2996 Articles
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Medium 9781475836752

Supportive Principals and Black Teacher Turnover

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Ayana Kee Campoli

Supportive Principals and Black Teacher Turnover

ESSA as an Opportunity to Improve Retention

Abstract : In U.S. public schools, the shortage of teachers of African descent specifically, and teachers of color more generally, is a worsening problem that has severe, detrimental effects on students. This shortage of Black teachers is driven in part by high turnover, much of which is precipitated by the poor working conditions in their schools. In this study, I analyze data from a sample of approximately 1,600 Black teachers who participated in the Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS, 2007–2008). My findings about the role of supportive principals have implications for how state departments of education should use Every Student Succeeds Act funds.

Key Words: Teacher Turnover, Principals, Black Teachers, Education Policy, Structural Equation Modeling

The shortage of teachers of color is particularly acute, especially given the rising racial diversity of the student population in U.S. public schools. Half of the nation’s public–school students are White (50%), a quarter are Latina/o (25%), approximately 16% are Black, and another 9% are either Asian American, American Indian, or bi-/multiracial. However, the demographics of the teaching force do not reflect this same diversity, as the vast majority—82%—of public school teachers are White (Snyder, de Brey, & Dillow, 2016).

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Medium 9781475836752

ESSA and School Improvement

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Sheneka M. Williams

Richard O. Welsh

ESSA and School Improvement

Principal1 Preparation and Professional Development in a New Era of Education Policy

Abstract: School leadership, next to teacher quality, plays the largest role in improving the educational outcomes of students. As such, federal and state policies have sought to hold principals accountable for the academic success of their students. Given the renewed attention paid to school leaders and overall school improvement with the passage of the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA), this article examines how district and school capacity to apply for and allocate additional professional development funds provided by ESSA might vary according to school context. We utilize qualitative interview data and the literature pertaining to ESSA to interpret how the new federal education policy might affect the preparation and development of principals and how ESSA might expand the social and economic divide that exists between and within districts. We find that while flexibility and autonomy might be key components of ESSA, under-resourced districts and schools might not experience such flexibility and autonomy due to a lack of resources—both human and fiscal—and a lack of capacity. Thus, we find that vulnerable schools might continue to struggle to improve in the era of ESSA.

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Medium 9781475836752

Putting the Public Back in Public Education

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Carrie Sampson

Sonya Douglass Horsford

Putting the Public Back in Public Education

Community Advocacy and Education Leadership under the Every Student Succeeds Act

A bstract: In this article, we argue that ESSA provides a unique policy window for district-level leaders to advance an equity agenda by working closely with local community advocates. Drawing from a larger qualitative, multiple case study on the role of school boards in three U.S. Mountain West school districts, we focus on community advocacy committed to expanding educational equity and opportunity for underserved Black, Latinx, and English learner students. Guided by community equity literacy as an organizing framework grounded in the literature on school–community relations, partnerships, and collaboration, we find that community advocates, who in some cases became school board members, identified educational inequities through various forms of knowledge, and then took deliberate actions to dismantle inequities in their respective school districts. We conclude with recommendations for how district-level leaders might leverage community advocacy and education leadership at the local level under ESSA.

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Medium 9781475836752

Sense-making of Federal Education Policy

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

F. Chris Curran

Ann T. Kellogg

Sense-making of Federal Education Policy

Social Network Analysis of Social Media Discourse around the Every Student Succeeds Act

ABSTRACT: Grounded in the sense-making literature, this study explores the discourse around and sentiment toward the newly passed Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) as discussed on the social media platform Twitter. The study explores the characteristics of and connections between users, the content of posts, and the sentiment toward ESSA. Data consisted of 12,544 tweets posted by 8,063 users analyzed through discourse analysis and social network analysis. Findings suggest that the discourse appears generally nonnegative with a clear pattern of clustering around sentiment. This suggests that users are in discourse with other users who share their view of the law. Discussion of policy issues such as local implementation and equity were common as were discussions of teacher preparation and comparisons to NCLB. Implications for the ongoing implementation of ESSA are discussed.

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Medium 9781475836752

Instruction to AU

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS

Submitting Papers to the Journal:

1. Manuscripts submitted for publication consideration should be sent electronically, via e-mail attachment, to Dr. Gaetane Jean-Marie, Editor, Journal of School Leadership , at jsl@louisville.edu . Two (2) copies of the manuscript should be attached: a master copy, including a title page (see instructions below) and all citations and references, and a masked copy of the manuscript, with the title page and all other author identifying information removed (including citations and references pertaining to any of the contributing authors’ works). Attachments should be in Microsoft Word format. Authors will receive e-mail acknowledgment of receipt of their manuscript within two weeks of submission. If confirmation is not received within this period, contact the editor.

2. All manuscripts should be typed, double-spaced, and follow the style outlined in the sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association .

