1191 Articles
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Medium 9781475836790

Adoption of the Six Traits Analytic Writing Model with a Low-Income Student Population: A Comparative Study of Improvement in Student Writing

International Journal of Educational Ref Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Adoption of the Six Traits Analytic Writing Model with a Low-Income Student Population

A Comparative Study of Improvement in Student Writing

Rachel M. B. Collopy

Jackie Marshall Arnold

ABSTRACT: Common Core State Standards (CCSS) have renewed attention on writing instruction. This study investigates the impact of teachers’ use of the Six Traits Analytic Writing model on random stratified samples of upper elementary students from a low-income population. All students, on average, made significant gains in each of the six traits during the school year. However, students in the Six Traits group made significantly greater gains in the trait of voice. The Six Traits Model showed some promise in improving the writing achievement of a low-income population, a critical concern in the current context of CCSS implementation.

KEYWORDS: writing instruction, writing programs, professional development, poverty, low-income students, Common Core State Standards

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Medium 9781475836790

Special Need Students in the Struggle for the Character of Schooling in America

International Journal of Educational Ref Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Special Need Students in the Struggle for the Character of Schooling in America

Lenford C. Sutton

Jane A. Beese

Tiffany Puckett

ABSTRACT: One of the most contentious issues over American educational reform is government sponsorship of school vouchers and tax credits in elementary and secondary education.Voucher advocates have long believed that public schools have little interest in education reform which diminishes its monopolistic position in the public education enterprise which effectuates a system of escalating cost, inefficiencies, and unacceptable student performance. Also, they claim that in a nation historically devoted to free enterprise and equal education opportunity, the expansion of school choice opportunity is a natural progression. Conversely, voucher opponents posit that such programs are not only unconstitutional, but would also redirect valuable resources away from schools serving students with the greatest need. They view voucher policy as highly divisive in that it fosters government entanglement with churches and serves as a catalyst for the re-segregation of public schools, further amplifying educational inequality. High-profile public battles over school vouchers in the United States have mainly focused on poor and minority children served by public schools in large urban areas. On the other hand, school choice for special need students, though expanding significantly, has not received as much attention. This article reviews the legal history of private contracting for special education services, describes the current choice programs for students with disabilities, recounts the legal challenges, discusses policy implications, and considers its formulation in the context of the largest levels of inequality in American History.

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Medium 9781475836790

Diploma Program Graduates’ CGPA as Predictor of Success in the Teachers’ Professional Licensing Written Exam Result with Gender Analysis: The Case of 2014/15 Diploma Graduates of KUC

International Journal of Educational Ref Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Diploma Program Graduates’ CGPA as Predictor of Success in the Teachers’ Professional Licensing Written Exam Result with Gender Analysis

The Case of 2014/15 Diploma Graduates of KUC

Yoseph Shumi Robi

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which diploma graduates’ Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) predicts their success in teachers’ professional licensing written exam result (TPLWER). A total of 588 graduating students (317 males and 271 females) were included in the study. Correlation, simple regression analyses, and independent sample t-test were employed on the data. The result revealed a statistical significant correlation between CGPA and TPLWER. CGPA appeared to be valid predictor of success of TPLWER and accounted for 33.40% of the variation in TPLWER. The results indicated statistically significant gender differences in diploma graduates’ CGPA and TPLWER.

KEYWORDS: CGPA, gender, predictor, TPLWER

Introduction

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Medium 9781475836790

Commemorating the 10th Anniversary of World Autism Awareness Day: An Opportunity to Reflect about Educating Students with Autism

International Journal of Educational Ref Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Commemorating the 10th Anniversary of World Autism Awareness Day

An Opportunity to Reflect about Educating Students with Autism

Tim Morse

ABSTRACT: On December 18, 2007, the United Nations General Assembly adopted resolution 62/139 which established World Autism Awareness Day—one of only four official health-specific UN Days. The original resolution had four main components, which included celebrating World Autism Awareness Day every April 2 and encouraging member states to raise the awareness of autism at all levels in society. In accordance with this latter component of the resolution, the purpose of this article is to raise educators’ awareness about some of the most salient issues that need to be addressed as schools continue to implement necessary reforms for meeting the educational challenges posed by students with autism.

