3126 Articles
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Medium 9781442265790

Survivor(s)! Historical Peregrinations of New Orleans’s French Superior Council and Spanish Judicial Records

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Howard Margot

Curator, The Historic New Orleans Collection, Williams Research Center, 410 Chartres Street, New Orleans, LA 70130; howardm@hnoc.org

Abstract The city of New Orleans is home to extensive notarial and judicial manuscript records that document, often in minute detail, economic and legal activity in the Lower Mississippi Valley during the French (1699–1768) and Spanish (1769–1803) colonial periods. The legal custodianship of New Orleans’s largest colonial period archive has changed hands quite often over the last three centuries. This article recounts the peregrinations of these documents and their insertion into the collections of the Notarial Archives Division of the Orleans Parish Clerk of Civil Court’s office (NONA) and Old U.S. Mint of the Louisiana State Museum (LSM).

In addition to the considerable parochial archives of its Catholic Archdiocese (baptisms, marriages, deaths) and a modest but very important archive held in its main Public Library (the records of the Spanish Cabildo), the city of New Orleans is home to extensive notarial and judicial1 manuscript records that document, often in minute detail, economic and legal activity in the Lower Mississippi Valley during the French (1699–17682) and Spanish (1769–1803) colonial periods. Taken together, these three sets of records bear the names and witness to the lives of virtually every colonist who was propertied, and of many or most who were not, and of virtually every enslaved person who was ever publicly bought or sold or freed in New Orleans and environs during that span of time. But whereas the ecclesiastical and Cabildo (city hall) records have been continuously curated by the respective institutions that generated them in the eighteenth century, the legal custodianship of New Orleans’s largest colonial period archive—its notarial acts and judicial records—has changed hands quite often over the last three centuries, the most recent occurrence having been in 2007. Most often, the changes in custodianship have entailed changes in physical location, with the records’ having been transported a distance of anything from a few city blocks to a hundred miles. These peregrinations have for over two centuries compromised both the coherence of this priceless archive and the public’s ability to access it, and on too many occasions they have threatened its very existence.

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Medium 9781442265790

Digital Preservation for Libraries, Archives, and Museums

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Edward M Corrado and Heather Lea Moulaison

Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2014. 294 pp. ISBN: 978-0-8108-8712-1

Reviewed by Kristin Condotta, Adjunct Instructor in History, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO; condotta@wustl.edu

Digital preservation is a leadership issue. This is the key and convincing argument of Edward M. Corrado and Heather Lea Moulaison’s Digital Preservation for Libraries, Archives, & Museums. Their book—which explores “preserving curating and preserving digital content for long-term access” in the arts and sciences—offers a reflective look at the digitization process from two scholars well experienced with web technologies (xix). Its stance is more “I wish I thought of/planned for that before starting” than “how-to,” and purposefully so. This big-picture approach allows their suggestions to be applicable across systems and institutions.

Corrado and Moulaison particularly promote a proactive approach to artifact and research digitization. They emphasize that such projects are long-term and need to be defined as clear yet flexible organizational, technological and financial commitments early in their inception. More centrally, the authors expand on the concerns of subject forerunner Michael Lesk as expressed in the book’s forward, that too much attention has gone to the IT aspects of digital preservation. They instead argue for a “triad of interrelated [and interdependent] activities,” or those relating to management, technology and content (17). They identify management, or the ability of project leaders to make transparent decisions about their digital collection’s access, composition and authenticity during its life-cycle, as the most valuable of these three commitments. As a result, Digital Preservation is geared towards a specific audience of librarians, archivists and curators—as opposed to collections specialists, cataloguers and systems technicians—who typically are charged with shaping the long-term trajectory of digital projects. It points out the ways that digital media share many issues with physical collections (i.e., fitting organizational missions, copyright and preservation), yet have their own challenges (i.e., rapidly changing formats). Above all, it provides the insight needed for these professionals and their institutes to craft forward-looking Memorandum of Understanding for their own digital preservation projects.

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Medium 9781475824469

IMPLEMENTATION GUIDELINES: CLASSWIDE SELF-MANAGEMENT OF RULE FOLLOWING

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Classwide Self-Management of Rule Following

Christina M. Terenzi
Ruth A. Ervin
Kathryn E. Hoff

The study accompanying these implementation guidelines included students in a special education resource room during a language arts instructional block. The target students were three sixth-grade boys who were diagnosed with learning disabilities and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. According to an anecdotal report from the special education teacher as well as additional data sources, the three target students were the most disruptive and off-task students in the class, for which the behavioral management strategies in place did not seem to be effective. The schoolwide positive behavior support program included three rules: Be safe, Be respectful, and Be responsible. As part of the schoolwide initiative, students could earn gold slips in all settings, which consisted of positive written feedback for appropriate rule-following behaviors that could be used as entries in a weekly drawing to win prizes.