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Medium 9781475836752

Teacher Quality, Distribution, and Equity in ESSA

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Andrew Saultz

Rachel S. White

Andrew McEachin

Lance D. Fusarelli

Bonnie C. Fusarelli

Teacher Quality, Distribution, and Equity in ESSA

Abstract : The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) changed federal teacher policy in a number of important ways. This article uses No Child Left Behind (NCLB), Race to the Top, NCLB waivers, and ESSA to detail these shifts. Since ESSA is in the early phase of implementation, we analyze the policy through the lens of previous empirical work as a way of anticipating how the various components of the law may function. The goal is to understand how the policy differs from previous federal efforts, detail the theory of action of teacher policy under ESSA, and provide concrete ways for educational leaders to implement the law. We find that ESSA focuses on the distribution of highly effective teachers and allows states more autonomy to define teacher quality.

Key words : Teacher Policy, ESSA, Educational Policy

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Medium 9781475836752

Policy Brief

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Rebecca M. Callahan*

Megan Hopkins*

Policy Brief: Using ESSA to Improve Secondary English Learners’ Opportunities to Learn Through Course Taking

ABSTRACT: The 2015 federal Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) affords states flexibility in adopting accountability measures that assess opportunity to learn, and requires that state and district leaders use evidence-based interventions to address any inequities. For English learners (ELs) at the secondary level, one important measure of opportunity to learn is access to and completion of rigorous, college preparatory coursework. Drawing from ESSA’s definition of “evidence-based,” which aligns closely with requirements for EL programs outlined by Castañeda, we propose course taking as a valid and reliable statewide indicator of student success, and offer recommendations for local interventions that would support secondary ELs’ opportunity to learn.

KEY WORDS: ESSA, English Learners, Secondary, Evidence-Based, Course Taking

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Medium 9781475836769

Instruction to AU

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub
Medium 9781475836769

Haecker

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Bonnie M. Haecker

Forrest C. Lane

Linda R. Zientek

Evidence-Based Decision-Making

Influences on Central Office Administrators’ Decision-Making Practices

ABSTRACT: Research has explored the use of evidence-based practices within schools but less is known about evidence-based decision-making among school district central office administrators. This study explored how individual and school-level characteristics of administrators were related to the implementation of evidence-based practices. Findings suggested that administrators were more knowledgeable about evidence-based practices if they were working in districts with existing policies in place to address the use of research in decision-making. Administrators were less knowledgeable about evidence-based practices in small, rural districts.

KEY WORDS: Evidence-based Decision-Making, School District, Central Office Administrators

Evidence-based decision-making has been a widespread movement in the medical field since the early 1960s (Hammersley, 2004). Yet, in education the push for evidence-based practice did not really begin until the enactment of several laws mandating that programs and interventions purchased with federal funds provide better evidence of program effectiveness through rigorous, scientifically-based research (e.g., Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, 2004; No Child Left Behind [NCLB], 2002; Every Student Succeeds Act [ESSA], 2015). This push has placed an increased responsibility on school central office administrators to both identify high-quality research and support the decisions made using this evidence.

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Medium 9781475836769

Webner

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Steven Webner

David De Jong

Ayana Campoli

Mark Baron

Public School Board Presidents’ and Superintendents’ Perceptions of the Characteristics of Effective Superintendents in a Midwestern State

ABSTRACT: The expectation for strong superintendent leadership has increased due to a demand for greater student achievement and accountability. This study examined public school board presidents’ and superintendents’ perceptions of the characteristics superintendents must possess to effectively lead in today’s complex educational system.

A researcher-developed survey instrument was used to collect data from public school board presidents and superintendents in a Midwestern state. Computation of item means indicated school board presidents perceived developing a close, positive, and productive relationship with the school board, developing a culture and climate which enhances teacher morale and student achievement, developing partnerships between school and community, developing budgets and manage fiscal matters, and visibility throughout the community and district as the most important characteristics of effective superintendents. Superintendents perceived developing a culture and climate which enhances teacher morale and student achievement, developing a close positive, and productive relationship with the school board, building a team atmosphere and coherence, developing budgets and manage fiscal matters, and communicating with stakeholders as the most important characteristics of effective superintendents. School board presidents considered involvement of stakeholders in collaborative goal-setting and monitoring as well as superintendent visibility throughout the community and district to be significantly more important than did superintendents. In contrast, superintendents believed recruiting, selecting, developing personnel, and implementing effective evaluation structures to be significantly more important than did the superintendents.

