3064 Articles
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Medium 9781475833201

1002 The Interplay Between Principal Leadership and Teacher Leader Efficacy

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

KRISTY COOPER STEIN

MICHAEL MACALUSO

RANDI Nevins STANULIS

The Interplay Between Principal Leadership and Teacher Leader Efficacy

ABSTRACT: Researchers assert that the influence of teacher leadership on school change is highly contingent on the actions and beliefs of school principals. Self-efficacy theory also suggests that the extent to which teacher leaders feel they can impact change will influence how they engage with leadership opportunities. This study considers the interplay between these two forces and uses eleven embedded case studies to examine how principal leadership style—transformational, transactional, or laissez-faire—influences teacher leader efficacy. Findings suggest that teacher leader efficacy is rooted both in the teacher leaders’ self-perceptions and in how those perceptions influence and are influenced by principals’ expectations and leadership behaviors.

KEY WORDS: Teacher Leadership, Principal, Leadership Styles, Teacher Leader Efficacy, Embedded Case Study

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Medium 9781475833201

1033 Teacher Leaders as Change Agents: Scaling Up a Middle School Reading Initiative

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Karla Scornavacco

Alison G. Boardman

Chao Wang

Teacher Leaders as Change Agents

Scaling Up a Middle School Reading Initiative

Abstract: We investigated teacher leadership in 18 middle schools in one district engaged in an initiative to scale up Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR). This mixed-methods analysis found variability in CSR teacher leadership, including the number of hours allotted for release time to support the initiative, the activities teacher leaders enacted, and the support they received. Although findings suggest that the full vision of teacher leadership was difficult to implement at scale, teacher leadership was used to leverage change at several sites. We present a case study of a school that demonstrated collective, shared own ership of both CSR and the teacher leadership model. This study highlights the complexity of defining the expectations and support for a district-funded teacher leader role and raises questions about the need and priorities for the role at every school.

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Medium 9781442229150

1 CORINTHIANS: INTERPRETED BY EARLY CHRISTIAN COMMENTATORS, TRANSLATED AND EDITED BY JUDITH KOVACS

Pro Ecclesia Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Kathryn Greene-McCreight

In Vladimir Soloviev’s story of the Antichrist, the Redeemer’s eschatological opponent recommends himself to believers not least by alluding to the fact that he has been awarded a doctorate in theology at Tübingen and that he has written an exegetical work recognized by experts as groundbreaking. The Antichrist as a famous exegete—it is with this paradox that Soloviev, almost a hundred years ago, drew attention to the ambivalence of modern methods of interpreting the Bible. Today, to speak of the crisis of the historical-critical method has become almost a truism. And yet it had set out with enormous optimism.1

So begins Pope Benedict XVI’s essay, Biblical Interpretation in Conflict. He expresses a growing ambivalence toward historical-critical methods of the study of the Bible, an ambivalence shared by Roman Catholics and Protestants alike. And so this “enormous optimism” that saw the beginnings of historical-critical methods has waned in parts of the academy, and many scholars are seeking different methods and readings. The something different proposed by different quarters of both scriptural and theological studies has been, in part, the reconsideration of patristic exegesis, its postures and assumptions about the nature of the biblical text, and the results of its readings.

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Medium 9781538106228

20th-Century Bronx Childhood

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

20th-Century Bronx Childhood

Recalling the Faces and Voices

Janet Butler Munch

Professor and Special Collections Librarian, Lehman College, City University of New York, Bronx, New York, janet.munch@lehman.cuny.edu

Abstract A popular photographic exhibit on childhood, originally featured in the Lehman College Art Gallery in the Bronx, New York, was brought to life two decades later through a library digitization grant. The website Childhood in the Bronx (http://www.lehman.edu/library/childhood-bronx/home.htm) features 61 photographs of boys and girls with family or friends, at play, on streets, and in parks, schools, shelters, hospitals, and other locales. Oral history sound excerpts about their childhood, not heard in the original exhibit, complement the 18 vintage photographs shown. The combination of images with the spoken word enhances the user’s sensory experience with deeper meaning and enjoyment. This article discusses how the project was accomplished and what can be learned from the Lehman digitization team’s experience.