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Medium 9781475824469

FOURTH ANNUAL WING SUMMIT ON EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE IN EDUCATION: FEATURE ARTICLES

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Frank M. Gresham

ABSTRACT: Continuous progress-monitoring tools and data-based decisions are not as well established for social behavior as they are for academic behavior using curriculum-based measurement strategies. Progress monitoring for social behavior is important because educators need to know whether a student’s rate of progress in a social–behavioral intervention is adequate to reach an acceptable criterion of proficiency within a specific period. Progress monitoring is required to establish students’ rates of improvement, to identify students who are not responding to intervention, and to make valid decisions about continuing, altering, or terminating intervention. Several progress-monitoring tools have been recommended, including systematic direct observations, direct behavior reports, and behavior-rating scales. Each tool has its advantages and disadvantages. This article examines why none of these tools are sufficient, in and of themselves, for continuous progress monitoring. An alternative—namely, brief behavior-rating scales—is described as being potentially viable. The article concludes with a discussion of various ways of evaluating educationally significant change in interventions.

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Medium 9781475823813

A Step Beyond No Child Left Behind: Is Florida the Future?

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

GEORGE E. PAWLAS

ABSTRACT: Schools face major challenges today that have been created by reform initiatives and expectations from Florida and federal legislation. This article focuses on the impact of accountability mandates on student achievement through the responses of central Florida school administrators at the elementary, middle, and high school levels. They were asked: How has increased accountability impacted your daily work? How has student achievement changed over the past 3 years in your schools? What has been done to improve student achievement? The findings have implications for principals and school public relations.

Educational reform initiatives since 2001 have focused on accountability for student performance. This was a dramatic shift in the focus of federal, state, and local policy away from the distribution of money and toward improved student test scores. No Child Left Behind (NCLB) requires that all states have in place accountability systems that provide for annual testing of all students in grades 3 through 8, the disaggregation of student test scores by groups sorted for demographics, continuous oversight, sanctions for poorly performing schools, and the option for parents of children in chronically low-performing schools to move their children to other schools (Elmore, 2004). Florida’s accountability system precedes NCLB and surpasses it in rigor.

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Medium 9781475811216

Why “Particularly Good” Principals Don’t Quit

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

SHERYL BORIS-SCHACTER
SUSAN MERRIFIELD

ABSTRACT: In the face of recent articles describing a mass exodus of principals without suitable replacements, our investigation into the nature of professional development for school leaders has implications for preparation and staff development programs. This article reviews findings from interviews with committed administrators and places them within the context of new research on principals as lifelong learners who publicly model intellectual curiosity.

Two days after completing our last interview of nineteen principals who guided our graduate students through administrative internships, the Sunday paper arrived with an article describing a mass exodus of principals from local public schools. The article attributed the lack of commitment to the principalship to, among other things, “job pressures, thin budgets and ever-increasing challenges facing public education” (The Boston Globe, 6/29/97, p. 1, West Weekly). The author portrayed a crisis, citing an example of an affluent suburb that had only six minimally qualified applicants for an attractive principalship vacancy. As it turned out, this article was just the first of many to make similar observations (see for example, Daley, 1999; Hendrie, 1998; Houston, 1998; Keller, 1998; Marloe, 1998).

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Medium 9781475823950

When It Comes to Community Engagement, Don’t Forget the Community

Relations, Journal of School Public Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

PAUL ANDREW JOHNSON

MOHAMMED ISSAH

ABSTRACT: This article presents a case study of a school district employing a community engagement approach to strategic planning aimed at addressing the district’s widening academic achievement gap between economically disadvantaged students and noneconomically disadvantaged students. The study compares the community engagement approach utilized by the district with the elements of effective community engagement approaches identified in the literature. Participant survey results suggest significant differences between school employees and community members who took part in the process and their perceptions regarding the degree to which the district’s community engagement efforts reflected the elements of effective engagement found in the literature.

In a word, the Shadyside School District was in a funk. Its enrollment and property values were dropping; unemployment was rising, as was the number of students who were eligible for free lunch. Worst of all, its academic achievement scores were falling, especially for economically disadvantaged students. Table 1 shows a double-digit difference in achievement scores between disadvantaged and nondisadvantaged students in the Shadyside district. In Shadyside, achievement gap was becoming the buzzword heard from its classrooms to its board room.

