1287 Articles
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Medium 9781475824445

Treatments for Attention-Maintained Problem Behavior: Empirical Support and Clinical Recommendations

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Laura L. Grow
James E. Carr
Linda A. LeBlanc

ABSTRACT: Designing treatments to address the function of problem behavior is currently considered best practice. One of the most common behavioral functions is that of contingent social attention. The present article describes several function-based treatments for attention-maintained problem behavior, and it discusses the unique challenges associated with this behavioral function in school settings. Clinical recommendations are provided for selecting and modifying treatments based on individual student needs.

Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) is the process of identifying environmental events associated with problem behavior, which allows school psychologists to generate hypotheses about behavioral function (Asmus, Vollmer, & Borerro, 2002; Gresham, Watson, & Skinner, 2001). This information can be used to design treatments that alter important environmental antecedents or consequences to produce positive behavior change. Before the development of FBA, treatments often consisted of selecting arbitrary reinforcers or punishers to overpower preexisting reinforcers for problem behavior (Pelios, Morren, Tesch, & Axelrod, 1999). Treating problem behavior based on its operant function has several advantages. First, research suggests that treatments based on FBA outcomes are more effective in reducing problem behavior and increasing appropriate behavior than are treatments selected without knowledge of behavioral function (e.g., Iwata, Pace, Cowdery, & Miltenberger, 1994). Second, knowledge of behavior function allows the clinician to avoid irrelevant or contraindicated treatments that might otherwise be reasonable treatment options. For example, guided compliance is a commonly recommended treatment for escape-maintained noncompliance. If noncompliance is maintained by attention, however, guided compliance may be contraindicated because the copious attention provided contingent on problem behavior might actually further reinforce the behavior.

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Medium 9781475824308

Using MathFacts in a Flash to Enhance Computational Fluency

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Jim Ysseldyke
Teri Thill
Jennifer Pohl
Dan Bolt

ABSTRACT: MathFacts in a Flash is a computer-assisted drill and practice program designed to assist students in attaining automaticity with facts and to assist teachers in monitoring the progress of all of the students in their class. We investigated the effectiveness of the program with 4,224 elementary and middle school students. When the program is implemented according to publisher recommendations, and when it is appropriately matched to student skill level, MathFacts in a Flash is effective. Unfortunately, implementation integrity during the study was neither uniformly high nor consistent. A highlight of this study was illustration of the very significant effect of intervention integrity on programs such as MathFacts in a Flash.

It is estimated that about 5% to 10% of students enrolled in general education classrooms have difficulty learning mathematics (Rivera, 1997). The numbers are higher for students with disabilities and in most large cities (Geary, 1994; Mercer, 1997). One cause of math learning difficulties is poor fit between the learning characteristics of individual students and the math instruction they receive (Carnine, 1997). Other causes include specific student difficulties in memorizing basic knowledge, application of cognitive and metacognitive strategies, and generalization of knowledge and strategies to new situations (Kroesbergen & Van Luit, 2003). At the heart of the difficulties many students experience is a failure to develop computational fluency and automaticity with basic math facts.

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Medium 9781475824308

Examining the Efficacy of Performance Feedback and Goal-Setting Interventions in Children With ADHD: A Comparison of Two Methods of Goal Setting

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Robin S. Codding, Lawrence Lewandowski, and Tanya Eckert

ABSTRACT: Children with attention deficient hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have demonstrated significant academic problems and are often at risk for school failure. In particular, math seems to be an area of difficulty for children with ADHD. Although academic problems are prevalent in children with ADHD, few studies have investigated the efficacy of school-based interventions to increase academic success. The intent of this study was to use performance feedback and goal setting as an intervention to increase the mathematics fluency of two children (one boy, one girl) in fourth and fifth grades who have ADHD. The specific purposes of this study included: (1) examining the efficacy of performance feedback (presented both verbally and graphically) and goal setting to increase math fluency for children who have ADHD; (2) determining whether the method of goal setting, that is either self-selection or experimenter assignment of goals, has a differential effect on math fluency; and (3) assessing student acceptability of the performance feedback interventions. An alternating treatments (single-case) design was used to explore the efficacy of two performance feedback and goal-setting interventions. Differentiation among treatment methods was obtained for both students, with students performing better under the performance feedback intervention in which students selected their performance goals. Results suggested that performance feedback with student-selected goal setting is an acceptable and possibly an effective school-based intervention for children with ADHD.

