3148 Articles
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Medium 9781442265790

Survivor(s)! Historical Peregrinations of New Orleans’s French Superior Council and Spanish Judicial Records

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Howard Margot

Curator, The Historic New Orleans Collection, Williams Research Center, 410 Chartres Street, New Orleans, LA 70130; howardm@hnoc.org

Abstract The city of New Orleans is home to extensive notarial and judicial manuscript records that document, often in minute detail, economic and legal activity in the Lower Mississippi Valley during the French (1699–1768) and Spanish (1769–1803) colonial periods. The legal custodianship of New Orleans’s largest colonial period archive has changed hands quite often over the last three centuries. This article recounts the peregrinations of these documents and their insertion into the collections of the Notarial Archives Division of the Orleans Parish Clerk of Civil Court’s office (NONA) and Old U.S. Mint of the Louisiana State Museum (LSM).

In addition to the considerable parochial archives of its Catholic Archdiocese (baptisms, marriages, deaths) and a modest but very important archive held in its main Public Library (the records of the Spanish Cabildo), the city of New Orleans is home to extensive notarial and judicial1 manuscript records that document, often in minute detail, economic and legal activity in the Lower Mississippi Valley during the French (1699–17682) and Spanish (1769–1803) colonial periods. Taken together, these three sets of records bear the names and witness to the lives of virtually every colonist who was propertied, and of many or most who were not, and of virtually every enslaved person who was ever publicly bought or sold or freed in New Orleans and environs during that span of time. But whereas the ecclesiastical and Cabildo (city hall) records have been continuously curated by the respective institutions that generated them in the eighteenth century, the legal custodianship of New Orleans’s largest colonial period archive—its notarial acts and judicial records—has changed hands quite often over the last three centuries, the most recent occurrence having been in 2007. Most often, the changes in custodianship have entailed changes in physical location, with the records’ having been transported a distance of anything from a few city blocks to a hundred miles. These peregrinations have for over two centuries compromised both the coherence of this priceless archive and the public’s ability to access it, and on too many occasions they have threatened its very existence.

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Medium 9781442265790

Digital Preservation for Libraries, Archives, and Museums

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Edward M Corrado and Heather Lea Moulaison

Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2014. 294 pp. ISBN: 978-0-8108-8712-1

Reviewed by Kristin Condotta, Adjunct Instructor in History, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO; condotta@wustl.edu

Digital preservation is a leadership issue. This is the key and convincing argument of Edward M. Corrado and Heather Lea Moulaison’s Digital Preservation for Libraries, Archives, & Museums. Their book—which explores “preserving curating and preserving digital content for long-term access” in the arts and sciences—offers a reflective look at the digitization process from two scholars well experienced with web technologies (xix). Its stance is more “I wish I thought of/planned for that before starting” than “how-to,” and purposefully so. This big-picture approach allows their suggestions to be applicable across systems and institutions.

Corrado and Moulaison particularly promote a proactive approach to artifact and research digitization. They emphasize that such projects are long-term and need to be defined as clear yet flexible organizational, technological and financial commitments early in their inception. More centrally, the authors expand on the concerns of subject forerunner Michael Lesk as expressed in the book’s forward, that too much attention has gone to the IT aspects of digital preservation. They instead argue for a “triad of interrelated [and interdependent] activities,” or those relating to management, technology and content (17). They identify management, or the ability of project leaders to make transparent decisions about their digital collection’s access, composition and authenticity during its life-cycle, as the most valuable of these three commitments. As a result, Digital Preservation is geared towards a specific audience of librarians, archivists and curators—as opposed to collections specialists, cataloguers and systems technicians—who typically are charged with shaping the long-term trajectory of digital projects. It points out the ways that digital media share many issues with physical collections (i.e., fitting organizational missions, copyright and preservation), yet have their own challenges (i.e., rapidly changing formats). Above all, it provides the insight needed for these professionals and their institutes to craft forward-looking Memorandum of Understanding for their own digital preservation projects.

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Medium 9781475824469

IMPLEMENTATION GUIDELINES: CLASSWIDE SELF-MANAGEMENT OF RULE FOLLOWING

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Classwide Self-Management of Rule Following

Christina M. Terenzi
Ruth A. Ervin
Kathryn E. Hoff

The study accompanying these implementation guidelines included students in a special education resource room during a language arts instructional block. The target students were three sixth-grade boys who were diagnosed with learning disabilities and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. According to an anecdotal report from the special education teacher as well as additional data sources, the three target students were the most disruptive and off-task students in the class, for which the behavioral management strategies in place did not seem to be effective. The schoolwide positive behavior support program included three rules: Be safe, Be respectful, and Be responsible. As part of the schoolwide initiative, students could earn gold slips in all settings, which consisted of positive written feedback for appropriate rule-following behaviors that could be used as entries in a weekly drawing to win prizes.

