1334 Articles
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Medium 9781475837575

Pitts

Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Invited Paper

Applying Implementation Science to the Development of a Self-Regulation Intervention for Students with Significant Behavior Problems

A Proactive Approach

Donna Spencer Pitts

Michelle M. Cumming

Ann P. Daunic

Alyssa L. Scafidi

Stephen W. Smith

Kristen M. O’Brien

Courtney E. Allen

ABSTRACT: The effective use of evidence-based practices in educational settings is an ongoing concern, and there is growing consensus that desired outcomes are achieved only when programs are implemented thoughtfully and thoroughly. To encourage the integration of research findings into interventions that are feasible and usable within authentic settings, researchers in the field of implementation science have identified key drivers that promote effective implementation. We assert that educational researchers must incorporate core components of implementation science as they develop interventions and not just at the implementation stage. In this article, we provide an account about developing and piloting a self-regulatory intervention for adolescents with emotional and behavioral disorders, through the lens of implementation science. We introduce the intervention, outline the implementation framework that guided our development work, provide examples of barriers encountered, and discuss how we used implementation drivers to analyze and make adjustments to the curriculum for successful delivery.

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Medium 9781475837575

Markelz

Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

A Review of Interventions to Increase Behavior-Specific Praise

Andrew Markelz

Mary Catherine Scheeler

Jonte C. Taylor

Paul J. Riccomini

ABSTRACT: Classroom management is important for student achievement and teachers’ well-being. Research supports behavior-specific praise (BSP) as an evidence-based practice of classroom management, however, its reliable use by teachers remains elusive. A literature review was conducted to identify interventions designed to increase teachers’ use of BSP and the effects of mastery training on maintenance results. Twenty empirical studies, involving special-education and general-education teachers, were analyzed. Findings identify training, performance feedback, self-monitoring, and tactile prompting as interventions to increase teachers’ use of BSP. Participants who were trained to mastery demonstrated higher and more stable BSP rates during maintenance. Results suggest interventions countered suppressing contingencies of BSP such as insufficient opportunities to practice, lack of reinforcement, and cognitive overload.

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Medium 9781475837575

Dexter

Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Effects of a Modified Daily Progress Report for Check In/Check Out at the Elementary Level

Courtney A. Dexter

Kathy L. Ruhl

Douglas D. Dexter

ABSTRACT: In an effort to examine a way to modify check in/check out (CICO) to enhance effectiveness, the current study assessed changes to the daily progress report (DPR) component. A multiple-baseline-across-participants design was used, with three sets of student/teacher pairs in an elementary school, to examine how modifying the DPR to reflect specific, positively worded, operationalized behaviors impacts the DPR as a visual prompt for student behavior and teacher feedback. Results indicate all teachers demonstrated increased levels of behavior-specific feedback, with three demonstrating an improved affirmative to corrective feedback ratio. All students demonstrated a reduction in problem behaviors and increased exhibition of prosocial behaviors. Furthermore, students and teachers rated the modified DPR as effective and easy to use. Implications for practice and implementation guidelines are also discussed in this article.

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Medium 9781475837575

Cozad

Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Effects of Classwide Interventions on Computational Fluency

A Synthesis of the Literature

Lauren E. Cozad

Paul J. Riccomini

ABSTRACT: Learning and applying mathematics requires a seamless blend of critical knowledge of concepts, vocabulary, procedures, computation, and problem solving. Students with mathematics difficulties struggle early and often with many of these ideas, but frequently experience difficulty developing computational fluency. Mathematics classrooms are becoming more and more diverse, often requiring teachers to implement interventions with many students. Classwide intervention (e.g., programs that allow differentiation for an entire class of students) is one avenue by which students are able to acquire, increase, and maintain fluency. The body of research on classwide interventions targeting computational fluency is reviewed. Findings indicate that classwide interventions are effective in increasing computational fluency among students both with and without mathematics difficulties. Implications for practice and future research are presented.

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Medium 9781475837575

Neddenriep

Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Reading and Understanding Informational Text Using the Listen-Reread-Adapt and Answer-Comprehend (LRAAC) Intervention

Is Fluency Enough?