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Medium 9781475824384

Increasing Prosocial Interactions Using Peers: Extension of Positive Peer-Reporting Methods

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Kathryn E. Hoff
Marla J. Ronk

ABSTRACT: Positive peer reporting (PPR) is a peer-mediated intervention that increases positive interactions and decreases negative interactions among peers. The current study investigated the effectiveness of a PPR intervention for seven 3rd- and 4th-grade special education students with cognitive impairments on both a classwide level and an individual level during unstructured classroom time. An ABAB design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of PPR on the prosocial interactions among peers. Results support the use of PPR for increasing prosocial interactions between peers at a classwide and an individual level. Negative social interactions remained low throughout the project. Implications for use in schools, as well as limitations and future directions, are discussed.

Positive peer relations are vitally important for long-term adjustment and healthy development across the lifespan (Parker & Asher, 1987). Moreover, one's peers play a powerful role in the development and maintenance of prosocial behavior (Hartup & Stevens, 1997) and can be exceptional behavior change agents (Patterson & Anderson, 1964). Unfortunately, not all children experience positive peer relations. Children with disabilities, particularly those with cognitive impairment, represent a population with concurrent deficits in social competence (Gresham & McMillan, 1997). These youth may experience limited or negative social interactions and may be actively neglected or rejected by their peers (Kavale & Forness, 1996; Odom & Wolery, 2003; O'Reilly & Glynn, 1995). Still, others do not possess the skills necessary to interact successfully with their peers (Leffert, Siperstein, & Millikan, 2000; Prater, Bruhl, & Serna, 1998).

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Medium 9781475824377

Using Incremental Rehearsal to Teach Letter Identification to a Preschool-Age Child

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Rebecca Bunn
Matthew K. Burns
Holly H. Hoffman
Cortney L. Newman

ABSTRACT: Educators today emphasize the importance of teaching young children prereading skills such as letter recognition. The current article demonstrates the use of incremental rehearsal (IR), a technique linked to increased retention, to teach letter recognition to a 4-year-old girl who had previously been unsuccessful in learning alphabet letter names. She rehearsed letter names during 15-minute sessions for 3 weeks, after which she correctly stated the name of each letter within 2 seconds of the visual presentation. Therefore, IR appeared to be a quick and easy tool to use as an intervention for children experiencing difficulty learning letter names.

Approximately 4.7% of all preschool children, ages 3 through 5 years, participate in special education programming through public schools (U.S. Department of Education, 2000). However, little is known about the type of intervention they receive because information obtained by the U.S. Department of Education is not as specific as it is for other age groups (Lerner, 2003). Reading was specifically identified by the President's Commission on Excellence in Special Education (2001) as an area especially in need of early intervention, probably because approximately 80% of children experiencing academic difficulties encounter difficulties in reading (Lerner, 2003). Further, young children with reading difficulties usually continue to experience significant reading difficulties as adults (National Research Council, 1998).

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Medium 9781475824421

Decreasing Out-of-Seat Behavior in a Kindergarten Classroom: Supplementing the Color Wheel With Interdependent Group-Oriented Rewards

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Jaime L. Below
Amy L. Skinner
Christopher H. Skinner
Christy A. Sorrell
Ashley Irwin

ABSTRACT: An AB design was used to evaluate the effects of a modified Color Wheel intervention with an interdependent group-oriented contingency on the outof-seat behavior of students in an intact kindergarten classroom. Data were collected for the class and for Mike, a student who exhibited high levels of out-of-seat behavior. Results show an immediate and dramatic reduction in out-of-seat behavior after the intervention was applied. Discussion focuses on the external validity and pragmatic characteristics of the Color Wheel and the need for additional efficacy studies to establish the causal mechanisms responsible for changes in behavior.

THE PROBLEM

Akindergarten teacher requested consultation services to address three problems. She noted that students were frequently touching one another (e.g., pushing), getting out of their seats during seatwork time (e.g., approaching the teacher with questions, talking to classmates), and gathering around her to ask questions or complain about classmate’s behavior (e.g., tattling). This teacher was particularly concerned with one student’s (“Mike’s”) high levels of out-ofseat behavior.

