1107 Articles
  Title Author Publisher Format Buy Remix
Medium 9781475837513

The Rise of Urban AlternativeTeacher Certification

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

The Rise of Urban AlternativeTeacher Certification

Scott Hohnstein

ABSTRACT: This study sheds light on where teachers with alternative certification are teaching in the United States. Using hierarchical multiple regression, the numbers of alternative certificates granted in 33 U.S. states during the 2008–2009 school year are regressed on the proportions of students in poverty and on the proportions of ethnic minority students in each state. In two additional regression models, the numbers of alternative certificates are regressed on the numbers of rural and urban public schools. Results show that the numbers of rural and urban schools exhibit the strongest statistical relationships with the numbers of alternative teacher certificates. These findings are discussed, as are implications for practice and research.

The National Center for Education Information (NCEI, 2010) indicates that approximately 59,000 individuals were issued an alternative teacher certificate during the 2008–2009 public school year. This is an increase of more than 200% from 1998 to 1999. Due to its quick rise, it is difficult to formulate a concise definition for today’s version of alternative teacher certification (ATC). Its spread has spurred a variety of programs across the United States.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781475837513

Preservice Teachers’ Perceptions of Working with Learners Who Struggle

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Preservice Teachers’ Perceptions of Working with Learners Who Struggle

Heidi Legg Burross, Amy M. Olson, and Elizabeth Pope

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to use survey vignettes to begin exploring how preservice teachers believe they will respond to students who struggle academically. Thirty-one preservice and first-year teachers responded to three vignettes with their perceptions of (a) the cause of the difficulty and (b) their strategies for working with this and similar students. Participants were drawn from three university preservice teaching programs. Past experiences with academic struggle related to how the participants attributed the causes and solutions in their responses to vignettes. The interaction of perceived past self-struggle with types of struggle within the vignettes revealed experience with struggle as a student affects how preservice teachers consider working with students. Implications of this study include greater understanding of how teacher perceptions of struggle and effort can impact the help they offer students and highlight the need to teach adaptive ways of reconstructing success and failure in preservice programs.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781475837513

Perceptions of Teaching Practicums from Thai Students in 4-Year and 5-Year Teacher Education Programs

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Perceptions of Teaching Practicums from Thai Students in 4-Year and 5-Year Teacher Education Programs

Samuel J. Grubbs

ABSTRACT: In 2004, most Thai universities with teacher education programs replaced the existing 4-year program and its semester-long practicum with an extended 5-year program that offers the students a yearlong teaching practicum in local schools. This research surveyed students in both types of programs at the beginning and at the end of teaching practicums to see if those students in the extended program had greater confidence, interest, and dedication to their teaching practice. The results indicate that students in both programs increased their confidence during their practicums. On the posttest, students in the 5-year program had significantly less positive feelings about their teaching practicums. Further support structure is needed to help students in longer practicums deal with the longer commitment to practice teaching.

“In most contemporary societies, the profession of teaching employs more adults than any other occupation requiring a similar level of educational preparation” (Cummings, 1990, p. 3). The requirements to teach in a school can vary drastically by country. In some less developed countries, teachers can finish their training before they are 16 years old (Ghani, 1990). Cobb (1999) notes a list of three common forms of teacher education programs around the world: certificate/diploma programs, bachelor’s degree programs, and master’s/5-year programs. More recently, program standards have increased in many countries recently as a result of political and institutional reforms (Moon, 2007; Steiner-Khamsi, 2004).

See All Chapters
Medium 9781475837513

Communities That Engage Multidisciplinary Faculty withService-Learning

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Communities That Engage Multidisciplinary Faculty withService-Learning

Vera L Stenhouse, Caitlin M. Dooley, Rachel Gurvitch, Joseph R. Feinberg, Lydia C. Mays, Janet Z. Burns, and Olga S. Jarrett

ABSTRACT: Although research demonstrates positive outcomes for service-learning in higher education, more research is warranted to fully understand what shapes faculty engagement and implementation of service-learning. A group of 16 multidisciplinary faculty members integrating service-learning in their preparation of educators share their predominant influence: Community engagement. Findings indicate the importance of various community affiliations, including personal, classroom, professional learning, and service communities. The COMPELS faculty aligned with several established trends indicative of supporting enhanced service-learning, such as previous personal experience, participation in a professional community, and allocation of funds. Unique to COMPELS was acknowledging the multiple communities that informed faculty members’ efforts. Theoretical, pedagogical, and institutional implications for teacher education, service-learning, and practice are offered.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781475837513

