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Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools

The Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools is a leader in publishing research-to-practice articles for educators and school psychologists. The mission of this journal is to positively influence the daily practice of school-based professionals through studies demonstrating successful research-based practices in educational settings. As a result, the editors are committed to publishing articles with an eye toward improving student performance and outcomes by advancing psychological and educational practices in the schools. They seek articles using non-technical language that (1) outline an evidence-based practice, (2) describe the literature supporting the effectiveness and theoretical underpinnings of the practice, (3) describe the findings of a study in which the practice was implemented in an educational setting, and (4) provide readers with information they need to implement the practice in their own schools in a section entitled Implementation Guidelines. The Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools differs from other scholarly journals in that it features articles that demonstrate empirically-based procedures for readers to apply the practice in their setting.

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22 Issues

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Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools Vol 17-N1 5
Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools Vol 16-N2 6
Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools Vol 16-N1 5
Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools Vol 15-N2 4
Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools Vol 14-N2 4
Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools Vol 14-N1 4
Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools Vol 13-N2 8
Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools Vol 13-N1 8
Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools Vol 12-N1 2
Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools Vol 11-N2 10
Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools Vol 11-N1 5
Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools RL007 6
Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools 9-N2 5
Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools 9-N1 4
Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools 8-N2 4
Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools 8-N1 5
Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools 7-N2 4
Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools 7-N1 8

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97 Articles

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Introduction to the Special Issue, From the Wing Institute Summit

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T. Steuart Watson

This issue of JEBPS is special in many regards. First, it represents the first time that the journal has published three issues in one year. Second, it reflects the proceedings of the first Wing Institute Summit, in 2006. The Wing Institute is an independent, nonprofit organization whose primary purpose is to promote evidence-based education policies and practices. Given its purpose, it is only fitting that a journal that includes in its title evidence-based practices in schools would be an outlet to publicize the proceedings. Through its website, the Wing Institute has designed an interactive knowledge network; an information clearinghouse; and professional forums for those interested in obtaining information, sharing ideas, collaborating, and promoting evidence-based policies and practices within their educational system. The Wing Institute also disseminates a variety of publications to assist educators with implementing evidence-based practices, and it funds graduate student research on evidence-based education.

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Introduction to the Issue

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JOURNAL OF

EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICES
FOR SCHOOLS

 

EDITORIAL POLICY

The mission of the Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools is to positively influence the daily practice of school psychologists and educators through dissemination of studies demonstrating the successful application of an evidence-based practice for an educational setting. We invite the submission of manuscripts that advance this mission by using nontechnical language that (1) outlines an evidence-based practice; (2) describes the literature supporting the effectiveness and theoretical underpinnings of the practice; (3) describes the findings of a study in which the practice was implemented in an educational setting; and (4) provides readers with the information they need to implement the practice in their own schools.

Single subject, small N, and case studies are welcomed. Program evaluation and large-group studies are also encouraged if specific guidelines for practitioners are provided for application in an educational setting. All data-based articles will be expected to include a separate 1–3-page section titled Implementation Guidelines that summarizes the evidence-based practice and can be used as a pullout handout in educational settings for guiding implementation of the practice. Because the mission of the journal is to extend and improve upon practice, not necessarily research, prior publication of the research supporting a particular practice's effectiveness will not exclude manuscripts for consideration for publication in the journal. It may be that an author publishes a research article describing methodology and results of an applied-research project for another journal and then writes a different manuscript for this journal that describes and provides demonstration of successful application of that research-based practice for school psychologists and educators.

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Establishing an Evidence Base for a Classroom Management Procedure With a Series of Studies: Evaluating the Color Wheel

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Christopher H. Skinner
Amy L. Skinner

ABSTRACT: The relationships between applied experimental studies and empirical case studies (e.g., single-subject AB designs) are examined within the context of one experiment and four empirical case studies presented in this and the next issue of Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools. With these studies, we demonstrate how applied efficacy studies, even those with strong experimental designs and results, may fail to control for all threats to internal validity in classroom settings. Next, we discuss how a series of empirical case studies (effectiveness studies) can be used to provide additional evidence of effectiveness, enhance the external validity of experiments designed to evaluate interventions, and provide evidence of an intervention’s practical utility. Thus, we demonstrate how a series of applied studies can contribute to the process of establishing an evidence base for classroom interventions.