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Medium 9781475824469

FOURTH ANNUAL WING SUMMIT ON EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE IN EDUCATION: FEATURE ARTICLES

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Frank M. Gresham

ABSTRACT: Continuous progress-monitoring tools and data-based decisions are not as well established for social behavior as they are for academic behavior using curriculum-based measurement strategies. Progress monitoring for social behavior is important because educators need to know whether a student’s rate of progress in a social–behavioral intervention is adequate to reach an acceptable criterion of proficiency within a specific period. Progress monitoring is required to establish students’ rates of improvement, to identify students who are not responding to intervention, and to make valid decisions about continuing, altering, or terminating intervention. Several progress-monitoring tools have been recommended, including systematic direct observations, direct behavior reports, and behavior-rating scales. Each tool has its advantages and disadvantages. This article examines why none of these tools are sufficient, in and of themselves, for continuous progress monitoring. An alternative—namely, brief behavior-rating scales—is described as being potentially viable. The article concludes with a discussion of various ways of evaluating educationally significant change in interventions.

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Medium 9781475823813

A Step Beyond No Child Left Behind: Is Florida the Future?

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

GEORGE E. PAWLAS

ABSTRACT: Schools face major challenges today that have been created by reform initiatives and expectations from Florida and federal legislation. This article focuses on the impact of accountability mandates on student achievement through the responses of central Florida school administrators at the elementary, middle, and high school levels. They were asked: How has increased accountability impacted your daily work? How has student achievement changed over the past 3 years in your schools? What has been done to improve student achievement? The findings have implications for principals and school public relations.

Educational reform initiatives since 2001 have focused on accountability for student performance. This was a dramatic shift in the focus of federal, state, and local policy away from the distribution of money and toward improved student test scores. No Child Left Behind (NCLB) requires that all states have in place accountability systems that provide for annual testing of all students in grades 3 through 8, the disaggregation of student test scores by groups sorted for demographics, continuous oversight, sanctions for poorly performing schools, and the option for parents of children in chronically low-performing schools to move their children to other schools (Elmore, 2004). Florida’s accountability system precedes NCLB and surpasses it in rigor.

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Medium 9781475823950

When It Comes to Community Engagement, Don’t Forget the Community

Relations, Journal of School Public Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

PAUL ANDREW JOHNSON

MOHAMMED ISSAH

ABSTRACT: This article presents a case study of a school district employing a community engagement approach to strategic planning aimed at addressing the district’s widening academic achievement gap between economically disadvantaged students and noneconomically disadvantaged students. The study compares the community engagement approach utilized by the district with the elements of effective community engagement approaches identified in the literature. Participant survey results suggest significant differences between school employees and community members who took part in the process and their perceptions regarding the degree to which the district’s community engagement efforts reflected the elements of effective engagement found in the literature.

In a word, the Shadyside School District was in a funk. Its enrollment and property values were dropping; unemployment was rising, as was the number of students who were eligible for free lunch. Worst of all, its academic achievement scores were falling, especially for economically disadvantaged students. Table 1 shows a double-digit difference in achievement scores between disadvantaged and nondisadvantaged students in the Shadyside district. In Shadyside, achievement gap was becoming the buzzword heard from its classrooms to its board room.

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Medium 9781475823950

Notes From the Editor

Relations, Journal of School Public Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

THEODORE J. KOWALSKI

Public schools have a dual mission: to benefit society and to benefit individual students. During the last half of the previous century, however, the social assignment waned, in large part because the percentage of stakeholders severing ties with schools incrementally increased. Today, many citizens consider students to be the sole beneficiaries, and in light of lingering dissatisfaction with low-performing schools, they are reluctant to support these institutions politically and economically. Recognizing this disposition and its debilitating effects, astute administrators focus on revitalizing the role of public schools as an indispensable community resource.

The Journal of School Public Relations is rooted in the conviction that highly effective institutions engage in democratic discourse and distributive leadership. Thus, the publication provides research articles, depictions of best practices, and book reviews on a range of topics related to external and internal institutional public relations.

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Medium 9781475823967

Notes From the Editor

Relations, Journal of School Public Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

THEODORE J. KOWALSKI

The recent tragedy at the high school in Chardon, Ohio, reminds us that schools, like other public buildings, are not immune to violence. The first article in this issue, authored by professors Gina G. Barker and Mollie E. Yoder, analyzes communication that occurred on the campus of Virginia Tech on April 16, 2007. Their work provides insights regarding the extent to which the university's staff communicated effectively with the media, the victim's families, and the general public.

