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Teacher Education & Practice

Teacher Education and Practice, a peer-refereed journal, is dedicated to the encouragement and the dissemination of research and scholarship related to professional education. The journal is concerned, in the broadest sense, with teacher preparation, practice and policy issues related to the teaching profession, as well as being concerned with learning in the school setting. The journal also serves as a forum for the exchange of diverse ideas and points of view within these purposes. As a forum, the journal offers a public space in which to critically examine current discourse and practice as well as engage in generative dialogue. Alternative forms of inquiry and representation are invited, and authors from a variety of backgrounds and diverse perspectives are encouraged to contribute. Teacher Education & Practice is published by Rowman & Littlefield.

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Teacher Education & Practice Vol 31-N3 8
Teacher Education & Practice Vol 31-N2 6
Teacher Education & Practice Vol 31-N1 11
Teacher Education & Practice Vol 30-N4 12
Teacher Education & Practice Vol 30-N3 10
Teacher Education & Practice Vol 30-N2 25
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Teacher Education & Practice Vol 29-N4 7
Teacher Education & Practice Vol 29 N3 8
Teacher Education & Practice Vol 29-N2 10
Teacher Education & Practice Vol 29-N1 12
Teacher Education & Practice Vol 28-N2-3 15
Teacher Education & Practice Vol 28-N1 11
Teacher Education & Practice Vol 27-N4 7
Teacher Education & Practice Vol 27-N1 11
Teacher Education & Practice Vol 26-N4 15
Teacher Education & Practice Vol 26-N3 16
Teacher Education & Practice Vol 26-N2 10

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204 Articles

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Editorial: Teacher Education, Democracy, and the Social Imaginary of Accountability

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Teacher Education, Democracy, and the Social Imaginary of Accountability

PATRICK M. JENLINK

Preparing teachers for schools is a function of furthering the democratic ideals that guide a society in its continual progress toward realizing democracy. Realization of the democratic society the United States aspires to be, through its public education system, requires that teacher education take responsibility for the “development of more democratic forms of professionalism in teaching and teacher education” (Zeichner, 2010, p. 1550). However, in contrast, historically, teacher education has often not been concerned, albeit not by choice, with furthering democratic ideals. The audit culture1 that has evolved over the past several decades in U.S. public education (P–16) has construed teachers as compliant technicians,2 enacting predefined “best practices” with a predefined curriculum measured against external tests, a situation for which skill, not intelligence, is required (Giroux, 2012).

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Jenlink Editorial

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Editorial

Teacher Preparation for the Digital Age: Toward New Literacies, Epistemologies, and Pedagogies

Patrick M. Jenlink

We live in a democratic society that is rapidly being reshaped through new media and the advancement of digital technologies.1 These technologies “are fundamentally transforming economies, societies, and cultures worldwide, with consequent changes to education” (Shaffer Nash, & Ruis, 2015, p. 2). As teacher educators we are responsible for preparing each generation of teachers at a time when the technologies of the digital age are fundamentally changing cultures worldwide, enabling forms of communication and knowledge access heretofore never experienced on a global scale. Within this context, we are responsible for preparing each generation of teachers to respect freedom of thought and expression, and we must also prepare teachers to work in a digital ecology of education shaped by the marvels of technology that are enabling citizens to see the world and their society in new ways and through new means of communication.

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The Chronic Shortage of STEM Talent

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The Chronic Shortage of STEM Talent

The Place of Integrative STEM Education

Joseph Mukuni

ABSTRACT: From the 1890s, education reforms in the United States have placed special emphases on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The concern over the years has been that the economic competiveness and well-being of the United States has been threatened by a severe shortage of STEM talent. Many initiatives have been taken to address this chronic problem, including revision of curricula in mathematics and science, introduction of a unified national movement to improve the teaching and learning of these core disciplines, and establishment of standards in mathematics and science. Despite these and other measures, the problem has persisted. This position paper suggests that one critical piece that has been missing in the reforms is integrative STEM education. The paper argues that integrative STEM education has the potential to raise students’ motivation levels in STEM disciplines and, therefore, maximize and sustain enrollment numbers in these core disciplines. The paper notes, however, that in order for integrative STEM education to make a contribution to increasing the volume of STEM talent, some barriers have to be overcome by teacher educators and school administrators.

