965 Articles
Medium 9781475824445

Treatments for Attention-Maintained Problem Behavior: Empirical Support and Clinical Recommendations

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Laura L. Grow
James E. Carr
Linda A. LeBlanc

ABSTRACT: Designing treatments to address the function of problem behavior is currently considered best practice. One of the most common behavioral functions is that of contingent social attention. The present article describes several function-based treatments for attention-maintained problem behavior, and it discusses the unique challenges associated with this behavioral function in school settings. Clinical recommendations are provided for selecting and modifying treatments based on individual student needs.

Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) is the process of identifying environmental events associated with problem behavior, which allows school psychologists to generate hypotheses about behavioral function (Asmus, Vollmer, & Borerro, 2002; Gresham, Watson, & Skinner, 2001). This information can be used to design treatments that alter important environmental antecedents or consequences to produce positive behavior change. Before the development of FBA, treatments often consisted of selecting arbitrary reinforcers or punishers to overpower preexisting reinforcers for problem behavior (Pelios, Morren, Tesch, & Axelrod, 1999). Treating problem behavior based on its operant function has several advantages. First, research suggests that treatments based on FBA outcomes are more effective in reducing problem behavior and increasing appropriate behavior than are treatments selected without knowledge of behavioral function (e.g., Iwata, Pace, Cowdery, & Miltenberger, 1994). Second, knowledge of behavior function allows the clinician to avoid irrelevant or contraindicated treatments that might otherwise be reasonable treatment options. For example, guided compliance is a commonly recommended treatment for escape-maintained noncompliance. If noncompliance is maintained by attention, however, guided compliance may be contraindicated because the copious attention provided contingent on problem behavior might actually further reinforce the behavior.

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Medium 9781475824308

Using MathFacts in a Flash to Enhance Computational Fluency

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Jim Ysseldyke
Teri Thill
Jennifer Pohl
Dan Bolt

ABSTRACT: MathFacts in a Flash is a computer-assisted drill and practice program designed to assist students in attaining automaticity with facts and to assist teachers in monitoring the progress of all of the students in their class. We investigated the effectiveness of the program with 4,224 elementary and middle school students. When the program is implemented according to publisher recommendations, and when it is appropriately matched to student skill level, MathFacts in a Flash is effective. Unfortunately, implementation integrity during the study was neither uniformly high nor consistent. A highlight of this study was illustration of the very significant effect of intervention integrity on programs such as MathFacts in a Flash.

It is estimated that about 5% to 10% of students enrolled in general education classrooms have difficulty learning mathematics (Rivera, 1997). The numbers are higher for students with disabilities and in most large cities (Geary, 1994; Mercer, 1997). One cause of math learning difficulties is poor fit between the learning characteristics of individual students and the math instruction they receive (Carnine, 1997). Other causes include specific student difficulties in memorizing basic knowledge, application of cognitive and metacognitive strategies, and generalization of knowledge and strategies to new situations (Kroesbergen & Van Luit, 2003). At the heart of the difficulties many students experience is a failure to develop computational fluency and automaticity with basic math facts.

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Medium 9781475824308

Examining the Efficacy of Performance Feedback and Goal-Setting Interventions in Children With ADHD: A Comparison of Two Methods of Goal Setting

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Robin S. Codding, Lawrence Lewandowski, and Tanya Eckert

ABSTRACT: Children with attention deficient hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have demonstrated significant academic problems and are often at risk for school failure. In particular, math seems to be an area of difficulty for children with ADHD. Although academic problems are prevalent in children with ADHD, few studies have investigated the efficacy of school-based interventions to increase academic success. The intent of this study was to use performance feedback and goal setting as an intervention to increase the mathematics fluency of two children (one boy, one girl) in fourth and fifth grades who have ADHD. The specific purposes of this study included: (1) examining the efficacy of performance feedback (presented both verbally and graphically) and goal setting to increase math fluency for children who have ADHD; (2) determining whether the method of goal setting, that is either self-selection or experimenter assignment of goals, has a differential effect on math fluency; and (3) assessing student acceptability of the performance feedback interventions. An alternating treatments (single-case) design was used to explore the efficacy of two performance feedback and goal-setting interventions. Differentiation among treatment methods was obtained for both students, with students performing better under the performance feedback intervention in which students selected their performance goals. Results suggested that performance feedback with student-selected goal setting is an acceptable and possibly an effective school-based intervention for children with ADHD.

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Medium 9781475824384

Increasing Prosocial Interactions Using Peers: Extension of Positive Peer-Reporting Methods

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Kathryn E. Hoff
Marla J. Ronk

ABSTRACT: Positive peer reporting (PPR) is a peer-mediated intervention that increases positive interactions and decreases negative interactions among peers. The current study investigated the effectiveness of a PPR intervention for seven 3rd- and 4th-grade special education students with cognitive impairments on both a classwide level and an individual level during unstructured classroom time. An ABAB design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of PPR on the prosocial interactions among peers. Results support the use of PPR for increasing prosocial interactions between peers at a classwide and an individual level. Negative social interactions remained low throughout the project. Implications for use in schools, as well as limitations and future directions, are discussed.

Positive peer relations are vitally important for long-term adjustment and healthy development across the lifespan (Parker & Asher, 1987). Moreover, one's peers play a powerful role in the development and maintenance of prosocial behavior (Hartup & Stevens, 1997) and can be exceptional behavior change agents (Patterson & Anderson, 1964). Unfortunately, not all children experience positive peer relations. Children with disabilities, particularly those with cognitive impairment, represent a population with concurrent deficits in social competence (Gresham & McMillan, 1997). These youth may experience limited or negative social interactions and may be actively neglected or rejected by their peers (Kavale & Forness, 1996; Odom & Wolery, 2003; O'Reilly & Glynn, 1995). Still, others do not possess the skills necessary to interact successfully with their peers (Leffert, Siperstein, & Millikan, 2000; Prater, Bruhl, & Serna, 1998).

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Medium 9781475824377

Using Incremental Rehearsal to Teach Letter Identification to a Preschool-Age Child

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Rebecca Bunn
Matthew K. Burns
Holly H. Hoffman
Cortney L. Newman

ABSTRACT: Educators today emphasize the importance of teaching young children prereading skills such as letter recognition. The current article demonstrates the use of incremental rehearsal (IR), a technique linked to increased retention, to teach letter recognition to a 4-year-old girl who had previously been unsuccessful in learning alphabet letter names. She rehearsed letter names during 15-minute sessions for 3 weeks, after which she correctly stated the name of each letter within 2 seconds of the visual presentation. Therefore, IR appeared to be a quick and easy tool to use as an intervention for children experiencing difficulty learning letter names.

Approximately 4.7% of all preschool children, ages 3 through 5 years, participate in special education programming through public schools (U.S. Department of Education, 2000). However, little is known about the type of intervention they receive because information obtained by the U.S. Department of Education is not as specific as it is for other age groups (Lerner, 2003). Reading was specifically identified by the President's Commission on Excellence in Special Education (2001) as an area especially in need of early intervention, probably because approximately 80% of children experiencing academic difficulties encounter difficulties in reading (Lerner, 2003). Further, young children with reading difficulties usually continue to experience significant reading difficulties as adults (National Research Council, 1998).

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