The next article is about the River Trails School District, in suburban Chicago. Written by the superintendent, Dane A. Delli, and the assistant superintendent for curriculum and instruction, Matt Silverman, it describes the district's literacy and technology fair, an event that involved several hundred teachers, administrators, students, parents, and other community stakeholders. The authors detail how the event was planned and carried out, and they explain why the fair was beneficial to the district and community.

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Medium 9781475824193

How Leadership and Discipline Policies Color School–Community Relationships: A Critical Race Theory Analysis

Relations, Journal of School Public Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

BRENDA VALLES
DANIEL M. MILLER

ABSTRACT: This conceptual article analyzes zero-tolerance discipline policies and their impact on the exclusion of Black and Brown kids from educational opportunity. We use critical race theory to deconstruct this trend. In this article, we discuss the brief history of zero tolerance and its impact on school discipline practices. We consider how racial priming creates conditions that influence how zero tolerance is disproportionately affecting male students of color and the responsibility of school leaders to combat racial attitudes through engaging in reflexive and equitable practice. We conclude by offering potential directions for research and practice that may help to begin to undo the harmful effects of this institutionalized practice.

Suppose that you are an elementary student on your way to school, and you stumble across a manicure kit similar to one that you see at home, and you think that it is kind of neat that you found it, so you put it in your pocket. Or suppose that you are a sixth-grade student and that your mother sends you to school with chicken but places a steak knife in your lunch box so that you can cut the meat. How about a scenario where you are 9 years old and bring a pack of Certs candy to school and you share it? It is easy enough to imagine these scenarios because they are typical enough—and, in fact, they are real: The 9-year-old who found the manicure kit was suspended for a day; the student who brought a steak knife with her lunch was escorted out of school by the police, taken away in a police vehicle, and ultimately suspended; and the 9-year-old who shared the breath mints was suspended for possession and distribution of “look-alike” drugs and interviewed by a police officer (Skiba & Peterson, 1999, p. 375).

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Medium 9781475823974

School–Parent Relations in Victorian Schools

Relations, Journal of School Public Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

DAVID GURR

LAWRIE DRYSDALE

DONALD M. WALKLEY

ABSTRACT: This article provides commentary that focuses on school–parent relations in Australia through exploration of schools in the state of Victoria across three aspects: school–parent partnership, parental involvement in the governance of schools, and parental involvement in school accountability processes. Parental involvement is typically at a level controlled by the school, rather than a more participatory and reciprocally influential activist level. At a time when there is a renewed emphasis on autonomy for schools in Victoria, it is suggested that there is urgency for research focused on an activist orientation, rather than the controlled parental involvement currently evident.

While it is clear that family background is important to student success at school (Hattie, 2009), the study of school–parent relations in schools is an underresearched area, perhaps reflecting the changes over the past century in the roles that parents play in schools, with greater parent involvement a relatively recent phenomenon. Successful school–parent partnerships are important for school success for several reasons. Parents are the primary and continuing educators for their children (Saulwick Muller Social Research, 2006), and without engaging with families, student outcomes are likely to be lower than they should be (Leithwood & Steinbach, 2003). In their review of literature on successful schools, Leithwood and Steinbach provided a convincing case that for schools in challenging circumstances to achieve outstanding outcomes, school personnel must work with families to influence family educational culture and improve the social networks available in schools. Parent involvement in education is positively linked to academic performance, school attendance, student behavior and discipline, the overall quality of school programs (Fan & Chen, 2001; Leithwood & Steinbach, 2003; Michael, Dittus, & Epstein, 2007), and knowledge and understanding of school programs and activities (Saulwick Muller Social Research, 2006).

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Medium 9781475824209

Role of Communication in the Context of Educating Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Parents’ and Teachers’ Perspectives

Relations, Journal of School Public Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

MIRKA KORO-LJUNGBERG
REGINA BUSSING
JEFFRIANNE WILDER
FAYE GARY

ABSTRACT: Recent school policies increasingly support “parent-integrated” school environments, which benefit from effective parent–school collaborations and strong communication skills to ensure optimal educational outcomes. However, invisible disabilities, such as attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder, provide unique sociopolitical contexts that shape effective communication. This qualitative study examined communication strategies between parents of students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and their teachers, using qualitative data collected in joint focus groups. Domain analysis was used to establish a conceptualization of communication that distinguishes relevant contexts (e.g., policy, situational, interpersonal) and forms of communication. Modality analysis subsequently examined the contents and functions of communicated messages. Recommendations for promoting communication skills and knowledge-building efforts are provided in relation to inclusive education of students with special learning needs.