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Editorial: Socialization of Teachers in an Era of Neoliberal Accountability

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Socialization of Teachers in an Era of Neoliberal Accountability

PATRICK M. JENLINK

Learning to teach is a complex process, made so in large part by the “interaction of personal factors, such as the teacher candidate’s knowledge and beliefs about teaching, learning, and subject matter, and situational factors, such as expectations, demands, and feedback from key actors in the university and public school settings” (Varrati, Lavine, & Turner, 2009, p. 484). Learning to teach in this sense is a socialization1 process into the teaching profession that places many demands on the preservice and novice teacher, often overwhelming and frustrating these individuals as they are socialized into the profession.

Situated in a rapidly changing society, with its massive social and economic inequalities among individuals, the preparation and socialization of preservice and novice teachers into the teaching profession is met with unyielding pressures in today’s public schools and universities. Many of these pressures in educational systems are a result of the spread of neoliberal2 politics and policies about markets, privatization, deregulation, and the private versus public good (see Ball, 2012; Beyer, 2007; Dahlstrom, 2009; Kumashiro, 2010; Ross & Gibson, 2006; Zeichner, 2010). The domination of public education by business interests and political lobbyists is a direct result of the current era of neoliberal capitalism focused on openly promoting “the spirit of competition among schools, educators and students through a policy of high-stakes accountability for immediately measurable educational outcomes” (Guerrero & Farruggio, 2012, p. 553). This same market-driven competition has been invasive in higher education, in particular targeting teacher preparation.3

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Dewey, Democracy, and Teacher Education

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Dewey, Democracy, and Teacher Education

What Do People in a Democracy Need to Learn, and How Do Teachers Need to Be Educated?

Elizabeth Meadows

ABSTRACT: According to John Dewey, what do people need to learn, and how should teachers be educated in order to teach what people in a democracy need to learn? People first need to learn the subject matter, knowledge, and skills that are necessary to succeed socially and economically in our less-than-perfect democratic society as it now exists. Second, all people need to learn subject matter that will support them in developing their talents and potentials to contribute to both their individual happiness and the well-being of others in a democratic society. Third, people need to learn to think critically about all issues and, most of all, to think deeply about what is necessary in order to achieve and sustain a real democracy. Teacher education needs to focus on helping teachers learn how to work toward accomplishing these three aspects of this curriculum geared toward achieving and sustaining a truly democratic society. Lisa Delpit criticizes progressive education, based on Dewey’s ideas, for inadequately preparing poor and minority youth to participate in, benefit from, and contribute to U.S. society. She offers necessary, Deweyan corrections to Dewey’s vision of education in a democracy. Together, their ideas offer us a powerful way forward.

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McElroy et al.

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Redesigning Decision-Making in Pre-Service Teacher Education

Encouraging Engagement and Knowledge Growth

Brianna McElroy

Stephanie Chitpin

ABSTRACT: Knowledge of various curriculum content and student assessment is an important aspect of pre-service teacher training. Knowledge in these two areas contributes to pre-service teachers’ effectiveness in maximizing students’ learning and outcomes associated with curriculum delivery. A distinction is drawn between learning and knowledge building or growth. “Knowledge growth” refers to building knowledge through asking questions, leading discussions, or engaging in hypothesis testing to remove error(s) contained in solutions or theories. In this article, we use the Objective Knowledge Growth Framework (OKGF), a model based on the critical rationalism of Sir Karl Popper, to show how the instructor, with the assistance of a recent graduate of the program, has used the OKGF in redesigning two sections of the Curriculum Design and Evaluation course—a compulsory course for all pre-service teachers at the University of Ottawa. The redesign of the course attempts to support pre-service teachers’ knowledge growth, based on student feedback, different curriculum delivery approaches, and assessment methods. The object of this article is to evidence how the OKGF helps engage students in asking questions, trying out solutions to problems they encountered in their practice, and providing opportunities for students to challenge assumptions presented in the classroom.

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Editorial: Understanding the Demand of Place in Teacher Education—Giving Voice to Difference

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PATRICK M. JENLINK

A place belongs forever to whoever claims it hardest, remembers it most obsessively, wrenches it from itself, shapes it, renders it, loves it so radically that he remakes it in his own image.