Starting at the Beginning

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Starting at the Beginning

An Intuitive Choice for Classroom Management

Justin D. Garwood, Alene H. Harris, and Jonathan K. Tomick

ABSTRACT: Teachers’ actions in the first 3 days of school set the stage for student success throughout the academic year. Classroom management continues to be one of the more pressing concerns for both preservice and in-service teachers. Recent research in classroom management has identified evidence-based practices, but the research-to-practice gap remains. This study reports on the implementation of a research-based classroom management professional development program focused on the beginning of the school year. To increase teacher buy-in and fidelity of implementation, 22 teachers were trained to deliver the program in their respective schools within a southeastern school district. Results of survey data from 347 teachers suggest that teachers made changes in their approach to starting the school year and that these changes were associated with increased teacher efficacy and fewer off-task and disruptive student behaviors. Implications for professional development and teacher education are discussed.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781475837513

“Dear Diary”

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

“Dear Diary”

A Qualitative Examination of thePhases of First-Year Teaching

Mary Anne Duggan, David Lee Carlson, Michelle E. Jordan, Larissa Gaias, Tashia Abry, and Kristen Granger

ABSTRACT: This study examines a teacher developmental theory widely used by practitioners in the field of teacher induction that lacks empirical study. The Phases of First-Year Teaching framework includes stages of anticipation, survival, disillusionment, rejuvenation, and reflection. Eleven first-year teachers engaged in a weekly diary study for one school year. Only one teacher’s first-year experiences matched this framework. The rest of the teachers in the sample evidenced survival longer than expected, but survival did not automatically transition into disillusionment at midyear. Consistent rejuvenation may have served as a protective factor against disillusionment. Protective factors for averting survival and disillusionment are discussed.

It is no secret that the average experience level of the U.S. teaching workforce has declined significantly in recent decades (U.S. Department of Education, 2002). In the United States alone, more than 200,000 first-year teachers are hired each year, up from 65,000 in the late 1980s (Ingersoll, 2003). These statistics reflect not only a sharp rise of retirees (Ingersoll, 2001) but also an increase in teacher attrition and a decrease in teacher satisfaction (Breaux & Wong, 2004; Howard, 2003). In short, new teachers are struggling with an experience for which they feel undersupported (Ingersoll, 2003), underprepared (Levine, 2006), and overwhelmed by classroom management, administrative responsibilities, and isolation (Metlife, 2004–2005). It is no wonder, then, that policymakers and educational administrators are searching for practical and conceptual tools to attract, support, and retain first-year teachers. Over the past decade, one such cognitive tool, a framework for describing first-year teacher development, has gained traction among practitioners in the field of new teacher induction. The Phases of First-Year Teaching framework developed by Ellen Moir and the group formerly known as the Santa Cruz New Teacher Project—now morphed into the New Teacher Center—describes developmental stages through which teachers are theorized to progress in the first year of teaching (Moir, 1999).

See All Chapters
Medium 9781475837513

Effects of the Three-Block Model of Universal Design for Learning on Teachers’ Behaviors, Efficacy, and Concerns About Inclusive Teaching

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Effects of the Three-Block Model of Universal Design for Learning on Teachers’ Behaviors, Efficacy, and Concerns About Inclusive Teaching

Laura Sokal and Jennifer Katz

ABSTRACT: Kindergarten to grade 12 Canadian teachers took part in a 5-day professional development session where they learned to implement the Three-Block Model of Universal Design for Learning. Pre- and posttreatment, their classes were observed, and teachers completed inventories about their efficacy and concerns about inclusive teaching. Analyses indicated that teachers who took part in the training developed and implemented more inclusive practices for teaching than did the control group, and these included practices related to including children with severe learning needs. No significant changes in efficacy or concerns about inclusive practices were found pre- to posttreatment in the treatment group.

Classrooms around the world are becoming more and more diverse, and Canada is no exception to that trend. While increasing diversity brings many benefits to the students and teachers in these classrooms, it also presents challenges. In particular, teachers have expressed concerns that they are not trained to address the needs of students with special educational needs (SENs) in inclusive settings and that the infrastructure is not yet in place to support successful inclusive teaching (Heiman, 2001). While attention to categories of students, such as newcomers and students with SENs, may address these students’ specific learning needs, they mask recognition that there is also a great diversity of learning needs within the general population of students. Indeed, attention to diversity means attention to the learning needs of all students, including those within and without commonly recognized categories. Our study examines the effects of an intervention aimed at training in-service teachers in methods of inclusive practice for students from kindergarten to grade 12. In particular, we were interested in the effects of participating in a professional learning program (the Three-Block Model of Universal Design for Learning [TBM of UDL]) (Katz, 2012, 2013a) on teachers’ practices, efficacy, and concerns about inclusive teaching.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781475837513

Recentering Job-Embedded Graduate Education for Practicing Teachers

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Recentering Job-Embedded Graduate Education for Practicing Teachers

