1563 Articles
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Medium 9781442267916

Archival and Genealogical Cultures: French and Spanish Colonial Records Across Three Centuries in New Orleans

Collections Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Susan Tucker

Newcomb Archives, Newcomb College Institute, Tulane University, 62 Newcomb Place, #203, New Orleans, LA 70118; email: susannah@tulane.edu

Abstract    This article looks at the French and Spanish colonial judicial records of Louisiana and uses these records as a prism into the history of genealogy. The trajectory of the records’ creation and care over three centuries takes readers on a journey of varying archival cultures, ephemera, philosophies, and economies of care and neglect. This is also an essay about the city as a main character—as a symbol for the foundation of an archival and genealogical culture. Records are at the center of the practice of family history for many people, and thus their stories tell us about a significance beyond a specificity of place. Nevertheless, specific cultures represent varying archival and genealogical practices, and New Orleans especially has a distinctive recordkeeping past worthy of study.

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Medium 9781442267916

The Next Level: Automating the Collection Records at the Peabody Museum

Collections Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

David K. DeBono Schafer and Steven A. LeBlanc

Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, 11 Divinity Ave., Cambridge, MA 02138; email: dschafer@fas.harvard.edu and leblanc@fas.harvard.edu

Abstract    The first truly successful efforts to automate museum collection records took place in the late 1980s. The goal then was to get the basic paper records (the catalogue cards) into electronic form. This was soon followed by very primitive efforts to have an associated image of the object linked to the computer record. Today, about 25 years later, we can initially feel that “we have done that.” Most museums have some form of automated records. These are extremely useful and it is hard to imagine how we ever functioned with just paper. Yet, technological advances have been so rapid that most museums are still far behind what is potentially well within our grasp. Our goal in this article is to show what can be accomplished, how easily it can be realized, and the benefits of reaching the Next Level. We focus on the Peabody Museum both because we know it well, but also because the Peabody is one of the oldest museums in the country, so we probably have all the problems and issues one is likely to ever encounter (we have records written with quill pens!). Moreover, the collections are large. We have 600,000 catalog records representing six million items and over 400,000 historic photographs, along with vast quantities of archival material. Thus, we have had to find solutions that scale up, and can be done quickly and cheaply enough to make meaningful headway on our collections.

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Medium 9781442267916

Breaking Through Borders: Living in Extreme

Collections Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Thorid Zierold

Curator of Natural Sciences; Natural History Museum Chemnitz, Moritzstraβe 20, 09111 Chemnitz, Germany email: zierold@naturkunde-chemnitz. de

Abstract    Keeping a museum attractive and alive requires public awareness and community engagement. Engagement programs from Museums of Ethnology, History, or Art are well documented, whereas comparable activities of Natural History Museums are rare in recent times. This paper highlights a unique cooperation project between the Natural History Museum Chemnitz and a secondary school in which a group of students assumed the role of Young Curators to create a special exhibition. They decided the exhibition’s theme; set up the layout; and created displays, hands-on and established panels, and graphics. Presented in 2011, “Living in Extreme” was a journey through distinct habitats, including the rainforest, the desert, the deep sea, and the polar region. For this project, the Young Curators delivered high quality and amazing results. The feedback of the visitors and media was very positive and overall the project enhanced the public awareness on both the museum as well as the school side.

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Medium 9781442267916

Collecting a Spacesuit in the 21st Century

Collections Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Cathleen S. Lewis

Smithsonian Institution Air and Space Museum, Independence Avenue at Sixth Street, sw, MRC 311 PO Box 37012 Washington, DC 20013-7012; email: LewisCS@si.edu

Abstract    In 1972, the Smithsonian Institution’s National Air and Space Museum arranged to take possession of the remnants of the spacesuits that Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins had worn during the 1969 Apollo 11 mission that landed the first humans on the moon. NASA had put aside these spacesuits and the components that the astronauts had returned to Earth for the express purpose of display to re-create the iconic images of the mission. For many years, the Air and Space Museum had complied with these intentions, but over the years, the deterioration of the suits and their materials led to a reconsideration of the rationale for collecting and displaying the suits. The new approach led to a revised collecting strategy that placed greater emphasis on the suits’ point of creation and the negotiations that had occurred among those who built, designed, and wore the suits.