—Didion (1979, p. 146)

Place is the concept wherein the particularities of history, culture, and subjectivity become entwined.

—Pinar (2010, p. 3)

As teacher educators, we are all very different people in our Dasein,1 in our existence, our being in the world, yet we are all uniquely similar in our desire for understanding—understanding of self and place. Place has the effect of making us different, and at the same time place, in its particularities, it is not always kind to difference. Whether we are teacher educators or practitioners, we can thus all benefit from exploring that tension between the past and the present, between our goals and those ideologically embedded traditions that try to define us, between ourselves as individuals today and ourselves as teachers tomorrow.

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RL_002 - Brown et al. FINAL

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The Challenges of Differentiating Instruction for ELLs

An Analysis of Content-Area Lesson Plans Produced by Pre-service Language Arts and Social Studies Teachers

Clara Lee Brown and Rachel Endo

Abstract: This study addressed the challenges of differentiating instruction for ELLs at the pre-service level through an analysis of non-ESL teacher candidates’ work samples. Randomly selected lesson plans in K-12 Language Arts/English and Social Studies were content-analyzed to investigate the types and characteristics of accommodation, differentiation, and provisions provided for ELLs. The findings revealed the following trends: (1) the candidates often conflated ELL characteristics with learning disabilities, (2) stated differentiation strategies were generic without carefully scaffolded and sequenced strategies; and (3) when provided, differentiations for ELLs only provided surface-level accommodations that did not address building academic language or connecting content with prior knowledge. Implications are offered for practice and theory.

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Editorial: Prepare and Inspire Teachers—Whither STEM Literacy in the Preparation of Teachers?

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PATRICK M. JENLINK

STEM literacy is an interdisciplinary area of study that bridges the four areas of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. STEM literacy does not simply mean achieving literacy in these four strands or silos. Consequently, a STEM classroom shifts students away from learning discrete bits and pieces of phenomenon and rote procedures and toward having investigating and questioning the interrelated facets of the world.

—National Governors Association (2007, p. 7)

In the 2010 report to the president titled Prepare and Inspire: K–12 Education in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) for America’s Future, the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (2010) advanced the need for a two-pronged strategy for transforming K–12 education. The strategy stated the need to prepare students so that they have a strong foundation in STEM subjects and are able to use this knowledge in their personal and professional lives.

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The Beliefs of Second-Language Acquisition in Teacher Candidates

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The Beliefs of Second-Language Acquisition in Teacher Candidates

Sau Hou Chang

ABSTRACT: The present study investigated whether an elementary education program at a Midwestern university addressed teacher candidates’ misconceptions of second-language acquisition. Participants were 59 teacher candidates who enrolled at the first semester and 27 teacher candidates who enrolled at the last semester of the elementary education program. Development of the Beliefs of Second Language Acquisition Survey was based on studies on the myths and misconceptions about second-language acquisition. Results showed that teacher candidates at the end of the program had a significantly higher percentage of correct responses in 10 beliefs of second-language acquisition. The incorporation of second-language acquisition in elementary education courses and field experiences had an impact on clearing teacher candidates’ misconceptions of second-language acquisition and helped prepare them to work with English-language learners in mainstream classrooms.

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Editorial: STEM Teacher Preparation and Practice—Capturing a “Sputnik Moment”

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PATRICK M. JENLINK

The innovation continuum, from identification and development of talented and creative individuals through the education system, to a STEM career, and then to major scientific breakthroughs or to the creation of a novel produce, is both vast and complex. . . . We have chosen to focus on the human capital component, especially early in the education system, where we feel much of our domestic talent goes unrecognized and undeveloped.

—National Science Board (2010, p. 15)

In his 2011 State of the Union address, President Obama referred to the need for more innovation and research in the United States’ economic growth as our generation’s “Sputnik moment” and tied this innovation to improving the “race to educate our kids.”

Now relegated to history texts, the Soviet Union’s launch of Sputnik in 1957 set in motion a ripple effect in the United States that resulted in reprioritizing science curriculum and inspiring a generation of innovation in technology and engineering in America. The ripple effect also led to fostering initiatives to ensure that a pipeline of scientists would be in place to advance its scientific efforts and increase sustainability as a global leader. Now, over five decades later, the ripple has become a major force directed at improving science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and to recruit individuals in the STEM field.