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Medium 9781475823950

Notes From the Editor

Relations, Journal of School Public Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

THEODORE J. KOWALSKI

Public schools have a dual mission: to benefit society and to benefit individual students. During the last half of the previous century, however, the social assignment waned, in large part because the percentage of stakeholders severing ties with schools incrementally increased. Today, many citizens consider students to be the sole beneficiaries, and in light of lingering dissatisfaction with low-performing schools, they are reluctant to support these institutions politically and economically. Recognizing this disposition and its debilitating effects, astute administrators focus on revitalizing the role of public schools as an indispensable community resource.

The Journal of School Public Relations is rooted in the conviction that highly effective institutions engage in democratic discourse and distributive leadership. Thus, the publication provides research articles, depictions of best practices, and book reviews on a range of topics related to external and internal institutional public relations.

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Medium 9781475819502

Editorial: Understanding the Power of First Lessons in Learning to Teach

R&L Education ePub

PATRICK M. JENLINK

We send teachers into the classroom armed with progressive rhetoric and imbued with the constructivist spirit, but they immediately have to adapt to the realities of teaching in today’s schools: a school system characterized by bureaucracy, mandated curricula, and high stakes tests and a student body characterized by radical differences in economic, social and cultural capital.

—Labaree (2005, p. 189)

In their daily work in teaching students how to teach, teacher-educators are prisoners, on the one hand, of the regular preconditions of practice in complying to external standards . . . and, on the other hand, of trying to maintain or even construct a pedagogy of teacher education.

—Tillema and Kremer-Hayon (2005, p. 203)

Teaching is an uncertain and increasingly complex undertaking. If the act of teaching were known and constant—a prescriptive template for teaching practice, so to speak—teachers could simply follow the dictates of researched-based generalizations, and teacher educators would know exactly what teachers needed, performatively, to be successful. But such is not the case, and the act of teaching does not follow a template, nor is it known and constant. It is this singular point that speaks to the importance of understanding first lessons in learning to teach.

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Medium 9781475819526

A Change in Teaching Philosophy: The Effects of Short-Term Teaching Immersion on English Teaching Beliefs and Practice

R&L Education ePub

RUTH MING HAR WONG

ABSTRACT: Research has shown that the underlying teaching beliefs or theories of any particular teacher have generally been considered relatively stable and static throughout his or her career. However, this study investigates how one teacher’s beliefs regarding both teaching and learning were changed during a short-term study and immersion program abroad. The teacher at the focus of this research was studied over a period of 9 months using interviews and classroom lesson observations. By giving the teacher opportunities to test methodological hypotheses through actual teaching, this study proves that a short-term immersion program can change teacher beliefs and resolve some of the cognitive dissonance about effective teaching. It was found that some of the teacher’s fundamental beliefs were challenged and altered, such as those on task-based teaching and learning, as well as learning outcomes.

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Medium 9781475820539

Using Teaching Cases to Foster a Culturally Responsive Literacy Pedagogy

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Using Teaching Cases to Foster a Culturally Responsive Literacy Pedagogy

AnnMarie Alberton Gunn
Nancy L. Williams

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions of a professor who used teaching cases that featured literacy and diversity issues in a course entitled Early and Emergent Literacy. The participants of this study are a literacy professor and the preservice teachers (n = 20) enrolled in the course. Interviews, a researcher reflective journal, a professor-kept journal, and nonparticipant observation notes were used to unfold the lived experiences of the participants throughout one semester. The use of teaching cases that feature diversity and literacy issues were shown to be an effective tool for fostering a culturally responsive literacy pedagogy. Recommendations and implications are discussed for teacher educators.

As literacy professors responsible for teacher preparation, we have held a long-standing interest in the inclusion of culturally responsive instruction, and we agree with Villegas and Lucas’s (2002) advocacy for a vision for teaching and learning in a diverse society. However, we recognize several converging factors that often place culturally responsive instruction along the margins of standard teacher preparation curriculum. First, our preservice teacher population mirrors the general population of elementary school teachers: predominately White, Christian, monolingual heterosexuals from middle-class backgrounds (Banks, 2006; Sleeter, 2001). These cultural elements are dissimilar to the lived experiences and cultural characteristics of the diverse students they teach. Teachers who have limited knowledge of the “funds of knowledge” (Gonzalez, Moll, & Amanti, 2005) that students bring to the classroom face challenges in designing effective and culturally relevant instruction for all students (Pang & Park, 2011). Additionally, many literacy textbooks for preservice teachers do not typically mention diversity until the final chapter, almost as an afterthought. Finally, the emphasis on high-stakes testing and mandated curriculum often focuses on the educational product rather than the process, with rewards for success and punishment for failure (Nichols & Berliner, 2008).