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Medium 9781475825831

Experiential Learning in Public Relations Through Student-Conducted Research Assignments

Journal of School Public Relations Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Experiential Learning in Public Relations Through Student-Conducted Research Assignments

Ron Prindle

ABSTRACT: As the responsibilities of public relations practitioners continue to expand to include institutional research, it is essential for universities to develop programs that prepare practitioners for these new expectations. This article describes the development of an experiential learning course focused on research for future public relations practitioners who were enrolled in an innovative undergraduate-level public relations research methods course. As part of the course, the third- and fourth-year public relations students conducted action research for an actual client. Details are provided about the course, along with guidelines on how instructors should create, implement, and assess a similar course.

KEYWORDS: experiential learning, research, focus groups, public relations, educational methods, practice-centered curricula, public relations

Introduction

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Medium 9781475825831

Notes from the Editor

Journal of School Public Relations Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Notes from the Editor

Susan C. Bon

In this issue of the Journal of School Public Relations, authors address an array of topics that impact the decisions made by public school leaders as well as higher education officials. As noted in the previous issue, the journal has expanded its scope to promote success in the increasingly competitive journal publication market and to respond to emerging issues in education that impact school public relations professionals. This wider lens includes six critical areas that are central to public school and higher education administrators: public relations, school and community relations, community education, communication, conflict management/resolution, and human resources management. Given this expanded scope, I would like to invite all prospective authors to consider the Journal of School Public Relations when submitting their next article for publication.

Two of the articles are focused on public and community relations in the higher education setting. Both articles address issues that especially impact higher education institutions, which face increasing accountability and financial demands from community members. In the first article, titled “Experiential Learning in Public Relations Through Student-Conducted Research Assignments,” Ron Prindle explains how the responsibilities of public relations practitioners are expanding to include institutional research. As such, he encourages universities to develop programs that prepare practitioners to meet these new expectations. His article then describes how to develop an undergraduate-level experiential learning course that is focused on promoting research skills for future public relations practitioners. This article is particularly useful to practitioners who would benefit from his provision of extensive details about the course, as well as from guidelines on how instructors should create, implement, and assess a similar course.

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Medium 9781475825831

Employee Settlement Agreements

Journal of School Public Relations Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Employee Settlement Agreements

Effective Employment Practice or Public Relations Nightmare?

Richard T. Geisel

Susan C. Bon

David G. Buckman

ABSTRACT: This article examines the public policy concerns that arose in selected court cases involving disputes over the use of separation agreements and the practice of quiet resignations by teachers accused of sexual abuse or misconduct with students. Given the serious implications of teacher sexual misconduct with students, schools must balance the public policy expectations and best interests of children while also recognizing the procedural and statutory protections that safeguard teachers’ employment rights. Finally, the article concludes with a discussion of practical solutions based on the professional practices of public relations specialists and urges human resource leaders to eliminate the practices of secret separation agreements and quiet resignations when an accused teacher’s misconduct involves sexual abuse or inappropriate sexual relationships with students. Instead, schools should adhere to the mandatory child abuse reporting laws that apply to school employees in all states.

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Medium 9781475825831

A Comparison of Relevant Labor Markets to Determine Full-Time Community College Faculty Salaries

Journal of School Public Relations Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

A Comparison of Relevant Labor Markets to Determine Full-Time Community College Faculty Salaries

Henry Tran

Douglas A. Smith

ABSTRACT: Full-time community college faculty salaries are typically established by fixed salary schedules. The salaries offered by comparative districts often influence the determination of specific values for salaries on a fixed schedule (i.e., relevant labor markets). Relevant labor markets can be defined in a variety of ways. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in the minimum base and average full-time faculty salaries as determined by different relevant labor markets defined by geographic area, district size, district wealth, and district performance. These labor markets are based on their corresponding economic principles (supply and demand, economy of scale, ability to pay, and cost-benefits). Data was obtained from the 2011–2012 academic year for all California community colleges districts (n = 72). Findings suggest that for practical purposes, it makes little difference which relevant labor market was selected, as pay differentials between the labor markets were minimal. Consequently, justifications are presented for the use of each of the four labor markets, emphasizing consideration for selection of a labor market based on district performance. This latter selection can serve community colleges from a public relations perspective in an effort to further demonstrate accountability for salary expenditures and student outcomes.