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Editorial: Preparing Teachers for the “Neomillennial” Generation—Rethinking the Role of Social Media

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PATRICK M. JENLINK

For better or worse, Web 2.0 is reshaping our intellectual, political, and commercial landscape.

—Keen (2007, p. 185)

As teacher education students graduate and enter schools, they will bring knowledge and understanding of ways in which technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge can be combined. This will only occur if teacher education faculty members serve as effective mentors.

—Bull and colleagues (2008, p. 105)

We live in a social media–enriched world.1 The rapid advancement of social media and its applications into educational contexts is changing the spatial dynamics of teaching and learning in higher education—most important, teacher education. The role that these technologies play in learning activities has dramatically increased within higher education,2 from interaction with online learning communities and virtual worlds to e-portfolios, mobile learning, and open content; the list continues to evolve. Bartow (2014) noted that, within higher education and K–12 education alike, “social media interrupt formal education in multiple ways” (p. 36). Prevailing constructions of school, of teacher and students, and of teaching and learning are challenged.

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The Critical Nature of the Knowledge of Content and Students Domain of Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching

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The Critical Nature of the Knowledge of Content and Students Domain of Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching

Steve Rhine

ABSTRACT: Teacher education programs have the responsibility of preparing preservice teachers with the knowledge, skills, and dispositions that initiate effective and rewarding careers. In this thematic issue, the author considers mathematical knowledge for teaching and argues that knowledge of content and students is the most critical knowledge for teacher education programs to focus on. In an examination of research on teacher listening, noticing, Mathematically Important Pedagogical Opportunities, the difference between how master and novice teachers process classroom dynamics, and, finally, the specific context of algebra and how work at the Center for Algebraic Thinking influences the discussion, the author suggests that knowledge of content and students is the catalyst for use of other forms of teacher knowledge and instructional decision making in the classroom.

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Editorial: Preservice Teacher Preparation—A Search for Who We Are as Teacher

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PATRICK M. JENLINK

We resolved to look inside ourselves, to retrace as many of the important twists and turns of the evolution of our species as we were able. We made a compact with each other not to turn back, no matter where the search might lead. . . . There was a chance that one or both of us might have to give up some of those beliefs we considered self-defining.

—Sagan and Druyan (1992, p. xiv)

“Who we are as teacher?” is a both a philosophical and a practical question, a question situated in the midst of complex societal issues and political, cultural contexts defining the larger geography of education. Philip W. Jackson, in The Practice of Teaching (1986), argued the point that “despite the ubiquity of teaching as an activity, there is no uniformity of opinion about it” (pp. 2–3). Upon first entering the classroom, the preservice teacher is all too often confronted by cultural patterns of the school, imprinted with dominate ideologies, unbalanced by the asymmetrical nature of power and knowledge, and challenged by the issues of difference, equity, and social justice. Very early in the preservice teacher’s experiences, he or she recognizes just how “unforgivingly complex” (Cochran-Smith, 2003, p. 4) teaching is. And early on, the preservice teacher recognizes that simple “isomorphic equations between teaching quality and test scores and between student learning and test scores” (p. 5) are prevalent and antithetical to how teaching had been envisioned early in the preparation program experience.

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“Dear Diary”

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“Dear Diary”

A Qualitative Examination of thePhases of First-Year Teaching

Mary Anne Duggan, David Lee Carlson, Michelle E. Jordan, Larissa Gaias, Tashia Abry, and Kristen Granger

ABSTRACT: This study examines a teacher developmental theory widely used by practitioners in the field of teacher induction that lacks empirical study. The Phases of First-Year Teaching framework includes stages of anticipation, survival, disillusionment, rejuvenation, and reflection. Eleven first-year teachers engaged in a weekly diary study for one school year. Only one teacher’s first-year experiences matched this framework. The rest of the teachers in the sample evidenced survival longer than expected, but survival did not automatically transition into disillusionment at midyear. Consistent rejuvenation may have served as a protective factor against disillusionment. Protective factors for averting survival and disillusionment are discussed.