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Medium 9781475833201

900 Special Issue Introduction—Teacher Leadership: Furthering the Research Agenda

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

MELINDA M. MANGIN

Special Issue Introduction

Teacher Leadership: Furthering the Research Agenda

Education policy makers and K–12 practitioners have embraced teacher leadership as a critical element of school improvement. Teacher leadership, as part of a comprehensive reform strategy, is thought to increase teacher motivation and commitment, create opportunities for teacher learning and development, and facilitate sustained instructional improvement (Beachum & Dentith, 2004; Curtis, 2013; Mangin & Stoelinga, 2008; York-Barr & Duke, 2004). One recent example of education policy aimed at increasing teacher leadership is Secretary of Education Arne Duncan’s Teach to Lead initiative. This national program seeks to mobilize teachers’ knowledge and skills in an effort to capitalize on valuable human resources and build collective capacity in schools. To date, Teach to Lead has garnered support from 71 educational organizations (see: http://teachtolead.org/). State departments of education have kept pace with this trend, creating teacher leader endorsements that can be added to a teaching certificate (Hohenbrink, Stauffer, Zigler, & Uhlenhake, 2011; Shelton, 2011) and adopting the recently developed Teacher Leader Model Standards as a means to facilitate high-quality teacher leader preparation (Berg, Carver, & Mangin, 2014; Teacher Leadership Exploratory Consortium, 2011).

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Medium 9781475833201

905 The Diverse Faces of Teacher Leadership: A Typology and Survey Tool

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

CHRISTINE LEE BAE

KATHRYN N. HAYES

DAWN M. O’CONNOR

JEFFERY C. SEITZ

RACHELLE DISTEFANO

The Diverse Faces of Teacher Leadership

A Typology and Survey Tool

Abstract: The potential benefits of teacher leadership are widely acknowledged; however, the conceptualization of this construct is in need of theoretical development and analytic clarification. The purpose of this mixed methodology study was to operationalize distinct types of teacher leadership into an organized typology, based on case studies of teacher leaders in a science education project. In addition, through confirmatory factor analysis, evidence for factors representing the distinct types of teacher leadership identified in the typology was found in a general teacher leadership survey. Implications for teacher leadership research and practice are discussed.

KEYWORDS: Teacher Leadership, Typology, Science Education

Introduction

If we expect ambitious, intellectually engaged people to become teachers and remain in our public schools, we must offer them a career path that is exciting and varied over the long term, and which includes opportunities to lead among adults, not just children.

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Medium 9781475833201

938 Teacher Leadership and High-Stakes Teacher Evaluation: Complementary or Conflicting Approaches to Improvement?

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Melinda M. Mangin

Teacher Leadership and High-Stakes Teacher Evaluation

Complementary or Conflicting Approaches to Improvement?

Abstract: Teacher leadership is frequently implemented alongside top-down mandates as a way to provide both pressure and support for change. At the same time, the convergence of policy tools with fundamentally different theories of change can complicate and hinder improvement efforts. The purpose of this qualitative case study is to examine one instance where policy tools with divergent theoretical assumptions converge: the use of teacher leadership as a capacity-building tool and high-stakes teacher evaluation, an authority tool with sanctions for poor performance. As such, this study investigates the extent to which these two approaches complement one another to facilitate improvement or whether they conflict in ways that are counter-productive. To understand the interplay of high-stakes teacher evaluation and teacher leadership, I conducted an in-depth case study in one high school. Findings from the study indicate that the school and district supported the teacher leader in building teachers’ capacity through high-quality learning experiences. However, the teacher leader’s efforts were hindered by the high-stakes teacher evaluation context, which created a risk-averse learning environment and impeded teachers’ engagement in the kind of learning needed to change instructional practice. Instead of interpreting the high-stakes evaluation as an impetus to embrace available learning opportunities, teachers focused on complying with top-down policy mandates at the expense of learning.

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Medium 9781475833201

975 The Roles of Teacher Leaders in Guiding PLCs Focused on Disciplinary Literacy

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

MEGIN CHARNER-LAIRD

JACY IPPOLITO

CHRISTINA L. DOBBS

The Roles of Teacher Leaders in Guiding PLCs Focused on Disciplinary Literacy

ABSTRACT: This study investigates the experiences of teacher leaders working to facilitate professional learning communities (PLCs) focused on inquiry into disciplinary literacy at the high school level. Specifically, we examine the moves that team leaders made to preserve focus and learning within their PLCs and how participants experienced their leadership. We found that the teacher leaders in this study established structures and routines for their PLCs to work productively together and that their facilitation was crucial for the success of inquiry, and thus for participants’ professional learning and growth.

