the Stabat Mater, which obviously predated Pergolesi’s setting by several centuries; the musical features of Pergolesi’s masterpiece; the lyrics of Bach’s Tilge, Höchster, meine Sünden, taken from the Biblical Psalm 51 (50) but purposefully adapted to Pergolesi’s music, whose text they replaced; and Bach’s own musical interventions and changes to the score. Thus, this topic is as fascinating as it is difficult to treat in an organic fashion: indeed, so numerous and diverse are the factors at stake, that it is indispensable to treat them somewhat separately as introductory remarks, before delving into the theological analysis proper. One could even say that theological conclusions surface almost inevitably when the complete cultural and artistic frame is set.

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What Is Postliberal Theology? Was There a Yale School? Why Care?

Pro Ecclesia Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

What Is Postliberal Theology? Was There a Yale School? Why Care?1

Michael Root

1. This essay was originally presented at a conference in honor of Archbishop J. A. DiNoia on Postliberalism and Thomism at the Dominican House of Studies in Washington, DC. I have preserved its originally oral style.

Four or five years ago, a student asked me whether I was a follower of postliberalism. I was a bit taken aback; it was a question I had not thought about in a good while. After some brief thought, I answered that I wasn’t sure because I wasn’t sure what postliberalism was or even if there actually was such a thing. This answer rather baffled the student. Shouldn’t I know? After all, I was, so to speak, there. I was a graduate student at Yale during the foundational years of postliberal theology in the 1970s; I followed the path of George Lindbeck into ecumenical work; and I published essays on theology and narrative theory in the 1980s. I may be a minor member of the Yale School, perhaps least among the apostles, but I too, like Saul, should be among the prophets.

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Medium 9781538114025

Being With George Lindbeck’s Being-With

Pro Ecclesia Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Being With George Lindbeck’s Being-With

Peter Ochs

A reminiscence. I have written much about George Lindbeck, of blessed memory, the postliberal scholar and theologian whose work has stimulated and informed much of my work on rabbinic pragmatism/semiotics, postliberal Abrahamic theologies, and Scriptural reasoning. But I write here about George the person in the thinker. Of this person, in the thinker, the image that comes first to mind is his stretching his hand out to be with someone. It makes me think of the biblical passage where Moses was in the ark in the reeds and Batyah, daughter of Pharaoh, sent her handmaid to fetch it: v’tishlach et-amata (Exod. 2:5). In Talmud Sota 12b, Rabbi Yehudah reads “et amah-ta” to mean that she stretched it (her hand, not her maid) a cubits-length to meet the baby. In Freema Gottlieb’s gentle words, the hand of God is seen, for example, in the way the hand of Batyah reached for the baby. This is then a typological image: reaching one’s hand to someone as a type, to fill in which someone is to specify an instance—in this case, I speak of the ones George was with. We might think, within the realm of academic-spiritual partnerships, a prototypical someone was Hans Frei, of blessed memory: George with Hans, intimately interrelated in their work, historian and theologian, ecclesiologist and hermeneut, the Jew-Christian and the Christian who extends his scholarly hand to be with Judaism. That being-with has been a powerful force in contemporary theology, for wherever we encounter their theology, I believe we encounter their relationality (with many others), and through their theo-relationality, we might also discover our own relationality with others and with God.

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