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The Effect of Performance Contingencies on Correct Responding on Measures of Early Literacy

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Carmen Broussard

Amanda VanDerHeyden

Melanie Fabre

Jessica Stanley

Shannah Ordoynne

ABSTRACT: This study attempted to extend the work related to functional academic assessment of young children enrolled in public preschool. The effect of access to preferred items and the escape from the task on a rhyming assessment were evaluated relative to baseline performance within an alternating-treatments design with 25 children. Item access and task breaks were delivered on a variable-ratio schedule of reinforcement contingent on correct responding on a 2-minute rhyming probe. Baseline probe administration consisted of massed trials with no programmed breaks or reinforcement. Roughly half of the participants performed at differentially higher rates to earn rewards and/or breaks during the task. Six children who performed similarly under each of the assessment conditions (i.e., un-differentiated patterns of responding) were exposed to subsequent instruction. Four of these children showed improved performance following instruction relative to performance during the assessment phase. This research provides an example of the use of reinforcement to increase performance in skills related to academic readiness and the use of structured practice for those who do not show improved performance with reinforcement alone.

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Management of Behavioral Dynamics in General Education Classrooms

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Management of Behavioral Dynamics in General Education Classrooms

Thomas W. Farmer1

David Lee2

Debbie Sprott Brooks2

Chin-Chih Chen3

Meredith Moates3

Jill V. Hamm4

ABSTRACT: Behavioral dynamics is an ongoing system of interaction that occurs among groups or networks of individuals such that the actions of each person contribute to the actions of others. Within classroom settings, student and teacher behaviors interact as part of a dynamic stream of events that evoke and maintain both appropriate and inappropriate behavior via principles of behavior. Effective classroom-based interventions require teachers to understand behavioral dynamics as they occur in classrooms and explain those dynamics using relevant behavior principles. These explanations set the stage for effective intervention. This article first provides a rationale for understanding of behavioral dynamics as they relate to behavior principles followed by a description of common behavior principles that are in play in classroom settings. Examples of how behavior principles can be used to establish novel behaviors and maintain routine behaviors are discussed.

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Extending the External Validity of the Color Wheel Procedures: Increasing On-Task Behavior in an Urban Kindergarten Classroom

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Briana L. Hautau
Christopher H. Skinner
Jay Pfaffman
Sandra Foster
Janice C. Clark

ABSTRACT:An empirical case study (AB design) was used to evaluate the effects of a modified Color Wheel intervention with an interdependent group-oriented contingency on the on-task behavior of students in an intact urban kindergarten classroom. Results show an increase of on-task behavior during seatwork and carpet time after the intervention was applied. These results provide evidence of the external validity of the Color Wheel intervention plus group reward by demonstrating its application across schools, teachers, classrooms, and target behaviors. Discussion focuses on the need to use (a) scientific procedures to establish the efficacy of this intervention and (b) component analysis studies to isolate causal mechanisms responsible for the behavior change.

THE PROBLEM

Akindergarten teacher volunteered to work with a school psychology consultant (a practicum student) to address several problem behaviors. During the problem identification interview, the teacher indicated that many of her students engaged in a variety of inappropriate behaviors, including hitting, spitting, out-of-seat behavior, excessive talking, name-calling, failing to follow directions, and high levelsof off-task behavior. Following this interview, the consultant collected direct observation data using unstructured narrative recording. The data confirmed the teacher’s reports.

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The Effects of Group Contingencies With Randomized Components on the Homework Accuracy of an 11th- and 12th-Grade General Science Class

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Paula Ferneza
Michael Jabot
Larry Maheady

ABSTRACT: This collaborative research project was conducted in an 11th- and 12th- grade science class with a small group of students who performed below expectation on daily homework assignments. The mystery motivator game, an intervention package consisting of interdependent and dependent group contingencies and mystery motivators, was used to increase the class’s science homework accuracy by about one letter grade. The intervention required all students to initially complete daily homework assignments (i.e., 100% completion criterion). When they did, the teacher randomly selected one pupil’s name from a brown paper bag and graded it privately. If the randomly selected paper was at least 85% correct, then the entire class earned a chance to win a mystery motivator (i.e., unknown reward). Results showed moderate and fairly immediate increases in the class’s science homework accuracy. All students had higher homework averages when the game was in effect, and pupils rated the intervention favorably. Implications for research and practice are offered.