KEYWORDS: autism, early intervention, school programming, transition services, diagnosis

The 10th anniversary of the United Nations General Assembly’s adoption of resolution 62/139, which established April 2 as World Autism Awareness Day, will take place on December 18, 2017 (United Nations General Assembly, 2007). During the 10 years since the adoption of this resolution, the prevalence of autism has continued to increase, resulting in educators around the world having to work to keep pace with the numerous emerging challenges that have been identified with respect to providing appropriate school programs for students with this complex, diverse disorder.

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Medium 9781475836790

The Status of Universities in China: The Awkward Defendant from the Special Power Relation to Being Constrained

International Journal of Educational Ref Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

The Status of Universities in China

The Awkward Defendant from the Special Power Relation to Being Constrained

Liying Rong

ABSTRACT: In China, higher education administrative litigation started from mid-1990s. The case Tian Yong v. University of Science and Technology Beijing (USTB) in 1998 marked the beginning of such litigation. Since then, students have gone to the court to challenge higher education institutions for disputes over enrollment, school management, degree certificates granting, etc. This wave of lawsuits gradually gained momentum and attracted widespread social attention. When we reflect on this phenomenon, we can find the driving forces behind the emergence of higher education litigation, mainly, are institutional reforms and social structure changes. The establishment of relevant system requires the joint efforts of law practitioners and theorists to conscientiously study the objective laws in higher education and the rule of law in China, thus making a contribution to the higher education relief system.

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Medium 9781475836790

Investigating Global–Local Networks and Policy Learning in University Curriculum Policy Transformations: A Proposed Research Approach for the Asia-Pacific Region

International Journal of Educational Ref Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Investigating Global–Local Networks and Policy Learning in University Curriculum Policy Transformations

A Proposed Research Approach for the Asia-Pacific Region

Thomas O’Donoghue

Lesley Vidovich

ABSTRACT: The focus is on universities around the world strengthening their competitive positioning in a global knowledge era through curriculum policy transformations. It highlights the need to study how ideological shifts and policy flows as well as networks between global and local levels are producing ‘radical’ change in curriculum policies in certain research-intensive universities. The article sets out a research approach for such study in relation to the Asia-Pacific Region. Pursuing such a research approach should make a significant contribution to the field of globalization and higher education.

KEYWORDS: Universities, curriculum policy, education change, Asia-Pacific Region, globalization

Introduction

Curriculum policies in particular research-intensive universities in various parts of the world have recently been featuring engagement with reforms at the undergraduate level which are considered “radical” in relation to their own historical contexts. In this article, “policies” are taken to be a set of processes which include “agenda setting as well as work on the production of the policy texts . . . and implementation processes, which are never straightforward” (Rizvi & Lingard, 2010, p. 5); they are about change and are value-laden. According to Grumet and Yates (2011), “curriculum” should be about what matters in the world, and curriculum decision-making is always subjective and highly contested. Rizvi and Lingard (2010) make the point that curriculum policy is an under-researched area of policy, especially in higher education.

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Medium 9781475836776

Internationalization at Home: A Study of a Comprehensive Regional University

International Journal of Educational Ref Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Internationalization at Home

A Study of a Comprehensive Regional University

Sheena Choi

Joseph Khamalah

ABSTRACT: Responding to the needs of intercultural understanding and competencies in a global economy, universities have devised strategies and programs to internationalize the campus to prepare students to work effectively in an increasingly interconnected economy and society. Internationalization at home (IaH) attempts to more effectively address gaps left by the traditional study abroad. This study examines the IaH activities at a regional higher education institution in a Midwestern city of the United States in faculty/staff recruitment and development, policies, and curriculum development. Results show that implementation of IaH is at odds with the institution’s regional mission and underscores the need for a reconceptualization to better serve the region in this global era.

KEYWORDS: Internationalization of higher education, international program, internat ionalization at home, globalization and higher education, regional institution

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Medium 9781475836776

Instructional Leadership Practices among Principals in Israeli and US Jewish Schools

International Journal of Educational Ref Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Instructional Leadership Practices among Principals in Israeli and US Jewish Schools

Jeffrey Glanz

Haim Shaked

Chanina Rabinowitz

Shmuel Shenhav

Rachel Zaretsky

ABSTRACT: Extant research indicates that principals are expected to serve as instructional leaders. Instructional leadership practices of principals in Israeli and US Jewish schools have, until recently, been unexplored. Therefore, this mixed-methodological study explores instructional leadership perceptions and behaviors among Israeli and US principals. Data, via questionnaires and interviews, were collected from 90 principals from each country. Findings suggest that US principals demonstrated significantly higher levels of instructional leadership. In both groups, women principals demonstrated higher levels of instructional leadership. Our interviews provided unique insights leading to our suggestions for ways of promoting greater attention to instructional leadership by principals of both countries.

