961 Articles
Medium 9781475824445

Treatments for Attention-Maintained Problem Behavior: Empirical Support and Clinical Recommendations

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Laura L. Grow
James E. Carr
Linda A. LeBlanc

ABSTRACT: Designing treatments to address the function of problem behavior is currently considered best practice. One of the most common behavioral functions is that of contingent social attention. The present article describes several function-based treatments for attention-maintained problem behavior, and it discusses the unique challenges associated with this behavioral function in school settings. Clinical recommendations are provided for selecting and modifying treatments based on individual student needs.

Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) is the process of identifying environmental events associated with problem behavior, which allows school psychologists to generate hypotheses about behavioral function (Asmus, Vollmer, & Borerro, 2002; Gresham, Watson, & Skinner, 2001). This information can be used to design treatments that alter important environmental antecedents or consequences to produce positive behavior change. Before the development of FBA, treatments often consisted of selecting arbitrary reinforcers or punishers to overpower preexisting reinforcers for problem behavior (Pelios, Morren, Tesch, & Axelrod, 1999). Treating problem behavior based on its operant function has several advantages. First, research suggests that treatments based on FBA outcomes are more effective in reducing problem behavior and increasing appropriate behavior than are treatments selected without knowledge of behavioral function (e.g., Iwata, Pace, Cowdery, & Miltenberger, 1994). Second, knowledge of behavior function allows the clinician to avoid irrelevant or contraindicated treatments that might otherwise be reasonable treatment options. For example, guided compliance is a commonly recommended treatment for escape-maintained noncompliance. If noncompliance is maintained by attention, however, guided compliance may be contraindicated because the copious attention provided contingent on problem behavior might actually further reinforce the behavior.

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Medium 9781475824384

Increasing Prosocial Interactions Using Peers: Extension of Positive Peer-Reporting Methods

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Kathryn E. Hoff
Marla J. Ronk

ABSTRACT: Positive peer reporting (PPR) is a peer-mediated intervention that increases positive interactions and decreases negative interactions among peers. The current study investigated the effectiveness of a PPR intervention for seven 3rd- and 4th-grade special education students with cognitive impairments on both a classwide level and an individual level during unstructured classroom time. An ABAB design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of PPR on the prosocial interactions among peers. Results support the use of PPR for increasing prosocial interactions between peers at a classwide and an individual level. Negative social interactions remained low throughout the project. Implications for use in schools, as well as limitations and future directions, are discussed.

Positive peer relations are vitally important for long-term adjustment and healthy development across the lifespan (Parker & Asher, 1987). Moreover, one's peers play a powerful role in the development and maintenance of prosocial behavior (Hartup & Stevens, 1997) and can be exceptional behavior change agents (Patterson & Anderson, 1964). Unfortunately, not all children experience positive peer relations. Children with disabilities, particularly those with cognitive impairment, represent a population with concurrent deficits in social competence (Gresham & McMillan, 1997). These youth may experience limited or negative social interactions and may be actively neglected or rejected by their peers (Kavale & Forness, 1996; Odom & Wolery, 2003; O'Reilly & Glynn, 1995). Still, others do not possess the skills necessary to interact successfully with their peers (Leffert, Siperstein, & Millikan, 2000; Prater, Bruhl, & Serna, 1998).

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Medium 9781475824377

Using Incremental Rehearsal to Teach Letter Identification to a Preschool-Age Child

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Rebecca Bunn
Matthew K. Burns
Holly H. Hoffman
Cortney L. Newman

ABSTRACT: Educators today emphasize the importance of teaching young children prereading skills such as letter recognition. The current article demonstrates the use of incremental rehearsal (IR), a technique linked to increased retention, to teach letter recognition to a 4-year-old girl who had previously been unsuccessful in learning alphabet letter names. She rehearsed letter names during 15-minute sessions for 3 weeks, after which she correctly stated the name of each letter within 2 seconds of the visual presentation. Therefore, IR appeared to be a quick and easy tool to use as an intervention for children experiencing difficulty learning letter names.

Approximately 4.7% of all preschool children, ages 3 through 5 years, participate in special education programming through public schools (U.S. Department of Education, 2000). However, little is known about the type of intervention they receive because information obtained by the U.S. Department of Education is not as specific as it is for other age groups (Lerner, 2003). Reading was specifically identified by the President's Commission on Excellence in Special Education (2001) as an area especially in need of early intervention, probably because approximately 80% of children experiencing academic difficulties encounter difficulties in reading (Lerner, 2003). Further, young children with reading difficulties usually continue to experience significant reading difficulties as adults (National Research Council, 1998).

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Medium 9781475824421

Decreasing Out-of-Seat Behavior in a Kindergarten Classroom: Supplementing the Color Wheel With Interdependent Group-Oriented Rewards

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Jaime L. Below
Amy L. Skinner
Christopher H. Skinner
Christy A. Sorrell
Ashley Irwin

ABSTRACT: An AB design was used to evaluate the effects of a modified Color Wheel intervention with an interdependent group-oriented contingency on the outof-seat behavior of students in an intact kindergarten classroom. Data were collected for the class and for Mike, a student who exhibited high levels of out-of-seat behavior. Results show an immediate and dramatic reduction in out-of-seat behavior after the intervention was applied. Discussion focuses on the external validity and pragmatic characteristics of the Color Wheel and the need for additional efficacy studies to establish the causal mechanisms responsible for changes in behavior.

THE PROBLEM

Akindergarten teacher requested consultation services to address three problems. She noted that students were frequently touching one another (e.g., pushing), getting out of their seats during seatwork time (e.g., approaching the teacher with questions, talking to classmates), and gathering around her to ask questions or complain about classmate’s behavior (e.g., tattling). This teacher was particularly concerned with one student’s (“Mike’s”) high levels of out-ofseat behavior.

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Medium 9781475824438

Response to Intervention: What It Is and What It Is Not

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Ronnie Detrich
Jack States
Randy Keyworth

ABSTRACT: Recent federal policy has increased interest in and confusion about response to intervention (RtI). The Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act has endorsed RtI as an alternative for identifying students with specific learning disabilities. The confusion results from the authorization’s coming from a special education initiative, but RtI requires participation from general education as well as special education. Many educators, both special education and general education, have questions about RtI is and how it can be implemented. As such, the purpose of this article is to describe what RtI is and what it is not. In addition, the article considers the evidence base for RtI and discusses the implications for practitioners.

With the reauthorization of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA), response to intervention (RtI) has received a great deal of attention from educators. Much of that interest is the result of two separate sections of the legislation that address RtI. In the first and as an alternative to the traditional discrepancy model, education agencies are now permitted to “use a process that determines if the child responds to scientific researchbased intervention as part of the evaluation procedures” to determine if a student has a specific learning disability.

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