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Classwide Self-Management of Rule Following: Effect on the On-Task and Disruptive Behaviors of Three Students With Specific Learning Disabilities and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

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Christina M. Terenzi
Ruth A. Ervin
Kathryn E. Hoff

ABSTRACT: A classwide self-management intervention was implemented in a special education resource room to decrease disruptive behaviors and improve on-task behaviors of three sixth-grade males with comorbid learning disabilities and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. All students in the classroom were taught to self-monitor their behaviors focusing on two rules, Be safe and Be respectful, which were part of the schoolwide positive behavior support model. Students rated their own behaviors and the behaviors of the whole class, then matched their ratings to teacher ratings. Results indicate that the implementation of the self-management intervention corresponded with a substantial decrease in the target students’ disruptive behaviors and an increase in their on-task behavior. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

 

Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid learning disabilities are at risk for developing later problems such as aggression, academic failure, and alienation from peers (Barkley, 1990; DuPaul & Stoner, 2003). When these children display disruptive off-task behaviors in the classroom, they often interfere with the learning of others and place themselves at even greater risk for later life difficulties (DuPaul, Stoner, & O’Reilly, 2002). Thus, breaking the pattern of disruptive behavior is important to many involved, including the targeted student, whose problems are likely to persist or worsen over time; the student’s peers, whose learning might be affected if the disruptive behavior interferes with instruction; and the teachers, who are faced with difficult challenges in the classroom.

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Classwide Self-Management of Rule Following: Effect on the On-Task and Disruptive Behaviors of Three Students With Specific Learning Disabilities and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

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Christina M. Terenzi
Ruth A. Ervin
Kathryn E. Hoff

ABSTRACT: A classwide self-management intervention was implemented in a special education resource room to decrease disruptive behaviors and improve on-task behaviors of three sixth-grade males with comorbid learning disabilities and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. All students in the classroom were taught to self-monitor their behaviors focusing on two rules, Be safe and Be respectful, which were part of the schoolwide positive behavior support model. Students rated their own behaviors and the behaviors of the whole class, then matched their ratings to teacher ratings. Results indicate that the implementation of the self-management intervention corresponded with a substantial decrease in the target students’ disruptive behaviors and an increase in their on-task behavior. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

 

Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid learning disabilities are at risk for developing later problems such as aggression, academic failure, and alienation from peers (Barkley, 1990; DuPaul & Stoner, 2003). When these children display disruptive off-task behaviors in the classroom, they often interfere with the learning of others and place themselves at even greater risk for later life difficulties (DuPaul, Stoner, & O’Reilly, 2002). Thus, breaking the pattern of disruptive behavior is important to many involved, including the targeted student, whose problems are likely to persist or worsen over time; the student’s peers, whose learning might be affected if the disruptive behavior interferes with instruction; and the teachers, who are faced with difficult challenges in the classroom.

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A Treatment Package for Reducing Aggression and Improving Playground Behavior

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Michelle Marchant, K. Richard Young, Jana Lindberg Adam Fisher, and Brock Solano

ABSTRACT: Referrals of elementary students who had engaged in aggressive behavior on the playground prompted the implementation of a nonclassroom treatment package as an extension of a schoolwide positive behavior support program. The package consisted of (1) teaching students new playground rules during physical education class and posting the rules in the gym and on the playground, (2) providing reminders of the rules, (3) modifying the playground to facilitate appropriate play, (4) encouraging playground monitors to take a more active supervisory role, and (5) conducting a self-management program for the students who consistently engaged in aggressive behavior. The effects of the program were evaluated by recording three students’ levels of physical and verbal aggression and appropriate play and by asking the playground supervisors to rate the recess behavior of all students during baseline and treatment.