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Medium 9781475836776

Culture of Inquiry in Professional Development

International Journal of Educational Ref Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Culture of Inquiry in Professional Development

William V. Morris

ABSTRACT: Research on teacher collaboration and student achievement, along with culture of inquiry theory, was reviewed in an attempt to propose a theory of culture of inquiry for teacher professional development. Three empirical studies on teacher collaboration revealed positive correlations between teacher collaboration and student achievement. The literature on culture of inquiry and relevant theory from organizational management yielded five characteristics essential to a culture in which teachers plan and carry out professional development to evaluate and experiment with new teaching methods: transformational leadership, inquiry and healthy debate, license to experiment, collegiality and sharing, and an ongoing cycle of reflection.

KEYWORDS: collaboration, collegiality, culture, professional development, reflective practice

With the rush to fully implement the new Common Core Standards and deliver on their promise of raising the bar for learning, it is easy to brush over an element pivotal to bringing about desired change in our schools: well-designed professional development embracing the very principles of teaching that visionary school leaders espouse for their students. The central emphasis of the Core is leading students in researching, writing, sharing, and reflecting about a given question or area of study; in other words, teaching them to learn within a culture of inquiry. If a culture of inquiry within the classroom is essential to carrying out the goals of the Common Core Standards, it should follow logically that meaningful collaboration among teachers and administrators must also be grounded in a culture of inquiry, thereby reinforcing this philosophy as the shared culture of the whole learning community.

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Medium 9781475836776

Improving Student Achievement through Strengthening Principal and School Counselor Partnership

International Journal of Educational Ref Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Improving Student Achievement through Strengthening Principal and School Counselor Partnership

Olcay Yavuz

Nur Cayirdag

Carol Dahir

Aliİlker Gümüşeli

ABSTRACT : The purpose of the study was to examine 1466 school principals’ opinions on six different aspects of counseling practices in K-12 public and private schools. Results indicated that there were significant differences between public and private school principals’ opinions on school counseling priorities, perceptions, academic development, and program management. School type and school-level interactions were significant for career and academic development and marginally significant for personal–social development. School level had also significant main effects on personal–social, career, and academic developments. These results may be of value to school leaders and educators concerned with improving student achievement and school effectiveness through revising and improving their school counseling services.

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Medium 9781475836776

Hong Kong’s Postcolonial Education Reform: Liberal Studies as a Lens

International Journal of Educational Ref Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Hong Kong’s Postcolonial Education Reform

Liberal Studies as a Lens

Robert Spires

ABSTRACT: The Hong Kong education system is at a crucial point in its trajectory, and changes to public education also reflect broader social, economic and political changes within Hong Kong and globally. Since the 1997 handover of Hong Kong from British control to China, Hong Kong has struggled to develop its own identity under the One Country, Two Systems premise. One of the compulsory courses in the Hong Kong curriculum known as liberal studies, introduced in 2009, provided a useful departure point for exploring many social tensions occurring in Hong Kong. Exploring education reform through liberal studies explains how these social tensions manifest within education, and how these educational tensions manifest within the broader society. Contemporary trends in Hong Kong’s education were examined, including the public exams, the proliferation of shadow education and the expansion of self-financed tertiary education options for Hong Kong students. Tensions in Hong Kong are further explained through the notions of post-colonialism. The liberal studies debate mirror aspects of the broader economic, political, and social tensions as they relate to Hong Kong youth, and Hong Kong society at-large, and this article endeavors to explore these tensions through the lens of liberal studies as it relates to education discourse in Hong Kong. Through a combination of literature review from academic and mainstream sources, the article establishes the groundwork for further empirical work in order to gain a more in-depth understanding of the issues and tensions in Hong Kong.

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Medium 9781475836738

The Ontario Quandary: Principals’ Perceptions of Accountability Policy and Social Justice

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

FEI WANG

The Ontario Quandary

Principals’ Perceptions of Accountability Policy and Social Justice

ABSTRACT: This qualitative study examines how accountability policies impact school principals’ social justice commitment. The study involved semi-structured interviews with twenty-two Ontario principals. Findings show that principals responded to the accountability policies with strikingly mixed emotions. Some grudgingly accepted the mandates and reluctantly sought to accommodate directives in their agenda. Some critiqued the reforms by highlighting the inequities and drawbacks in the performance-based tests. Others showed significant resistance to the reform and strategically used their power to navigate toward what they felt was best for their students. Such mixed sentiments among principals revealed a deeper struggle among them in navigating the system.