Elizabeth Bondy, Darbianne Shannon, Magdalena Castan˜eda, and Raquel Munarriz-Diaz

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this qualitative interview study was to produce practical knowledge (grounded in the voices of participating teachers), to inform the continued improvement of a blended (online and face-to-face) graduate program, and to contribute to the contemporary field of online teacher professional development. The findings provide insight into the features of program design that the teachers valued and perceived to be effective in supporting the implementation of new learning in their classrooms and the features they viewed as needing improvement. Based on the findings, we suggest a “recentering” of the way university faculty approach online graduate programs for practicing teachers. Recentering calls university faculty to conceptualize adult teaching and learning in systematic, complex, and creative ways that respond to the learner on a more human level—a level that accounts for both cognitive and socioemotional needs facilitated by the tools that technology and learner-centered faculty can offer.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781475837513

Preparing Teachers for Data-Based Decision Making and Response to Intervention Team Collaboration

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Preparing Teachers for Data-Based Decision Making and Response to Intervention Team Collaboration

Barbara Meyers, Emily Graybill, and Kathryn Grogg

ABSTRACT: Best practices in current educational initiatives, such as response to intervention (RtI), call for intentional data-based decision making and multidisciplinary approaches to problem solving to effectively meet the needs of all learners. Despite the potential of prereferral intervention teams to meet this need, teachers have reported feeling inadequate and disconnected from the team process. This article describes in-service teachers’ perceptions of the descriptive review (DR) process during which they learned to observe children, systematically collect data, and make data-based decisions. The 34 in-service teacher participants then used the data from the DR process to inform discussions during a simulated multidisciplinary prereferral intervention team meeting. Their reflections about the process were analyzed to reveal the efficacy of having teachers learn to use DR and to compare teachers’ experiences of this team experience with their experiences on school-based teams. Teachers found that DR encouraged them to think holistically about children, moved them away from a deficit view typically applied to referred children, and empowered them to solve school problems more than previous team experiences. This account describes how teacher educators might prepare teachers to engage in what is an essential component of the RtI process.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781475837513

Teacher Mentoring for EffectiveTeacher Training and Development

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Teacher Mentoring for EffectiveTeacher Training and Development

The Case of a Developing Country, Kenya

Moses K. Ochanji, Nicholas W. Twoli, Adelheid M. Bwire, and John N. Maundu

ABSTRACT: The subject of teacher mentoring has attracted worldwide attention in recent times. This article presents an account of a preservice teacher mentoring project undertaken in Kenya through a partnership of Kenyatta University in Kenya and Syracuse University. The purpose of the study was to understand the effectiveness of the collaborative mentoring model on preservice teacher training. The implementation of the project employed an evaluative survey design evaluating the mentoring process. Findings from the study indicated that collaborative mentoring has the capacity to enhance teacher development at the preservice level. However, there is no policy at the university or the national level to guide the implementation of mentoring in teacher education. The article recommends the establishment of a policy on teacher mentoring in preservice teacher education at the university and national levels. Such a policy could address aspects such as the roles of each participant in the mentoring process.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781475836158

The Role of District and School Leaders’ Trust and Communications in the Simultaneous Implementation of Innovative Policies

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

HAL A. LAWSON

FRANCESCA T. DURAND

KRISTEN CAMPBELL WILCOX

KAREN M. GREGORY

KATHRYN S. SCHILLER

SARAH J. ZUCKERMAN

The Role of District and School Leaders’ Trust and Communications in the Simultaneous Implementation of Innovative Policies

ABSTRACT: This mixed-method multiple case study investigated nine elementary schools. Six “odds-beating schools,” which serve relatively high numbers of economically disadvantaged children, achieved higher than predicted performance on state assessments when compared with three typically performing schools. The overarching research question guiding this study was: What forces, factors, and actors account for odds-beating schools’ better outcomes? The trust–communication connection provided one answer. Relational trust in odds-beating schools is an intraorganizational phenomenon, and it is accompanied by interorganizational trust (reciprocal trust). These two kinds of trust are accompanied by intraschool and district office–school communication mechanisms. Trust and communications are mutually constitutive as innovations are implemented. This connection is also an implementation outcome. When today’s innovation implementation initiatives reinforce this trust–communication connection, it becomes an organizational resource for future innovation implementation.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781475836158

School Administration Manager: Redefining the Principal’s Role as an Instructional Leader

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

ZHAOHUI SHENG

LORA WOLFF

LLOYD KILMER

STUART YAGER

School Administration Manager

Redefining the Principal’s Role as an Instructional Leader

ABSTRACT: In response to an increasing emphasis on instructional leadership and school achievement, the School Administration Manager (SAM) model was introduced as a change strategy to release principals from managerial responsibilities so that more time can be devoted to instructional leadership. The study collected and analyzed survey and focus group interview data to evaluate the impact of SAMs on principals’ management and instructional leadership. In addition, the study examined if school level (elementary or middle school) affects the impact of SAMs. Results illustrate SAMs have a positive impact on management and instructional leadership and the impact was stronger at the middle school level.