KEY WORDS: Teacher Leadership, Disciplinary Literacy, Professional Learning Communities, Inquiry, Professional Learning

As accountability pressures increase and new requirements for instruction shift with the widespread adoption of Common Core State Standards (CCSS), many educators continue to look to professional learning communities (PLCs) as a primary learning mechanism to bring their practice in line with standards. Some see PLCs as an ideal model for collaborative professional learning (Talbert, 2010), while others point to the sense of collective responsibility that is built through participation in a PLC (Harris & Muijs, 2002; Servage, 2008). While PLCs, which provide regular opportunities for groups of teachers to work together on improving practice, theoretically present many possibilities for improving teacher and student learning, the on-the-ground experience of participants engaged in PLCs often does not live up to these ideals, particularly if the professional learning model is imposed top-down (Fairman & Mackenzie, 2012; Talbert, 2010). Because participants are rarely taught how to work collaboratively or provided with ongoing guidance for how to best facilitate and utilize PLC time together, many teachers in PLCs struggle to collaborate effectively. Instead, teachers can often be seen working independently while in the same space, or focusing on logistical matters rather than problems of practice (Hargreaves & Dennis, 2009; Neil & Johnston, 2005; Supovitz, 2002; Talbert, 2010; Troen & Boles, 2012).

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Medium 9781442229198

“A SWORD WILL PIERCE THROUGH YOUR OWN SOULALSO”: THE SANCTIFICATION, CONVERSION, AND EXEMPLARY WITNESS OF THE BLESSED MARY

Pro Ecclesia Rowman & Littlefield Publishers PDF

“A SWORD WILL PIERCE

THROUGH YOUR OWN SOUL

ALSO”: THE SANCTIFICATION,

CONVERSION, AND EXEMPLARY

WITNESS OF THE BLESSED MARY

Gary Culpepper

And Simeon blessed them and said to Mary his mother, “Behold, this child is set for the fall and rising of many in Israel, and for a sign that is spoken against, and a sword will pierce through your own soul also, that thoughts out of many hearts will be revealed.”

—Lk 2:34–35

I. INTRODUCTION

There is abundant evidence today that many evangelicals and Catholics are prepared to reconsider together the basic features of a scripturally governed understanding of Mary in God’s plan of salvation. Chosen to be the mother of the Messiah, Mary interprets the significance of this election when she exclaims “all generations will call me blessed, for he who is mighty has done great things for me” (Lk 1:48–49). On the part of Roman

Catholics, much work has been done since the Second Vatican Council to clarify that the Blessed Mary is one of us, a member of the community of

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Medium 9781475820539

“All of a Sudden I Have These Real Students”: Preservice Teachers Learning to Teach English

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

“All of a Sudden I Have These Real Students”: Preservice Teachers Learning to Teach English

Bailey Herrmann

ABSTRACT: This article investigates how future secondary English teachers construct an understanding of teaching literacy and how teacher educators can help prepare secondary English teachers to teach literacy. In addition to the typical practicum experiences, teacher education programs should afford preservice teachers opportunities that allow them to apply the theories they are learning in courses to practice. This research suggests that teacher education programs should include authentic projects—and the uncomfortable moments that come with them—in methods courses to allow preservice teachers to practice teaching for social justice.

Experience is a brutal teacher, but you learn. My God, do you learn.

—Often attributed to C. S. Lewis and a favorite quote of Emma, a preservice teacher in the study

In reading the reflections that the preservice teachers in my Young Adult Literature for Schools class wrote after teaching a novel online to high school students, almost all of the papers began something like Paige’s:

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Medium 9781475817249

“. . . and justice for all:” Critical Perspectives on Outcomes-Based Education in the Context of Secondary School Restructuring

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

COLLEEN A. CAPPER1

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine a high school significantly involved in school restructuring to determine if and to what extent restructuring serves particular values and interests and silences others. The conceptual framework for the study was a combination of critical and poststructural theories which examine how power is exercised and the potential for change via the interactions and contradictions among subjectivity, power, language, and unquestioned, underlying assumptions. The design of this study was based on qualitative inquiry, and procedures included interviews, classroom observations, and document analysis within one small rural high school. Perhaps the most disconcerting aspect of this restructuring was the lack of consideration given to social power issues and student identity (subjectivity), both in terms of “structural power”— students, parents, and community—and “social power”—such as social class, gender, race, and other areas of difference. The basic elements of the school’s restructuring work—outcomes, success, all students—were embraced without discussion concerning power issues and their obligation to students for their participation in a democratic society. This aspect of restructuring represented the largest gap between the school’s socialization of their students into American culture via such routines as the morning pledge to the flag, their motto of “success for all,” and their actual practices.