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Medium 9781475836769

Wilkerson

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Reginald D. Wilkerson

Camille M. Wilson

“Beating against the Wind”

The Politics of Race and Retention in Supporting African American Principal Advocacy and Growth

ABSTRACT: In this article, authors offer a CRT-driven analysis of in-depth interview data from two African American principals charged with turning around poverty-impacted, largely African–American populated schools. Both served as social justice–oriented leaders who countered traditional administrative approaches and disrupted racially and/or socioeconomically biased practices. Their leadership and student advocacy methods clashed with district ideals and policies, and each faced severe repercussions. The authors highlight why supporting and retaining such school leaders is necessary, and offer strategies capable of helping the educational community move forward in supporting a vulnerable leadership population commonly assigned to improve the most challenging U.S. schools.

KEY WORDS: Critical Race Theory, Principal Support, Administrative Retention, Advocacy

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Medium 9781475836769

Leis

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Micela Leis

Sara E. Rimm-Kaufman

Carol L. C. Paxton

Lia E. Sandilos

Leading Together

Strengthening Relational Trust in the Adult School Community

ABSTRACT: Research from the past two decades positions relational trust as a key factor in school reform efforts. Trust between teachers and their principal (teacher-principal trust) and teachers and their colleagues (teacher-teacher trust) are particularly important. Leading Together (LT) is a new professional development and coaching model of the Center for Courage & Renewal designed to develop individual and collective capacity to build trust and enhance communication among adults in schools. In this article, we investigate the relation between successful implementation of LT and changes in trust in eight schools that participated in a pilot study of LT from 2012 to 2014. Results showed moderate increases in teacher-principal trust and teacher-teacher trust in schools implementing LT successfully. This article describes changes in trust and processes needed for the successful implementation of team-implemented programs, models, or approaches.

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Medium 9781475836769

Sullivan

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

William J. Sullivan

Charles S. Hausman

Kentucky High Schools With SROs and Without

An Examination of Criminal Violation Rates

ABSTRACT: School violence has become a focal point, sparked by violent mass killings throughout the nation. One of the most substantial efforts for improving school safety and security is the utilization of specially trained police, titled school resource officers (SROs). Regardless of the importance of maintaining safe schools and an environment that is conducive to learning, relatively little research has been conducted examining the effectiveness of these programs and the variables that may influence those findings (Raymond, 2010). This research uses two studies focused on the association of SROs and reported criminal violation rates at Kentucky high schools. Findings indicate no statistically significant differences in reported criminal violation rates between high school populations without SROs and those with full-time SROs. Implications of these findings are discussed in addition to how SRO presence may affect the frequency and accuracy of reported criminal violations.

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Medium 9781475842418

McElroy et al.

Jenlink, Patrick M. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Redesigning Decision-Making in Pre-Service Teacher Education

Encouraging Engagement and Knowledge Growth

Brianna McElroy

Stephanie Chitpin

ABSTRACT: Knowledge of various curriculum content and student assessment is an important aspect of pre-service teacher training. Knowledge in these two areas contributes to pre-service teachers’ effectiveness in maximizing students’ learning and outcomes associated with curriculum delivery. A distinction is drawn between learning and knowledge building or growth. “Knowledge growth” refers to building knowledge through asking questions, leading discussions, or engaging in hypothesis testing to remove error(s) contained in solutions or theories. In this article, we use the Objective Knowledge Growth Framework (OKGF), a model based on the critical rationalism of Sir Karl Popper, to show how the instructor, with the assistance of a recent graduate of the program, has used the OKGF in redesigning two sections of the Curriculum Design and Evaluation course—a compulsory course for all pre-service teachers at the University of Ottawa. The redesign of the course attempts to support pre-service teachers’ knowledge growth, based on student feedback, different curriculum delivery approaches, and assessment methods. The object of this article is to evidence how the OKGF helps engage students in asking questions, trying out solutions to problems they encountered in their practice, and providing opportunities for students to challenge assumptions presented in the classroom.

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Medium 9781475842418

Jambunathan et al

Jenlink, Patrick M. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Differences in the Beliefs About the Use of Developmentally Appropriate Practices Among Undergraduate and Graduate Students in Early Childhood Education

Saigeetha Jambunathan

Regina Adesanya

ABSTRACT: This study examined the differences in beliefs about developmentally appropriate practices (DAP) among graduate and undergraduate students in early childhood education. The study also compared the differences in the beliefs about DAP between students who were in the initial and the last phases of the program. Eighty-three undergraduate and graduate students in early childhood education participated in the study. The students completed a 30-item paper-and-pencil Teacher Beliefs Survey (Jambunathan, 2016). A one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted to determine the effect of the level of education on the teacher candidate beliefs about the use of DAP. Significant differences were found between the graduate and undergraduate teacher candidates in the area of observing, documenting, and assessing to support young children and families (F (1, 82) = 2.4826, p < .001). Univariate ANOVAs were done for each of the dependent variables as follow-up tests to the MANOVA to see which dependent variables contributed to the significant results. Significant differences were found in the area of observing, documenting, and assessing to support young children and families between initial phase and final phase graduate students (F (1, 82) = 1.446, p < .05).

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