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Medium 9781475820539

Cultivating Teacher Empathy for English-Language Learners

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Cultivating Teacher Empathy for English-Language Learners

Marcia Baghban

ABSTRACT: Twenty-seven elementary and middle school teachers in a graduate college course experienced assignments designed to increase their empathy for English-language learners. The first experience asked teachers to examine their cultural and linguistic backgrounds through shoebox autobiographies. Once the teachers became more aware of individual and universal characteristics of human life, they were ready for a second experience. A native speaker of Korean taught the class in Korean for 15 minutes. None of the teachers knew Korean. This experience provided the teachers with the opportunity to feel the same emotion or highly similar emotion that English-language learners feel in an uncomfortable educational setting. Both assignments required reflection papers, and the teachers’ significant observations as they progressed into culturally responsive practitioners are shared here.

As human beings, we probably never understand ourselves so well as when we meet someone who is unlike us and who makes us define what we believe. For many teachers, such encounters are happening daily as more and more English-language learners (ELLs) join their classrooms. Between 1994 and 2004, surveys indicated that the numbers of ELLs enrolled in U.S. public schools prekindergarten through Grade 12 had nearly doubled (Peregoy & Boyle, 2012, p. 6), and between 1999 and 2009, U.S. federal education statistics indicated that English-learner enrollment had increased at almost seven times the rate of total student enrollment (http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/faqs/).

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Medium 9781475823684

Teacher Perceptions of Parent Involvement in Middle School

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

DOUGLAS W. SMITH

ABSTRACT: Three hundred thirty-three middle school teachers were surveyed about current degree of, desires for, and obstacles to parent involvement in their schools. Teachers desired parents to be involved in PTO/PTA, volunteering, and chaperoning and not with curricular or school governance matters. About 10% of teachers reported parents are actively involved in their school. Reported barriers to parent involvement were inflexible parent work schedules, negative parent attitudes toward school, and lack of parent concern for children. Teachers report the ineffectiveness at using the telephone for communication with parents. Recommendations are made for nontraditional approaches to establishing parent involvement in middle schools.

I nvolving parents in the school can be a very difficult undertaking. Most teachers can tell horror stories about uncooperative, mean, and even violent parents. As a former inner-city middle school science teacher, I can remember many times just scratching my head and saying, “there must be an easier way!” Well, as many teachers have found out, there is an easier way—don’t bother with the parents! As is usually the case, the easy way is not the most effective way. This article presents the feelings, beliefs, and practices of 333 South Carolina middle school teachers regarding parent involvement in their schools.

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Medium 9781475819595

A Peek Behind the Page: How Preservice Teachers Use Social Media to Build Understanding and Community

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

DONNA H. COX AND LAUTRICE M. NICKSON

ABSTRACT: Twenty-three preservice teachers in a literacy methods block created an outside-of-class Facebook page during the time that their instructor took a 6-week leave of absence. The purpose of this study was not only to examine the phenomenon of the development of the preservice teachers’ Facebook page but also to examine what their comments may say about the kinds of information, scaffolding, support, and motivation they feel they need to be successful in their courses. The most common types of discussion that emerged from the posts were requests, clarifications, sharing, organizing, and encouragement. Analysis of the posts suggest that instructors might recommend that students develop their own Facebook page for class support; offer frequent updates or reminders via e-mail of pending assignments; add a question/answer link on their course webpage whereby students may communicate informally with one another about questions or concerns over coursework.

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Medium 9781475819533

Preservice Teachers’ Beliefs and Confidence After Working With STEM Faculty Mentors: An Exploratory Study

R&L Education ePub

PAMELA A. MAHER, JANELLE M. BAILEY,

DALE A. ETHERIDGE, AND DALE B. WARBY

ABSTRACT: This study investigates the impact of a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) program that provided preservice teachers access to faculty mentors for advice and feedback in the preparation and delivery of science and math content to elementary school students. Fifty preservice teachers attending a 2-year college in the Southwest taught a STEM lesson to children visiting the college planetarium as part of a school field-trip program. The project partnered teachers in training with faculty in the School of Science and Mathematics to build a support network for these new teachers, thus furthering their understanding of STEM disciplines. Presurveys, postlesson reflections, and interview data were analyzed to determine how working with STEM faculty mentors affected preservice teachers’ beliefs about their ability to teach these fields. The results reveal changes in beliefs and increased confidence toward teaching.

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