Christine E. Neddenriep

Natalie D. Rose

Kali J. Olson

Shawna P. Loniello

Celine M. Santos

Stephanie L. Koenigsman

Jenna M. Mathew

ABSTRACT: How can students’ understanding of informational text be improved? Is fluency alone sufficient to improve their comprehension of informational text? The Listen-Reread-Adapt and Answer-Comprehend (LRAAC) intervention combines a repeated readings intervention with listening passage preview as well as a question-generation intervention to improve students’ reading fluency and comprehension of informational text. Three third-grade students were included in the intervention. Using a multiple-baseline design across participants, the effects of the fluency intervention were evaluated alone and then in combination with the comprehension intervention on participants’ number of words read correctly per minute and the percentage of the passage the participants comprehended per minute. A functional relation was established between the participants’ increased fluency and the implementation of the repeated readings intervention with listening passage preview. With the addition of the question-generation intervention, participants demonstrated improved understanding of informational text as well. In addition, students reported satisfaction with the intervention indicating that they learned strategies that were helpful and useful to them in the classroom. Limitations and implications for practice with regard to the use of the LRAAC intervention are discussed.

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Medium 9781475848533

Toward a theory of Engaged School Leadership: Positive psychology and principal candidates’ sense of engagement and their preparedness to lead engagement

Murakami, Elizabeth; Tran, Natalie Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Karen Stansberry Beard

Toward a theory of Engaged School Leadership

Positive psychology and principal candidates’ sense of engagement and their preparedness to lead engagement

Abstract: This study explored principle licensure students’ sense of engagement, program effectiveness, and preparedness to lead engagement focused on academic achievement. Data analysis using attributes of effective preparation programs, and positive psychology constructs (e.g., flow) found Goal Achievement, Commitment, and Accomplishment significantly related to flow. Flow was significantly related to Engagement, while Care was significantly related to Commitment and Coping. Perhaps more significantly, the findings yielded seven characteristics of Engaged School Leadership Theory (ESTL) development. Adding to both principal preparation and positive psychology literature, this study offers conceptual understandings toward an emerging theory of Engaged School Leadership.

Key Words: Engaged School Leadership Theory, Principal Preparation, Positive Psychology, Flow, Engagement, Program Effectiveness, Mixed Method Research, Mixed-Method Sequential Explanatory Design

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Medium 9781475848533

Black Masculine Caring and the Dilemma faced by Black Male Leaders

Murakami, Elizabeth; Tran, Natalie Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Lisa Bass

Kendrick Alston

Black Masculine Caring and the Dilemma faced by Black Male Leaders

Abstract: The status of Black males in schools and society continues to be concerning, as Black males appear to fall behind other groups in almost every arena, particularly educationally, socially, and professionally. Yet despite their social standing, Black male administrators are often placed in, and have taken on, the charge to serve in high need schools where they oversee the education of Black males and other disadvantaged students. Therefore, there are many Black male students who have Black male administrators. This places them in a position to make a difference in lives of the Black male students and the other students they serve from less privileged backgrounds. This conceptual article discusses the professional challenges faced by Black male leaders and how they choose to lead schools despite these challenges. Tenants of the Black Masculine Caring (BMC) framework are introduced which illuminate ways in which Black male administrators practice interpersonal and institutional care, and how the way they care for students impacts school culture and climate. This article contributes to the literature on school leadership, as all school leaders, regardless of their race, or the race of their students, are expected to maintain positive school cultures and climates in which students are emotionally supported (Blankstein, 2004; Murphy and Torre, 2014). Implications for educational administrators are discussed.

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Medium 9781475848533

The Role of Trauma in Leadership Socialization

Murakami, Elizabeth; Tran, Natalie Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Noelle W. Arnold

Azadeh F. Osanloo

René O. Guillaume

Christa Boske

Wendi Miller-Tomlinson

The Role of Trauma in
Leadership Socialization

Abstract: There is fertile ground to expand the ideas of resilience and growth as two important skills in leadership (Bell, 2009). Little research has examined how trauma and violence are reappropriated in post-trauma contexts. In fact, resiliency and adaptive strategies often influence life and career choices (Wolin & Wolin, 1993). Although this literature base has grown, little attention has been paid to the long-term impact of IPV on battered women’s career development and stages. This article examines the influence of life trauma on the socialization and practice of two Black female principals. Their responses to pain, suffering, trauma, and violence highlight women’s agency and their ability to create their own good from pain (Mitchem, 2002).