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Medium 9781475824438

Response to Intervention: What It Is and What It Is Not

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Ronnie Detrich
Jack States
Randy Keyworth

ABSTRACT: Recent federal policy has increased interest in and confusion about response to intervention (RtI). The Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act has endorsed RtI as an alternative for identifying students with specific learning disabilities. The confusion results from the authorization’s coming from a special education initiative, but RtI requires participation from general education as well as special education. Many educators, both special education and general education, have questions about RtI is and how it can be implemented. As such, the purpose of this article is to describe what RtI is and what it is not. In addition, the article considers the evidence base for RtI and discusses the implications for practitioners.

With the reauthorization of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA), response to intervention (RtI) has received a great deal of attention from educators. Much of that interest is the result of two separate sections of the legislation that address RtI. In the first and as an alternative to the traditional discrepancy model, education agencies are now permitted to “use a process that determines if the child responds to scientific researchbased intervention as part of the evaluation procedures” to determine if a student has a specific learning disability.

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Medium 9781475824384

IMPLEMENTATION GUIDELINES

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Peter A. Hastie
Tom Sharpe

The treatment recommended in this study is designed specifically for adult and older K–12 populations engaged within structured physical activity courses. This study was specific to undergraduate college courses serving a young adult population comprising a range of physical ability and experiential levels and engaged within a setting devoted to introductory-level instruction in a team sport. However, the changing-criterion design coupled with step-count information is potentially appropriate for a variety of individual and team sports and fitness activity contents and a range of course-participant ages, with the qualifier that the population served is capable of understanding simple computer-based data gathering for diagnostic purposes.

The primary target behavior is the step counts by students engaged in structured physical activity classes. Step counts are collected through pedometer technology, which has been documented as a viable measurement tool for determining relative activity levels across a variety of team and individual sports and fitness activities (Lauzon et al., 2003; Moreau et al., 2001).

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Medium 9781475824377

IMPLEMENTATION GUIDELINES

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Daniel Currie
David L. Lee
Mary Catherine Scheeler

The hallmark characteristic of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is heightened activity levels. A less noticeable, but just as detrimental, characteristic of these students is poor organizational skills. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the area of homework completion. In order to realize the academic benefits of homework, students must correctly document the assignment, complete the assignment, and return their work for corrective feedback. Unfortunately, students with ADHD omit the first step of this process, and as a result, miss out on academic gains.

Personal data assistants (PDAs) are handheld computers that students can use to better organize their homework assignments. These computers allow students to document the specifics about assignments and the dates those assignments are due. In addition, many PDAs allow users to develop "to do" lists with audible reminders for upcoming due dates. More recent advances in technology allow teachers to download assignments to students' PDAs using a process called beaming.

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Medium 9781475824407

Roles and Responsibilities of Researchers and Practitioners for Translating Research to Practice

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Mark D. Shriver

ABSTRACT: An important, if not defining, characteristic of evidence-based education is that of translating research to practice. Translating research to practice requires purposeful action on the part of researchers and practitioners alike. Researchers and practitioners involved in translating research to practice include teachers and other frontline educators, administrators, trainers, and policymakers. This article reviews and discusses the roles and responsibilities of practitioners and researchers who are translating research to practice as part of a culture of evidence-based education. Analyses of professional roles and responsibilities of researchers and practitioners are presented. In addition, some of the difficulties with changing roles and responsibilities are highlighted. Suggested are initial steps that researchers and practitioners may take in establishing an evidence-based education culture that facilitates translating research to practice.

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Medium 9781475824308

Review of Social Story Interventions for Children Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorders

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Suzanne L. Nichols
Stephen D. A. Hupp
Jeremy D. Jewell
Colleen S. Zeigler

ABSTRACT: Despite the fact that there are very few well-controlled studies investigating the effectiveness of social stories, the intervention is frequently used as a treatment option for individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This review includes 10 published studies with experimental research designs. The review also includes discussion of case studies, quasiexperimental design studies, and unpublished doctoral dissertations. Overall, the majority of the studies reported favorable results; however, many of the studies included one or more methodological problems that hindered their interpretation. An appendix includes several examples of the social stories used in the published experimental studies.