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Medium 9781475811940

“Are You Prepared to Defend the Decisions You’ve Made?” Reflective Equilibrium, Situational Appreciation, and the Legal and Moral Decisions of School Leaders

JOURNAL OF SCHOOL LEADERSHIP Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

PATRICK PAUKEN

ABSTRACT: This purpose of the study was to explore moral literacy and legal reasoning through educational leadership decision making. Participants in the study were students enrolled in a law and ethics course in an educational leadership graduate program. Each student drafted a personal code of ethics at the beginning of the course. Throughout the course, aspects of law, ethics, and leadership were examined from a problem-based, case study approach, offering students opportunities to examine school leadership decision making through legal and ethical lenses. At the end of the course, students wrote a reflection essay on the content studied, with a connection back to their personal codes and the relationship that those codes have to their legal knowledge, moral reasoning, and professional decision making in leadership. Respondents’ essays reflected each legal theme covered in the course, bringing ethical leadership to the study and practice of law. In addition, the essays illuminated ideas of reflective equilibrium and situational appreciation, both of which speak not only to the students’ personal codes of ethics but also to the approaches that the students bring to professional decision making. Educational leaders bring their personal ethics to the professional decisions they make and, as a result, to the defenses of those decisions. In the end, the questions asked and answered by the statutes, regulations, and cases covered in the course are not merely legal. They are also moral. And the issues raised speak not merely to legal compliance; they speak to leadership.

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Medium 9781475811711

“At Every Turn”: The Resistance That Principals Face in Their Pursuit of Equity and Justice

JOURNAL OF SCHOOL LEADERSHIP Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

George Theoharis

“At Every Turn”: The Resistance That Principals Face in Their Pursuit of Equity and Justice

ABSTRACT: This article details the struggles that principals faced as they sought to enact an equity-oriented agenda. Utilizing a qualitative approach combined with principles of autoethnography, seven urban principals described the resistance they faced “at every turn” in their pursuit of equity and social justice. This resistance was produced by such factors as the scope of the principalship, the momentum of the status quo, obstructive staff attitudes and beliefs, privileged parental expectations, formidable bureaucracy, unsupportive central-office administrators, prosaic colleagues, a lack of resources, harmful state and federal regulations, and principal preparation. These leaders also explained the physical and emotional toll they experienced as a result of facing this resistance.

“Every day, at every turn, from every direction, I run up against barriers to this equity work,” commented one principal when asked about the resistance she faced in trying to enact a social justice agenda. While the principals in this study helped to transform their schools into more just environments (Frattura & Capper, 2007) for students and staff, they encountered tremendous resistance. These principals reported that this work felt like a constant uphill struggle.

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Medium 9781442229235

“But Who Laid Hands on Him?” Apostolicity and Methodist Ecclesiology

Pro Ecclesia Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

“But Who Laid Hands on Him?” Apostolicity and Methodist Ecclesiology

Douglas M. Koskela

Among the more infamous pieces in the corpus of Charles Wesley’s verse is the “Epigram” he penned in response to his brother’s decision to preside at ministerial ordinations in 1784. In particular, when John Wesley “set apart” Thomas Coke as superintendent for Methodists in America, Charles articulated a sharp response:

So easily are Bishops made

By man’s, or woman’s whim?

W—— his hands on C—— hath laid,

but who laid hands on Him?

Hands on himself he laid, and took

An Apostolic Chair:

And then ordain’d his Creature C——

His Heir and Successor.1

Charles’s thinly veiled invective serves to illustrate the ecclesiological ambiguity of the Methodist movement as it developed gradually and perhaps hesitantly into a church. A central concern of Charles’s in the “Epigram” is apostolicity, one of the nota ecclesiae in the creed of Nicaea-Constantinople. As with many ecclesiological categories, the notion of apostolicity has proven to be rather complex in the Methodist tradition. In this, of course, Methodists are not alone. The concept of “apostolicity” was forged in a context of theological controversy.2 Long after those particular controversies have dissipated, and with

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Medium 9781538106228

(Co)Constructing Public Memories

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

(Co)Constructing Public Memories

Interdisciplinary Approaches to Creating Born-Digital Oral History Archives

Ren Harman, Tarryn Abrahams, Andrew Kulak, David Cline, Adrienne Serra, Ellen Boggs, Shannon Larkin, Jessie Rogers, Ashley Stant, Quinn Warnick, Katrina Powell

Virginia Tech University, Blacksburg, Virginia

Abstract VT Stories, an oral history research project with an interactive, Web-based delivery platform, was designed from initial concept through development to serve multiple purposes and to provide various audiences with a high level of digital engagement. Comprised of a collaborative group of Virginia Tech faculty, staff, and students from multiple disciplines, the VT Stories team collects, analyzes, and shares oral history interviews for several purposes. This article details how these oral histories are fashioned for digital and social media use, incorporated into the university library’s Special Collections, and made available for multiple research purposes. The standalone website, linked to the university library’s Special Collections Online, is a unique archive that both contributes to the public face of the institution’s history and at the same time functions as a repository for exploring multiple avenues of research. The article highlights how an oral history project differs when explicitly designed with such digital end use in mind. We also discuss the hands-on experiences of students as they take related classes, work as website developers, interview as oral historians, and manage the project from story concept to published Web content.

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