Key Words: Trauma, Violence, Social Cognitive Career Theory, Educational Leadership, Leadership Socialization

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Medium 9781475848533

Special Issue Introduction: The Psychology of Educational Leadership

Murakami, Elizabeth; Tran, Natalie Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Karen Stansberry Beard

Noelle Witherspoon Arnold

Ty-Ron M. O. Douglas

Special Issue Introduction

The Psychology of Educational Leadership

While there are many definitions of leadership, one implicit theme across all is the importance of psychological phenomena and processes in leading and following (Bell, 2003). Considerable research has been devoted to explicating the traits and characteristics of individual leaders; however, less has been devoted to leadership in context and as existing in an ecology of its own (Witherspoon Arnold, forthcoming). For example, this leadership ecology is influenced by how leaders make meaning of their leadership and the effectiveness of their leadership in and across contexts (Beard, 2015; 2016). The complex and demanding role of leadership requires examination of the employment of psychological levers, buffers, and mediators that impact leadership understandings, behaviors, and practices.

Personality models represent a standardization of leadership and have largely failed (Haslam, Reicher, & Platow, 2011) to inform or predict leadership effectiveness. Stodgill’s (1948) predictive indicators of leadership were found to be unpredictable when testing could not control for context. Moreover, Strodbeck and Mann’s (1956) subsequent research revealed that the meanings associated with standardized leadership concepts was highly variable. While psychology has expanded beyond the “great man” ideas of leadership, field educational leadership has moved more slowly than other fields in exploring the psychology of leadership and practice in context. While educational leadership has explored leadership as a negotiation of epistemologies, ontologies, and axiologies, and not a static end result (Witherspoon & Taylor, 2010), it has not systematically assessed the variations in leadership across educational ecologies.

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Medium 9781475848533

Diversifying Approaches to Educational Leadership: The Impact of Tradition in a Changing Educational Landscape

Murakami, Elizabeth; Tran, Natalie Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

James S. Wright

Noelle W. Arnold

Muhammad Khalifa

Diversifying Approaches to Educational Leadership

The Impact of Tradition in a Changing Educational Landscape

In their 2007 article, Pounder and Johnson addressed the need for the discipline of Educational Administration to link more qualitative works to quantitative works and critical and social justice frameworks to the traditional ones, to help dispel the notion that the Educational Leadership/Administration discipline “is narrow in its theoretical and methodological foci” (p. 271). While the strong history of objective and positivist research in our discipline and its impact on our field is acknowledged, the question remains: is that enough? In our answer to that queston, we argue for more epistemological and theoretical diversity, namely explorations of approaches that center on leadership frames that have academic but also socioemotional outcomes for students. It is also important for an educator to know that the needs of students include material emotional, social, and psychological concerns (Dei, 2003). This theoretical article utilizes Pounder and Johnson’s (2007) challenge to diversify frames and research approaches in Educational Administration and discusses humanities based approaches. We also discuss socioemotional (Social Emotional Learning: SEL) outcomes for each frame and approach (Osher et al., 2016). We end with implications for the field.

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Medium 9781475848533

Knowing Leadership: Students of Color (Re)considering Togetherness with Leaders and Authority Figures

Murakami, Elizabeth; Tran, Natalie Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Ty-Ron M. O. Douglas

Jennifer M. Beasley

Emily R. Crawford

Juan A. Ríos Vega

Cayce McCamish

Knowing Leadership:

Students of Color (Re)considering Togetherness with Leaders and Authority Figures

Abstract: Drawing on Bauman’s (1995) conceptualization of various forms of togetherness and Giroux (2005) and Anzaldúa (2007) explication of border theory, this paper presents findings of a research study that investigates how students of color come to know leaders and authority figures. Findings suggest that students identified “leaders” in part based on their relationships and connections with them and the perceived benefit of such connection. Family members and teachers were considered leaders when students’ relationships with them reflected Bauman’s (1995) “being-for” perspective, as characterized by positive role modeling and empathy. In schools, teachers—rather than school administrators—were most often described as leaders. These relationships were commonly associated with disciplinary issues and the enforcement of rules, and a colorblind system. Implications suggest that relationship characteristics in the borderlands of schools influence the perception of effective school leadership and school authority for students of color.