KEY WORDS: Leadership, Social Justice, Accountability, Accountability Policies

There is an ongoing debate among educators and scholars (Angelis, et al., 2007; Black & Valenzuela, 2004; Diem & Boske, 2012; Haney, 2004; Ryan, 2012) about whether external, outcome-driven accountability policies enhance or hinder the promotion of social justice among students with diverse backgrounds. Some scholars contend that accountability curtails educational opportunities, and reinforces and extends social inequalities (Black & Valenzuela, 2004; Haney, 2004; McNeil & Valenzuela, 2001). Others (Skrla, Scheurich, Johnson, & Koschoreck, 2001) argue that accountability can increase educational equity by reducing the achievement gap among student groups—especially gaps between advantaged and disadvantaged students—through the establishment of standards and performance-based assessments. Regardless of the merits of the above arguments, this policy debate centers on the critical part of accountability, that is, standardized tests. School leaders who serve as policy mediators are expected to facilitate the integration of accountability policies to support student achievement. However, given the mounting accountability pressures, an increasingly diverse student population, and limited educational resources and service, the practice of leadership is fraught with tensions, contradictions, moral dilemmas, and political struggles. This study aims to examine how school principals who self-identify as social justice advocates react to the accountability movement in Ontario, Canada, how they perceive accountability and accountability policies, the actions they take, and the reasoning process they use in their attempts to satisfy accountability mandates while simultaneously tackling the various causes of social injustices in their schools.

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Medium 9781475836745

Central District Office Leadership for Diversity and Equity: Constraints and Opportunities for Policy Intermediaries

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

ALLISON MATTHEIS

Central District Office Leadership for Diversity and Equity

Constraints and Opportunities for Policy Intermediaries

ABSTRACT: This article reports the findings of a multiyear investigation of school district central office directors of diversity and equity in Minnesota, who play an important role in school desegregation/integration policy implementation. Ethnographic and survey data were collected to examine a range of leadership activities and perspectives in communities across the state that received state funding for integration programming. In this article, I present findings that illustrate the role of integration leaders as boundary-spanning policy intermediaries who navigate competing frames of meaning about the purpose and value of diversity in learning environments. Learning from these school district leaders’ focus on educational equity in the context of changing demographics offers opportunities to address local community needs more directly.

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Medium 9781475836806

Higher Education Public Relations and Branding: Critically Interrogating Universities’ Rankings and AAU Aspirational Pursuits

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Higher Education Public Relations and Branding

Critically Interrogating Universities’ Rankings and AAU Aspirational Pursuits

DAMION WAYMER

SARAH VANSLETTE

ABSTRACT: Universities engage in various public relations (PR) activities, including alumni engagement and student recruitment. While those activities are obvious examples, the authors argue that institutional branding warrants careful attention. Institutional branding is a significant practice in the higher education PR area, which has potentially adverse implications for institutions. The authors use case study as a method of analyzing institutional branding associated with Association of American Universities (AAU) membership. The authors find that the highly selective AAU serves, hegemonically, as an aspirational brand in the United States higher education landscape—shaping what rankings matter most, what specific areas institutions decide to strategically invest in, what areas get underfunded or ignored, and what areas get promoted. Implications of these findings are discussed.

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Medium 9781475836806

Embracing Family Diversity through Transformative Educational Leadership, the Ethics of Care, and Community Uplift in Schools

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Embracing Family Diversity through Transformative Educational Leadership, the Ethics of Care, and Community Uplift in Schools

DWAN ROBINSON

IMRAN MAZID

ABSTRACT: This conceptual paper extends the understanding and application of transformative leadership through the lens of a feminist ethic of care and a community-centric perspective. The authors re-examine the transformative leadership style in relation to the emerging alternative family structures in the United States. The authors also consider the need for a novel transformative leadership approach that infuses the ethics of care to formulate new policies and practices. Finally, the authors provide recommendations for future research that promote care and justice as transformative leadership attributes in diverse school communities. This conceptualization brings community to the forefront of stronger school–community relations.

KEYWORDS: transformative leadership, the ethics of care, school community relations, Black womanist

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