KEY WORDS: Instructional Leadership, School Administration, School Leadership, School Level, Mixed Methods

See All Chapters
Medium 9781475836158

Empathy Regulation Among Israeli School Principals: Expression and Suppression of Major Emotions in Educational Leadership

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

IZHAR OPLATKA

Empathy Regulation Among Israeli School Principals

Expression and Suppression of Major Emotions in Educational Leadership

ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to trace the ways by which Israeli principals manage their emotions at work and posed two questions: (1) How do principals tend to express empathy toward others in the school? and (2) How do principals regulate their empathy at work? Based on semi-structured interviews with 10 Israeli school principals, it was found that they are allowed, even encouraged, to display, under specific circumstances, three components of empathy: cognitive, affective (e.g., compassion), and behavioral (e.g., caring), while consciously inhibiting the expression of anger and fear publically. In addition, the principals use four strategies to regulate the components of empathy and its related emotions. Cultural, professional, and personal characteristics seem to explain empathy display and regulation among the Israeli principals.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781475836158

Defining “Comparable”: An Analysis of Reduction in Force Provisions in Ohio School Districts

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

W. KYLE INGLE

CHRIS WILLIS

ANN HERD

Defining “Comparable”

An Analysis of Reduction in Force Provisions in Ohio School Districts

ABSTRACT: Guided by Honig and Hatch’s (2004) conceptualization of bridging and buffering, we undertook an analysis of reduction in force (RIF) provisions from 546 Ohio teacher collective bargaining agreements. We asked the following question: Are the most disadvantaged school districts providing greater protections to tenured teachers when making RIF decisions? Logistic regression analysis revealed a negative relationship (p < 0.05) between the percentage of students within the district living in poverty and bridging to state efforts to reform the use of seniority alone in RIF decisions.

KEY WORDS: Collective Bargaining, Unions, Education Policy, Human Resources

INTRODUCTION

In the United States and elsewhere, teachers may find themselves subject to reductions in force (RIF) due to reasons of financial exigency, declining enrollments, and/or school closures within the district that employs them. Historically, RIFs have been determined by seniority provisions, such that teachers with the least seniority are the first ones laid off through what have become known as last in, first out or last hired, first fired practices (Goldhaber & Theobald, 2013; National Council on Teacher Quality, 2010). RIF decisions based on seniority have both positive and negative aspects. Positive features include being simple, transparent, and requiring little discretion or judgment calls on the part of administrators. Furthermore, seniority provisions reward teachers for loyalty and long service to the school and district (National Council on Teacher Quality, 2010). Years of experience have also been identified in the teacher quality literature1 as one of the more consistent characteristics associated with student achievement gains (Harris & Rutledge, 2010; Harris & Sass, 2011; Rice 2003, 2013; Wayne & Youngs, 2003; Wilson & Floden, 2003; Wilson, Floden, & Ferrini-Mundy, 2001). However, the practice also has been criticized for not being in the interest of students or accountability goals of schools and districts (Ballou, 2000a & b; Goldhaber & Theobald, 2013; Hill, 2006; National Council on Teacher Quality, 2010). Other researchers note that while beginning teachers are likely to show improvement with additional years of experience, they can also be very effective in the classroom. As such, RIFs based on seniority alone can result in promising, beginning teachers losing their jobs while more experienced (but less effective) teachers are retained (Goldhaber & Hansen, 2010).

See All Chapters
Medium 9781475836158

How Contexts Matter: A Framework for Understanding the Role of Contexts in Equity-Focused Educational Leadership

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

RACHEL ROEGMAN

How Contexts Matter

A Framework for Understanding the Role of Contexts in Equity-Focused Educational Leadership

ABSTRACT: In this article, I put forth a framework for thinking about how contexts matter. This framework highlights organizational, occupational, personal, and social contexts that influence leadership, which I illustrated with three cases of superintendents working on issues of systemic, equity-focused improvements. Data are drawn from a seven-year study of a superintendent’s network, including nine interviews with each participant. These illustrations demonstrate that different interactions between the personal, occupational, social, and organizational contexts may result in reframing, crystallizing, or negotiating what it means to lead for equity. For superintendents to engage in equity-minded reform, research and policy need to expand to consider leaders’ personal experiences as well as dominant discourses of equity.

KEY WORDS: Educational Leadership/Educational Administration, Superintendency, Equity, Contexts, School Reform

See All Chapters

Load more