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Medium 9781475825831

Principal Dispositions Toward Using a Commercial Protocol to Screen Potential and Actual Applicants for Teaching Positions

Journal of School Public Relations Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Principal Dispositions Toward Using a Commercial Protocol to Screen Potential and Actual Applicants for Teaching Positions

Kristin E. Barker

Theodore J. Kowalski

ABSTRACT: This study examined the dispositions of principals in three suburban school districts toward using a commercial protocol to screen potential or actual applicants for teaching positions. The perceived relative importance of a protocol score and other screening criteria were determined by rankings. In addition, levels of association between principal dispositions and each of three predictor variables (level of school assignment, teaching experience, and administrative experience) were ascertained. Findings revealed that 91% of the principals had a positive or somewhat positive disposition toward the protocol. Even so, five other screening criteria (verbal communication skills, demeanor, quality of previous teaching experiences, philosophy of education, and written communication skills) were rated as being more important than a protocol score. Associations between dispositions and each of the three predictor variables were small. A coefficient of determination (R2 ) indicates that the three predictor variables collectively accounted for only 2.5% of the variability of principal dispositions.

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Medium 9781475824254

The Impact of Poverty, School Enrollment, and Ninth-Grade Transition Programs on Promotion

Journal of School Public Relations Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

The Impact of Poverty, School Enrollment, and Ninth-Grade Transition Programs on Promotion

Edward Cox

Mark Hopkins

David G. Buckman

ABSTRACT: This study investigated the impact of poverty, enrollment, and the presence of a 9th-grade transition program on students’ promotion to 10th grade. Promotion to 10th grade is the essential first step toward graduation and is an immediate measure among strategies used to support 9th-grade students. Thirty South Carolina high schools were selected on the basis of their poverty indices. Schools were analyzed in terms of their poverty levels, enrollments, and 10th-grade promotion rate. None of the independent variables were shown to be statistically significant in terms of their impact on promotion to 10th grade, but when poverty was excluded, the results were found to be significant.

An important piece of educational legislation was passed in 2002 by President George Bush: the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, also known as No Child Left Behind. This legislation required a level of accountability. For example, new federal guidelines were adopted to ensure that at-risk populations were progressing. Adequate yearly progress was introduced to track subgroups of students based on race, ethnicity, poverty, and special needs. No Child Left Behind also required each state to set graduation rate targets, with 100% by the year 2014 (Patterson, Beltyukova, Berman, & Francis, 2007). Each state subsequently designed and implemented a system of accountability, through which schools and educators are measured against the achievement of their students. These achievement data are used to rate schools through annual school report cards. The annual school report card information—select items such as graduation rates—have become common conversation topics for parents as well as other community stakeholders. Public schools, while slowly improving, still fall short in the primary measures of success and the goals set forth by No Child Left Behind. A primary goal set by the legislation was a 100% graduation rate by 2014. With only 74.1% of high school students graduating with a diploma within 4 years (National Center for Education Statistics, 2010), additional research has been conducted to further address the reasons why students are not graduating from high school.

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Medium 9781475824254

Elevating the Conversation

Journal of School Public Relations Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Elevating the Conversation

Relationships, Systems, and Schools

Kelly Wachel

ABSTRACT: This article conveys the importance of perception and reality in public schools and in urban public schools. Adapted from the book Parents and Schools Together: Blueprint for Success With Urban Youth, by Kelly Wachel, the article sheds light on the necessary components of relationships and systems within schools and how they contribute to learning. School public relations professionals can have an impact on student learning, and it starts with building a system around what students value.

The Setting

Imagine this setting: an urban school district. A school district on the south side of a big city. Minorities make up 80 percent of the student population. Seventy-five percent of the students receive free or reduced-price lunches (the most accurate statistic we have for indicating poverty). An urban school district with high minority students and high poverty. We’ve all heard the statistics that these urban schools are failing. That these schools are full of scary kids and kids who don’t know how to be in school. Their teachers are terrible and afraid and don’t have the resources that they need to teach kids. Rundown buildings with weeds growing around the sidewalks. History crumbling from the inside out. A history that contains a stellar past, full of glory and achievement, left behind by families moving out of the urban core to the suburbs and minority families staying in the place that remains.

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Medium 9781475824254

Changing School Times to Combat Adolescent Sleep Deprivation

Journal of School Public Relations Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Changing School Times to Combat Adolescent Sleep Deprivation

Perceptions of School Stakeholders

Lori Boyland

Michael W. Harvey

William Riggs

Barbara Campbell

ABSTRACT: Many adolescents are chronically sleep deprived, placing them at risk for academic and other issues (Malone, 2011; Owens, 2010; Wolfson & Carskadon, 2003). Experts recommend that schools delay morning start times to allow teenagers more sleep, but communities often resist time change proposals (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2014; National Sleep Foundation, 2012). The purpose of this study was to examine school stakeholders’ perceptions of a time change initiative, before and after enactment. Parents and teachers (n = 1,905) were surveyed over 3 years. After implementation, participants reported higher levels of agreement with the initiative in several key areas, as compared to respondents before implementation. Practical suggestions for school communities considering later start times for adolescents are provided.