Recent legislation in the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 reflects a growing movement that emphasizes accountability in the public schools (Public Law 107-110). Schools are held accountable by setting standards of performance and assessing progress toward goals. Essential to this process is the need for schools to utilize evidence-based interventions that are evaluated through scientifically rigorous research (Stoiber & Kratochwill, 2001). In fact, Sclafani (2002), counselor to the secretary of education, emphasized that one of the four principles of the current national education agenda is to “research what works” (p. 44). Social stories, a current intervention intended to positively impact the behavior of youth diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), exemplifies a relatively new intervention whose empirical support is currently being investigated.

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Medium 9781475824384

Introducing a Changing-Criterion Design to Hold Students Accountable in Structured Physical Activity Settings

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Peter A. Hastie
Tom Sharpe

ABSTRACT: This study had two purposes: first, to determine the influence of one formal accountability procedure on physical activity levels for students participating in structured physical activity classes; and, second, to support the use of pedometer technology as a formal measurement tool. Eighteen students enrolled in an undergraduate physical activity course were required to reach a designated pedometer-recorded step target for each participation day and were monitored by a teacher-stipulated changing-criterion design. Failure to meet the daily criterion resulted in a response-cost reduction in grade points earned. Results showed that student activity levels—for which they were held formally accountable—consistently rose with the increasing criterion demand. Following criterion and response-cost removal, total daily step counts dropped. In addition, student perceptions of skill competency and activity enjoyment were positively correlated with activity levels. This article provides general support for the design and implementation of formal accountability systems in education settings. In addition, support for the use of a changing criterion design, coupled with a response-cost procedure designed to increase student activity levels, was demonstrated.

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Medium 9781475824391

Compliance Training and Positive Peer Reporting With a 4-Year-Old in a Preschool Classroom

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Kristin N. Johnson-Gros and Mark D. Shriver

ABSTRACT: Compliance training packages initially developed for parent training to reduce noncompliant and aggressive behavior in young children have demonstrated some promising outcomes when used in classrooms. It is not uncommon, however, for children with a history of noncompliance and aggressive behavior to exhibit social skill deficits and poor peer relationships. Improved compliance following implementation of compliance training may not have an effect on a child’s social skills and positive peer relationships. The study utilized an A–B–B+C design to evaluate the effects of compliance training and positive peer reporting on compliance and social behaviors. A teacher was taught to implement a compliance training package with a 4-year-old preschool male who was exhibiting noncompliant and aggressive behaviors. Immediate improvements in compliance and negative social behaviors were noted. However, improvements in positive social behaviors and positive peer interactions were not observed. An intervention based on positive peer reporting was then implemented. Results of the positive peer reporting on social behaviors are presented. Implications when consulting with teachers to improve children’s compliance and social behaviors are offered.

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Medium 9781475824377

Using PDAs to Increase the Homework Completion of Students With ADHD

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Daniel Currie
David L. Lee
Mary Catherine Scheeler

ABSTRACT: Homework assignments have increased in recent years, commensurate with increases in required academic content. This is increasingly problematic for students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), who often have difficulty with organizational skills and may not record assignments. One solution may be using personal data assistants (PDAs) to document homework assignments. In this study, a multiple baseline across participants design was used to evaluate the effects of PDAs on percentage of homework completion. Results were that PDAs increased homework completion for 3 of 4 middle school students. Furthermore, all 3 students indicated that the PDAs were easy to use and helpful in keeping track of homework assignments. Classroom teachers' perceptions of the usefulness of PDAs were mixed and were partly a function of level of effectiveness across students. PDAs give teachers a viable method to help compensate for the organizational difficulties of students with ADHD to enhance assignment completion.

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Medium 9781475824384

IMPLEMENTATION GUIDELINES

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Edward J. Daly III
Jaymi Shroder
Amy Robinson

These implementation guidelines are restricted to the procedures used in the investigation by Daly, Shroder, and Robinson (this issue). For a description of this approach to selecting academic interventions for a broader variety of problems, see Witt, Daly, and Noell (2000).

1.  Identify the level at which the child is currently being instructed.

2.  Choose three passages at the difficulty level at which the child is being instructed and two passages from one grade level below the current instructional level. The latter two passages are for the easier materials (EM) conditions. Be sure to choose passages to which the child has not been or will not be exposed.

3.  Randomly assign the three instructional level passages to one condition—baseline, repeated readings (RR), or listening passage preview (LPP). Randomly assign the easier passages to the remaining two conditions—EM/LPP/RR and EM.

4.  You will need student copies of the passages, examiner copies of the passages, a clipboard, a stopwatch, and a pen.

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