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Medium 9781475824179

Distance Learning for Community Education

Relations, Journal of School Public Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

REV. ANTHONY A. COOK

ABSTRACT : This article takes a look at the influence of technology on curriculum and teaching. It specifically examines the new wave of available technology and the opportunity for schools to make inroads into community outreach by engaging new, technological learning methods. The relationship among community education, public school relations, and distance learning is explored. Furthermore, the article discusses the potential relationship of community education and distance learning technologies; it explores learning objects and podcasts as examples of potential benefits of a distance learning approach; and it examines how public schools might implement change.

The 21st century is witnessing the largest period of substantial change ever experienced by humanity. Our very way of living in the world is being changed, more rapidly than can be comprehended, by forces that at times seem beyond control. The new information age that we have entered challenges all educators, the existence of schooling itself, and our way of thinking about the nature of learning. Curriculum leaders need a new paradigm in order to understand and contribute to these changes. (Wiles & Bondi, 2011, p. 281)

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Medium 9781475824162

Notes From the Editor

Relations, Journal of School Public Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

THEODORE KOWALSKI

As the author of a widely used text on school public relations (PR) and the editor of this journal, I am often asked, why do public schools need to engage in PR? The query stems from a narrow and incorrect conceptualization—one that views PR as simple persuasion, press agentry, or even propaganda.

For more than five decades now, scholars have emphasized that PR is really about relationships. In the business world, these associations are external and internal. External relationships involve associations between company employees and customers; internal relationships involve associations between and among company employees. Applying to PR to colleges and schools therefore entails relationships between educators and other stakeholders and relationships between and among educators working in the same institution. Although persuasion is an acceptable PR objective, if done ethically, it is certainly not the sole purpose. Thus, this journal is dedicated to publishing research and best practices that affect internal and external relationships in education institutions. Its primary foci remain general public relations, school and community relationships, human resources management, communication, community education, and conflict management–resolution.

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Medium 9781475824179

Informing Parents of Today’s College Curriculum: The Yellow Brick Road to Graduation

Relations, Journal of School Public Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

KAREN A. MYERS

ABSTRACT : Higher education curriculum is as varied as the institutions themselves. Familiarizing parents with college curriculum may assist them in their college students’ selection and academic success. This article provides school administrators, teachers, counselors, public relations personnel, and college professors with examples of learning modes and types of curriculum, both inside and outside the college classroom, and offers suggestions for presenting this vital information to parents.

As key players in their students’ academic success, parents should be informed on how to navigate the college landscape. School counselors, public relations (PR) personnel, teachers, administrators, and college professors in educational leadership preparation programs all are key components for assisting parents in understanding the college issues that their children will face. College student success and entrance into employment may affect a school district’s accreditation; therefore, assisting counselors in providing parent seminars centered on changes in college curriculum and providing PR officers with college curriculum information for their districts’ websites could enhance the accreditation component.

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Medium 9781475824124

Campaign Strategies and Voter Approval of School Referenda: A Mixed Methods Analysis

Relations, Journal of School Public Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

PAUL A. JOHNSON
WILLIAM KYLE INGLE

ABSTRACT: Drawing from state administrative data and surveys of superintendents in Ohio, this mixed methods study examined factors associated with voters’ approval of local school levies. Utilizing binomial logistic regression, this study found that new levies and poverty rates were significantly associated with a decrease in the likelihood of passage. Implementing more campaign strategies and higher levels of commercial/industrial property increased the likelihood of levy passage. Specific campaign tactics were identified as predictors of levy passage (e.g., 6-week campaign, targeting yes voters). Qualitative analysis suggests that “levy fatigue” and the uncertain state of the economy were factors in the election.

The troubled and often-litigated history of Ohio’s school finance program is well documented (Alexander & Alexander, 2009; Hunter, 2000; Maxwell & Sweetland, 2002). Like other states, Ohio funds its schools through a combination of local property taxes and state aid. What is unusual, however, is the frequency of its referenda. Fleeter (2007) states that “Ohio relies on voter approval of tax levies to support public education to a greater extent than any other state in the nation” (p. 1), noting that from 1994 to 2006, Ohio had 3,433 local school tax issues on ballots. This proliferation of levies based on local property taxes stems in part from a 1976 amendment to the Ohio constitution, originally known as House Bill 920, which prohibits property taxes from increasing as property values rise, thereby forcing districts to continually return to the ballot to keep up with inflationary costs. Indeed, Maxwell and Sweetland (2002) note that Ohio’s school districts “are sometimes faced with the dilemma of explaining that the schools are receiving no additional funds from voted in taxes. . . . This leaves school officials with an ‘uphill task’ in convincing voters that additional revenues are necessary” (p. 55). Johnson (2008) recently contended that “there are two types of school districts in Ohio: those that are on the ballot and those that will be” (p. 45). This scenario has created an untenable situation wherein many school district staff and community volunteers are forced to spend an inordinate amount of time, energy, and money conducting school referenda campaigns.

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