1085 Articles
Medium 9781475831344

Shaping the Field of General and Special Education: The Role of Evidence in Practice, and Practice in Dissemination

Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Shaping the Field of General and Special Education: The Role of Evidence in Practice, and Practice in Dissemination

Phillip J. Belfiore

David L. Lee

ABSTRACT: Much has been written about the gap between applied research (evidence) and the implementation of that research in educational settings (practice). Much less has been written on the potential of evidence-based practices, when designed, implemented, and reported accurately, to shape the field of general and special education at the school, classroom, and student levels. This paper provides some guidelines to assist educational researchers and educational practitioners in (1) closing the gap between evidence and practice and (2) using practice as the basis for experimentally controlled research in the context of real-world education setting.

The most recent reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (1965), the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) represents a major rewrite of its predecessor, the No Child Left Behind Act, shifting greater control of key educational issues to the state and local school districts, and away from the federal government. Additionally, the ESSA represents a shift away from “scientifically based research” and toward “evidence-based,” citing “evidence-based” 63 times within the content of the ESSA. The ESSA describes evidence-based as those strategies that demonstrate either (1) a statistically significant effect or (2) a “rationale based on high quality research findings or positive evaluations” (Part F., Title VIII, Sec. 8002 [290]). Strategies demonstrating statistical significance are further delineated across a three-tiered outcome showing (1) strong evidence (at least one well-implemented experimental study), (2) moderate evidence (at least one well-implemented quasi-experimental study), or (3) promising evidence (at least one well-designed and well-implemented correlational study).

See All Chapters
Medium 9781475831344

A Comparison of Two Classwide Self-Monitoring Interventions for Increasing Academic Engagement Among English Language Learners

Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

A Comparison of Two Classwide Self-Monitoring Interventions for Increasing Academic Engagement Among English Language Learners

Andrea J. Howard

Julie Q. Morrison

Colleen J. Hernan

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two classwide self-monitoring interventions designed to increase academic engagement and decrease disruptive behavior among English language learner (ELL) students in a high school classroom. The study compared the effects of two interventions: classwide self-monitoring and classwide peer-assisted self-monitoring. The results indicate that both classwide interventions were equally effective in increasing academic engagement and decreasing disruptive behavior among English language learner students. Recommendations for implementation of these strategies are suggested from teacher acceptability, student acceptability, and intervention adherence outcomes.

THE PROBLEM

Students who are English language learners (ELLs) represent the fastest growing population in American schools today (National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition, 2011). In recent years, the population of non-English-speaking households in America has grown 4 times faster than the rate of the general population (Shin & Kominski, 2010). In 2011, an estimated 4.4 million students enrolled in public schools were identified as native speakers of languages other than English, making up 9.1% of the total population of students (National Center for Education Statistics, 2011). Although ELL students in rural school districts represented only 3.9% of the student population in 2011, the percentage of ELL students in large urban school districts was 16.7%. Given the growing population of culturally and linguistically diverse learners in American schools, there is an urgent need to examine the effectiveness of new instructional methodologies, classroom management techniques, and intervention strategies to meet the needs of ELLs.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781475831344

Using Interdependent Group Contingencies with Randomly Selected Criteria and Rewards to Enhance Homework Performance in an Eighth-Grade Classroom

Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Using Interdependent Group Contingencies with Randomly Selected Criteria and Rewards to Enhance Homework Performance in an Eighth-Grade Classroom

Debra Zibreg Hargis

Angela L. Patti

Lawrence Maheady

Shannon Budin

Lisa Rafferty

ABSTRACT: Homework is often used to enhance learning. Unfortunately, many students fail to complete homework, while others do so with low accuracy. Teachers need more effective and socially acceptable interventions to improve homework performance. This study examined the effects of Two Jars, an intervention consisting of an interdependent group contingency with randomly selected criteria and rewards, on students’ math homework completion and accuracy in an eighth-grade inclusion classroom. Two Jars produced immediate and educationally important improvements in students’ homework completion and accuracy rates, and participants rated the intervention favorably. The researchers include a discussion of the implications for future research and practice.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781475831344

Road to the Code: Examining the Effectiveness of a Phonological Awareness Program

Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Road to the Code : Examining the Effectiveness of a Phonological Awareness Program

Stephanie L. Schmitz

Merilee McCurdy

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the Road to the Code phonological awareness program on the development of six, at-risk, kindergarten students’ phonemic awareness, letter–sound knowledge, and decoding skills. This study included three phases, baseline, instructional, and maintenance, with program effectiveness evaluated through a multiple baseline across participants design. Findings indicated that participation in the Road to the Code program resulted in an increase in the students’ measured skills and that some students demonstrated the ability to generalize learned skills to progress monitoring measures containing novel content. Limitations of the study, implications for practice, and future research directions will also be discussed.

THE PROBLEM

Proficient reading is an important skill for a student to demonstrate, both in and out of the classroom. Therefore, reading has been a major focus in elementary school classrooms, and results from a 2013 nationwide reading assessment indicated that students have been making progress. Specifically, the percentage of fourth-grade and eighth-grade students at the proficient reading level has increased significantly compared to scores obtained in both 2011 and 1992, the 2 years of comparison in the most recent report (National Assessment of Educational Progress [NAEP], 2013). Unfortunately, some children have difficulty learning to read (Hosp & MacConnell, 2014). They may start school with fewer early literacy skills and increase such skills at a slower rate than their peers (Ball & Blachman, 1991; Good, Simmons, & Smith, 1998; Lonigan, Allan, & Lerner, 2011). While these students do make progress in reading, often they are unable to close the gap with their typically developing peers without some form of intensive instruction, including special education (Lonigan, Burgess, & Anthony, 2000).

See All Chapters
Medium 9781475832143

The Dynamic Roots of School Leaders’ Twitter Use: A Structurational Perspective on Technology Use

JOURNAL OF SCHOOL LEADERSHIP Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

VINCENT CHO

VIRGINIA SNODGRASS RANGEL

The Dynamic Roots of School Leaders’ Twitter Use

A Structurational Perspective on Technology Use

ABSTRACT: Some postulate that social media tools, such as Twitter, might be used to support educator professional learning. Drawing upon interviews and tweets from 17 school administrators, this study examined the factors and consequences of administrators’ Twitter use. It finds that administrators’ understandings and uses of Twitter changed over time, subject to influences such as interactions with colleagues, one’s sense of online visibility, and abilities to develop workarounds for Twitter’s limitations. The discussion explores issues relating to the future of educators’ social media use, as well as how to theorize about the implementation and adoption of technologies in education.

KEY WORDS: Principals, Social Media, Structuration Theory, Technology

Much of the charm associated with Web 2.0 (e.g., blogs, wikis, social media) derive from hopes around its capacity to distribute information. Today, people can consume, create, and share online content, from almost anywhere and with almost anyone. For instance, arguments that Web 2.0 might be used to support professional learning have become increasingly commonplace (Gunawardena et al., 2009; Hung, 2002; Johnson, 2001). Among such claims, there has been strong enthusiasm for how Twitter may serve as a tool for connecting educators (Burden, 2010; Carpenter & Krutka, 2014; Richardson & Mancabelli, 2011). Such connections could especially benefit school administrators, since they may struggle with professional isolation (Barkley & Becker, 2013; Dussault & Thibodeau, 1997; Cho, 2016) .

See All Chapters

See All Articles