It is no secret that the average experience level of the U.S. teaching workforce has declined significantly in recent decades (U.S. Department of Education, 2002). In the United States alone, more than 200,000 first-year teachers are hired each year, up from 65,000 in the late 1980s (Ingersoll, 2003). These statistics reflect not only a sharp rise of retirees (Ingersoll, 2001) but also an increase in teacher attrition and a decrease in teacher satisfaction (Breaux & Wong, 2004; Howard, 2003). In short, new teachers are struggling with an experience for which they feel undersupported (Ingersoll, 2003), underprepared (Levine, 2006), and overwhelmed by classroom management, administrative responsibilities, and isolation (Metlife, 2004–2005). It is no wonder, then, that policymakers and educational administrators are searching for practical and conceptual tools to attract, support, and retain first-year teachers. Over the past decade, one such cognitive tool, a framework for describing first-year teacher development, has gained traction among practitioners in the field of new teacher induction. The Phases of First-Year Teaching framework developed by Ellen Moir and the group formerly known as the Santa Cruz New Teacher Project—now morphed into the New Teacher Center—describes developmental stages through which teachers are theorized to progress in the first year of teaching (Moir, 1999).

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Editorial: Whither Teacher Education in an Era of the Neoliberal Social Imaginary?

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Editorial

Whither Teacher Education in an Era of the Neoliberal Social Imaginary?

PATRICK M. JENLINK

As a society we have entered unprecedented times, politically, economically, and academically. Teacher education in particular is faced with ever-greater challenges generated by a neoliberal agenda to commodify education and distance the public even further from its right to a free public education. This marketization of education threatens to further erode the role of education as foundation of our democratic society.1

In Globalizing Education Policy, Rizvi and Lingard (2010) asserted that neoliberal ideology—a driving force behind the processes of globalization—produces and reproduces social inequalities, limiting the transformative potential of education. They argued against the historical inevitability of what they call the “neoliberal social imaginary” (p. 34).2 A social imaginary is a way of thinking shared in a society by ordinary people, the common understandings that make everyday practices possible, giving them sense and legitimacy. It is largely implicit, embedded in ideas and practices, carrying within it deeper normative notions and images, constitutive of a society. It involves, as Taylor (2004) explained,

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Learning to Teach in a Global Society: Between Theory and Experience, Knowledge and Practice

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Editorial

Learning to Teach in a Global Society

Between Theory and Experience, Knowledge and Practice

Patrick M. Jenlink

A central problem in policy-making and professional practice of teachers is the role that experience plays in learning to teach. Experience, all too often weakly conceptualized in both policy and research, simply serves as a proxy for “time,” in terms of weeks, semesters, and years, spent in a school classroom. The discourses of neoliberalism and their impact on teachers’ experiences and practices often malign the important role that university-based teacher preparation has in ensuring that teachers enter school classrooms with the pedagogical and political acumen and theoretical and practical knowledge required for high-quality teaching and learning. Much of current efforts focus “primarily on human capital policies that explicitly target the qualifications and evaluation of the teacher workforce” (Cochran-Smith, Keefe, Chang, & Carney, 2018).

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Editorial: Democratic Accountability in/for/through Teacher Education

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Editorial

Democratic Accountability in/for/through Teacher Education

Patrick M. Jenlink

Few in education today, in particular teacher education, as well as those in society that believe, as did Dewey (1916), that education serves a critical function in a democratic society1 would argue against the belief that the current culture of standards and accountability2 enacted in our society and its educational systems is ill-suited to the function of education in our democratic society, and “democracy’s longer-term goals of transforming the United States into an egalitarian society in which today’s often disempowered youth become tomorrow’s critically engaged, efficacious, and empowered adult citizens” (Levinson, 2011, p. 136).

The past several decades have witnessed the advancement of neoliberalism3 and with it a “New Public Managerialism” leading to the subordination of education as a social institution (Hill, 2006). Hill explained “New Public Managerialism” as the “importation into the old public services of the language and management style of private capital,” which he rightly argues “has replaced the ethic, language and style of public service and duty” (2006, p. 119). We have become “the performative society” (Ball, 2001); our schools are overshadowed by this new managerialism4 and enforced by a regimen of standards and accountability.

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