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SPECIAL ISSUE: Response to Intervention

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Kristin N. Johnson
Guest Editor

There have been many articles addressing aspects of response to intervention (RtI), such as specific interventions, curriculum-based measurement, and universal screening, but few have addressed RtI as a holistic, comprehensive system whose purpose is to not only address a specific skill or behavioral deficit but also promote changes in the overall system (e.g., leadership, teams, data-based decision making). The editor and authors of the issue hope that their examinations of these issues will stimulate dialogue and encourage research on these dimensions of RtI in a holistic fashion. The first article draws attention to implementation of RtI as a comprehensive and interdependent set of practices. The authors (Johnson et al.) suggest that if any element of the RtI system is missing, the likelihood for the process to fail is enhanced. The authors describe a measure developed to communicate to leaders how the essential elements of RtI work together to support student achievement and continuous improvement at each tier. Implementation guidelines on using the measure are provided.

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Additive Effects of Performance Feedback and Contingent Rewards on Reading Outcomes

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Erin E. C. Henze
Robert L. Williams
Briana H. von Mizener
Katherine Sager Brown

ABSTRACT : Two interventions were implemented with 22 third-grade students in four classrooms receiving intensive reading instruction: (1) performance feedback only and (2) performance feedback plus rewards contingent on reading performance. Researchers examined the effects of these interventions on students’ reading skill and interest in reading. Results indicate that students in both conditions improved their reading fluency and comprehension, with the greatest gains in fluency occurring during the treatment phase of the study. On measures of reading interest, findings were mixed, with treatment groups performing differently on measures of reading interest.

Undoubtedly, the ability to read is critical for success in life. Literacy contributes to all other academic areas and is valued for economic and social development (Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998). Past research has shown that students with poor reading skills may exhibit such problems as aggression, hyperactivity, poor effort, poor self-concept, and school departures (Good, Simmons, & Smith, 1998; Stoddard, Valcante, Sindelar, O’Shea, & Algozzine, 1993).

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Testing Treatments for Oral Reading Fluency Problems: Two Case Studies

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Edward J. Daly III
Jaymi Shroder
Amy Robinson

ABSTRACT: Brief experimental analyses of academic performance problems are gaining in popularity as educators are looking for information about what might actually be effective before they embark on a lengthy treatment process. Work in this area has focused on refining methods for briefly exposing students to control and intervention conditions in order to evaluate possible treatment strategies. Although investigators have strived to keep the analyses as brief as possible, practical demonstrations of their use have not been the primary focus. In addition, the studies reported in the literature do not have long-term outcome data. In this study, a revised and simplified format for examining reading interventions was studied using two students. First, five brief conditions were administered. Hypotheses regarding effective treatment components were then tested in a slightly extended analysis. Hypotheses were confirmed in both cases. Finally, interventions containing treatment components derived from experimental analyses were put into place in natural settings, and their effectiveness was monitored across time. This report should help practitioners to carry out brief tests of treatments in applied settings by demonstrating their use and how to incorporate them in the process of selecting interventions for reading fluency problems.

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Editors’ Comments

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Mark D. Shriver
T. Steuart Watson

This issue presents articles based directly on presentations provided by the authors at the Wing Institute’s Second Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education, in Oakland, California, on April 26, 2007. The topic of this summit was response to intervention (RtI), and the speakers and respective authors for the articles in this series have notable expertise on implementing models of RtI at the state, district, and local school level, as well as within classrooms and with individual students. The articles in this series provide readers with conceptual as well as practical information that will directly assist with the continuing efforts that we know many readers are currently implementing with respect to RtI in their schools.

In the first article, Detrich and colleagues introduce and describe what RtI means and what it does not mean. They provide a review of the empirical evidence for RtI, and they explicitly outline the implications of RtI for educators. This article helps to set the context of RtI for the articles that follow in the series.

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Introduction to Special Issue on Sustainability: Implementing Programs That Survive 100 Years

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Mark D. Shriver
T. Steuart Watson

This issue of the Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools presents publications of the presentations from the Wing Institute’s Third Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education, held on April 24, 2008. The topic of the summit was sustainability, and the authors clearly represent key figures in research and practice on the implementation of sustainable evidence-based programs. The bulk of writing on evidence-based practices and education focuses on identifying “what works” in schools and classrooms for students. Not nearly as much is written on how we sustain what works in schools and classrooms for students. Sustainability is clearly a topic in need of more attention in research and practice, and the four articles in this issue highlight key issues important to the topic of sustaining evidence-based practices.

