21 Articles
Medium 9781475824520

The Effects of Preteaching on Students at Risk for and With Math Learning Disabilities

Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Sarah J. Watt
Erica Kaldenberg
Bill Therrien

ABSTRACT : In the last decade, more students with disabilities have been included in general education math classes that use reform or standards-based curriculum. This increase has created a need to identify strategies to improve students’ understanding of the prerequisite skills necessary for success in whole-class unit instruction. This article describes two studies that examine the efficacy of using the concrete–representational–abstract sequence as a supplemental and intensive preteaching approach within a response-to-intervention model. Results suggest that this strategy is a promising intervention for students with learning disabilities and those at risk for failure in mathematics.

Over the last decade, there has been an increase in mathematics reform in our educational system. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 and the Reauthorization of the Individuals With Disabilities Act of 2004 identify math as an area in which all students need to reach proficiency. There is no exception for students with learning disabilities (LDs). Aligning closely with the mandates in these legislative acts, the publication of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics’s standards (2000) focuses new math standards on teaching with an emphasis on application rather than skill development and an increase in “real world” problem solving. The more recent release of the Common Core State Standards for mathematics (2010) builds on the mathematics principles and standards (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2000) but calls for an increased focus on the depth of mathematical understanding. These reform acts coincide with the inclusion movement toward increasing the number of students with LDs receiving core math instruction in general education classrooms. As expectations increase for all students, it is essential that effective interventions are researched, developed, and implemented to support students with LDs and those at risk for failure in general education math classrooms.

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Medium 9781475824520

Additive Effects of Performance Feedback and Contingent Rewards on Reading Outcomes

Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Erin E. C. Henze
Robert L. Williams
Briana H. von Mizener
Katherine Sager Brown

ABSTRACT : Two interventions were implemented with 22 third-grade students in four classrooms receiving intensive reading instruction: (1) performance feedback only and (2) performance feedback plus rewards contingent on reading performance. Researchers examined the effects of these interventions on students’ reading skill and interest in reading. Results indicate that students in both conditions improved their reading fluency and comprehension, with the greatest gains in fluency occurring during the treatment phase of the study. On measures of reading interest, findings were mixed, with treatment groups performing differently on measures of reading interest.

Undoubtedly, the ability to read is critical for success in life. Literacy contributes to all other academic areas and is valued for economic and social development (Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998). Past research has shown that students with poor reading skills may exhibit such problems as aggression, hyperactivity, poor effort, poor self-concept, and school departures (Good, Simmons, & Smith, 1998; Stoddard, Valcante, Sindelar, O’Shea, & Algozzine, 1993).

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Medium 9781475824520

Identifying Classwide Problems in Reading With Screening Data

Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Matthew K. Burns
Abbey C. Karich
Katherin E. Maki
Alisha Anderson
Sandra M. Pulles
Annie Ittner
Jennifer J. McComas
Lori Helman

ABSTRACT : Addressing Tier 1 problems is the first step of an effective response-to-intervention framework, but there is little in the literature that discusses Tier 1 problems for reading. The current article discusses the following: a structured process for analyzing grade-level universal screening data, identifying appropriate Tier 1 interventions, and delivering effective Tier 1 interventions. Data from a large reading implementation initiative are shared to support the model’s effectiveness, using pre- and postdata taken from a Tier 1 intervention implemented with 41 students across two classrooms. Implications for practice are discussed and resources for implementing such a process are shared.

Schools focus on identifying students who need supplemental support (Tier 2), but few adequately examine core instructional (Tier 1) issues. Given that only 35% of the nation’s fourth graders scored within the proficient range on the 2013 National Assessment of Educational Progress in reading (National Center for Educational Statistics, 2014), approximately two-thirds of students at many schools would be identified as needing supplemental support. When a majority of students in a grade are identified as needing a Tier 2 or Tier 3 intervention, the school should first address core instruction to better meet the needs of all students (Batsche et al., 2005). Thus, identifying Tier 1 problems is an important step in the problem-solving process of any response-to-intervention (RtI) framework (VanDerHeyden, Witt, & Naquin, 2003).

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Medium 9781475824520

Effects of Sentence-Combining Instruction and Frequency Building to a Performance Criterion on Adolescents With Difficulty Constructing Sentences

Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Shawn M. Datchuk
Richard M. Kubina Jr.

ABSTRACT : Adolescents with difficulty constructing sentences were provided with a multicomponent intervention: sentence-combining instruction and frequency building to a performance criterion. The study used a multiple-probe, single-case experimental design to evaluate the intervention’s effects on accuracy and frequency of constructing simple and compound sentences. For all four participants, results indicated improved sentence construction of simple and compound sentences during and following intervention.

Expressive writing serves a useful purpose across a variety of settings. Expressive writing allows students to demonstrate knowledge and refine understanding (Bangert-Drowns, Hurley, & Wilkinson, 2004), and it is an important factor in promotion and salaried employment (National Commission on Writing, 2004). Expressive writing also enables participation in many online social activities, such as composing e-mails or posting messages to online social networks (Boyd, 2008). Writing has become a foundational skill to an increasingly global society and economic marketplace.

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Medium 9781475824513

Pairing Student–Teacher Conferencing and Self-Regulation to Increase Mathematics Performance in Middle School Students at Risk for Academic Failure

Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Karen Rizzo
Phillip J. Belfiore

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of individualized student–teacher conferencing (STC) on mathematics performance of three, sixth-grade students at risk for academic failure in a middle school general education setting. For the purpose of this study, STC includes teacher–student interactions resulting in (1) self-monitoring or self-goal setting, (2) error correction, and (3) corrective feedback or self-evaluation. Data were analyzed using a single-subject multiple baseline design across the three students. Results showed that STC, when paired with components of self-regulation, increased the accuracy of mathematics problem completion as measured by a web-based, performance-leveled academic assessment tool.

Difficulty in mathematics usually begins in the elementary school grades and if left unchecked will continue through middle and high school grades (Ketterlin-Geller, Chard, & Fien, 2008; Miller & Mercer, 1997). Montague (2007) stressed that due to the uniqueness of mathematics development, underachievement in mathematics will not only continue but also worsen as students progress through school grades. This uniqueness of mathematics that Montague (2007) describes is a result of (1) learners having to acquire and apply a wide variety of construct-specific concepts and skill sets to be successful across the multiple branches in mathematics (e.g., algebra, geometry, trigonometry, calculus), and (2) the cumulative effects of general mathematics topics, where new skill acquisition and real-world application depend on acquisition and mastery of previous mathematics skills sets and construct-specific concepts.

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