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Medium 9781475837568

Talk Aloud Problem Solving and Frequency Building to a Performance Criterion Improves Science Reasoning Ginny A. Dembek and Richard M. Kubina Jr.

Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Talk Aloud Problem Solving and Frequency Building to a Performance Criterion Improves Science Reasoning

Ginny A. Dembek

Richard M. Kubina Jr.

ABSTRACT: The present study examined the effects of a combined intervention: Talk Aloud Problem Solving (TAPS) and Frequency Building to a Performance Criterion (FBPC). The experimenter introduced TAPS/FBPC to five students diagnosed with a disability and receiving specialized reading instruction. The intervention presented TAPS formatted lessons and FBPC strengthened the student’s verbal repertoire making the problem-solving process a durable behavior. A multiple baseline design showed improvements in problem-solving performance when compared to baseline. All students became more accurate in the problem-solving task, as shown in immediate changes upon the implementation of the intervention and sustained growth over time. Maintenance in learning was also demonstrated. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

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Medium 9781475846980

Comparing the Effectiveness of Student Performance in Face-to-Face and Online Modes of Learning

Jenlink, Patrick M. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Comparing the Effectiveness of Student Performance in Face-to-Face and Online Modes of Learning

Anjeela Jokhan

Ravneel Rajneel Chand

Salsabil Nusair

ABSTRACT: Many educational institutions offer a number of different delivery modes of learning in order to meet the educational needs of students from different walks of life. The purpose of this research was to compare the effectiveness of online and face-to-face delivery modes for an introductory information system course (IS121) delivered by the School of Computing, Information and Mathematical Sciences at the University of the South Pacific (USP). The research compares and analyses the learning activities of the course in both modes, taught by the same coordinator in the same semester to first-year students. This research showed that there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the performance of students between the face-to-face and online delivery modes. The findings from the current study also revealed that face-to-face mode students had a greater level of understanding when answering questions in relation to Bloom’s taxonomy (Higher-Order Thinking Skills).

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Medium 9781475846980

Reflective Practice in Professional Learning Communities: A Study of Mandarin Pre-service Teachers

Jenlink, Patrick M. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Reflective Practice in Professional Learning Communities

A Study of Mandarin Pre-service Teachers

Ping Liu

Abstract: This study examines the professional development of pre-service teachers in a Mandarin credential program. The focus of discussion is on their reflective practice in professional learning communities. The primary data were collected when the participants took a bilingual methodology course to learn, teach, and reflect on their experiences. Multiple sources of data were collected in a dynamic context to answer the research questions. Results suggest that the participants transitioned into the credential program in many different aspects, from identity, teacher attitude, addressing students’ needs to lesson planning/teaching, classroom management, and professional collaboration. Through reflective practice, the participants learned to make decisions in an instructional context and were active in exploring effective ways to improve learning and teaching independently and in collaboration with others. Educational implications are discussed on how to better support Mandarin teacher candidates in a credential program.

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Medium 9781475846973

Democratic Accountability in Teacher Education: Now More Than Ever

Jenlink, Patrick M. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Democratic Accountability in Teacher Education

Now More Than Ever

Marilyn Cochran-Smith

Molly Cummings Carney

Elizabeth Stringer Keefe

Stephani Burton

Wen-Chia Chang

M. Beatriz Fernández

Andrew F. Miller

Juan Gabriel Sánchez

Megina Baker

ABSTRACT: During the two decades from 1998 to 2017, “holding teacher education accountable” emerged as the major approach to reforming teacher education in the United States (Cochran-Smith et al., 2016; Lewis & Young, 2013; Taubman, 2009). The logic was that greater accountability would boost teacher education quality, which would boost teacher quality (defined primarily in terms of students’ achievement), which would in turn ensure individual prosperity as well as the long-term economic health of the nation (Cochran-Smith et al., 2017). The key accountability assumption here is that enhanced teacher education quality depends on systematic and vigilant public evaluation and monitoring of outcomes related to teacher education institutions, programs, and teacher candidates. Across teacher education and other public domains, the rise in accountability regimes reflected the broad shift to a global and competitive knowledge society shaped by principles and policies derived from neoliberal economics and from the business world (Ambrosio, 2013; Furlong, Cochran-Smith & Brennan, 2009; O’Neill, 2002; Taubman, 2009).

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