The first article, by Detrich and colleagues, highlights the importance of treatment integrity for the sustainability of evidence-based practices. Sustainability and treatment integrity are inextricably linked, and the authors provide a comprehensive and coherent examination of the link between treatment integrity and sustainability that directly informs practice and research.

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Using Peer-Mediated Constant Time Delay to Teach Content Area Vocabulary to Middle School Students with Disruptive Behavior

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Rachel Wannarka
Kathy Ruhl
Richard Kubina

ABSTRACT: Vocabulary knowledge is essential to reading comprehension and general academic success for all learners. For students with disruptive behaviors, vocabulary demands encountered in secondary settings and content area texts can be especially challenging in part due to the frequent occurrence of unfamiliar vocabulary. It is critical that vocabulary instruction make judicious use of time as students move rapidly through curriculum. This article presents results of a study investigating a peer-mediated constant time delay intervention to teach science and social studies vocabulary to middle school students with teacher-identified disruptive behavior. Students demonstrated efficient mastery of target definitions and learned definitions incidentally as a result of teaching their peers. Students also demonstrated generalization to word reading, word production, and to a lesser degree recognition of correct usage on a multiple-choice measure. Implications for practice include selecting useful target words, aligning instructional methods and goals, utilizing carefully selected peer arrangements, and providing sufficient training.

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INTRO: Improving the Pathway to Employment in STEM Fields: The Role of Education James D. Stocker Jr.

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INTRO

Improving the Pathway to Employment in Stem Fields: The Role of Education

James D. Stocker Jr.

Over the past 70 years, the U.S. economy has prospered from advances in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). As leaders in scientific innovation, the United States possesses an abundant population to supply a STEM workforce and STEM-related occupations (National Research Council, NRC, 2011, 2012). Yet, the United States struggles to produce enough workers for jobs that demand STEM skillsets raising concerns that the country is losing its competitive advantage in the global marketplace (Fayer, Lacey, & Watson, 2017; NRC, 2012).

The latest projection indicates slower growth for new STEM jobs at 8.9% versus a 24.4% gain over previous 10-year previous projections between 2005 and 2015 (Noonan, 2017). STEM jobs will occur in computer systems design and related services sector yielding over one million jobs to fill positions in government, university, and the private sector. Nearly 25% of STEM jobs will only require a high school degree, some college or associate degree (Noonan, 2017). Sample high demand jobs in this cross section include Web developers, computer user support, and network support specialists (Fayer, et al., 2017). Health-care occupations, considered a secondary STEM-related domain by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Services, are predicted to drive the most growth in jobs due to an aging population, longer life expectancies, and an increase in chronic conditions. Projections indicate healthcare will contribute 18% of all new jobs from 2016 to 2026 (Fayer et al., 2017; Lacey, Toosi, and Dubina, 2017).

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Shaping the Field of General and Special Education: The Role of Evidence in Practice, and Practice in Dissemination

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Shaping the Field of General and Special Education: The Role of Evidence in Practice, and Practice in Dissemination

Phillip J. Belfiore

David L. Lee

ABSTRACT: Much has been written about the gap between applied research (evidence) and the implementation of that research in educational settings (practice). Much less has been written on the potential of evidence-based practices, when designed, implemented, and reported accurately, to shape the field of general and special education at the school, classroom, and student levels. This paper provides some guidelines to assist educational researchers and educational practitioners in (1) closing the gap between evidence and practice and (2) using practice as the basis for experimentally controlled research in the context of real-world education setting.

The most recent reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (1965), the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) represents a major rewrite of its predecessor, the No Child Left Behind Act, shifting greater control of key educational issues to the state and local school districts, and away from the federal government. Additionally, the ESSA represents a shift away from “scientifically based research” and toward “evidence-based,” citing “evidence-based” 63 times within the content of the ESSA. The ESSA describes evidence-based as those strategies that demonstrate either (1) a statistically significant effect or (2) a “rationale based on high quality research findings or positive evaluations” (Part F., Title VIII, Sec. 8002 [290]). Strategies demonstrating statistical significance are further delineated across a three-tiered outcome showing (1) strong evidence (at least one well-implemented experimental study), (2) moderate evidence (at least one well-implemented quasi-experimental study), or (3) promising evidence (at least one well-designed and well-implemented correlational study).

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