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Medium 9781475824254

Notes From the Editor

Journal of School Public Relations Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Notes From the Editor

Susan C. Bon

Reflected in this issue is a variety of articles. For those who are either new to this journal or are existing readers, please be apprised that the journal has expanded the scope of articles considered and did so to be better competitive in the changing market for scholarly articles having important information for public school public relations personnel. Specifically, to quote our expanded focus as published on the web (see https://rowman.com/Page/JSPR) as well as on the first page of each journal, articles are solicited that address six critical areas in public school and higher education administration: public relations, school and community relations, community education, communication, conflict management/resolution, and human resources management.

Contained in this edition is an article titled “Elevating the Conversation: Relationships, Systems, and Schools,” by Kelly Wachel, a public information officer, that describes how low-performing urban schools can improve student achievement by following a systematic plan of action designed to negate negative perceptions. According to the systematic plan, school public relations officers should focus initially on the perceptions of students and on their values relative to their accountability for learning. To either reinforce or alter these values toward academic achievement, she advocates the involvement of other stakeholders, including parents, other high-achieving school districts, community leaders, and future employers. Specific attention is given to how to create a safe environment as well as an appealing environment where attention is focused on the school’s physical facility because most people judge a book by its cover.

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Medium 9781475824254

Understanding How Schools of Education Have Redesigned the Doctorate of Education

Journal of School Public Relations Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Understanding How Schools of Education Have Redesigned the Doctorate of Education

Jill Alexa Perry

Debby Zambo

Susan Wunder

ABSTRACT: In this article, we reveal results of a multiple-case study supported by the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education that examined how schools of education reformed their EdD programs as a result of membership in the Carnegie Project on the Education Doctorate. The cross-case analysis was conducted on 21 cases written by 38 researchers who visited institutions across the United States. Results indicate that changes in EdD programs have taken place at institutional, programmatic, and individual levels as a result of incorporating the Carnegie project’s principles and design concepts into program reform.

The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching conceptualized the Carnegie Project on the Education Doctorate (CPED) to “reclaim” the education doctorate (EdD) and make it a stronger and more relevant degree for the advanced preparation of practitioners (Perry, 2010, 2012; Perry & Imig, 2008). Shulman, Golde, Bueschel, and Garabedian (2006) envisioned the CPED as a grassroots movement of individuals from various colleges of education who would work together to change the status and purpose of the EdD. Through these grassroots efforts, members draw on their experiences, values, and visions about what doctoral programs should entail and then use these to design distinct programs. This enables the accomplishment of a key goal of the redesign movement: communicating and being responsive to the leadership needs of schools and education communities.

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Medium 9781475824254

Superintendents as Political Operatives

Journal of School Public Relations Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Superintendents as Political Operatives

A View From the Front Lines

Kelly Morman

Robert Alexander

ABSTRACT: Surprisingly little is known about the preparation of education administrators to handle their inevitable involvement in school levy campaigns. This study investigates the preparation, knowledge, and use of campaign strategies by superintendents. We do this through a survey of school superintendents in three Ohio counties. We find that training relative to political campaigning is severely lacking among superintendents. Instead, most find themselves learning “on the job.” We suggest that greater preparation should be devoted to this unstated requirement that many superintendents ultimately face. Regardless, respondents rely on myriad strategies and show great reliance on professional organizations for assistance in levy campaigns.

Equity in education is a national focus, and a significant part of attaining educational equity is the equitable funding of education. The state of Ohio is a place where the struggle over education funding has taken center stage. Since the 1997 DeRolph v. State of Ohio Supreme Court case declared the state’s education finance system unconstitutional, unsuccessful efforts to address school funding have been attempted by elected officials at the behest of the Supreme Court. In spite of the court’s mandate, no workable solutions have taken root. Instead, school administrators have continued to go to voters for basic levels of operational funding. From 1994 to 2006, 3,433 operating levies were placed on the ballot at local levels (Fleeter, 2007). Put another way, nearly half of all school districts placed tax levy referenda on the ballot during this period. This school referendum reality means that school administrators must become political operatives in addition to education officials as they rely on successful political campaigns to secure the necessary funding to maintain pace with rising costs of operation.

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