11 Articles
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Medium 9781475824483

Using Technology in Schools to Enhance Student Performance

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Using Technology in Schools to

Enhance Student Performance

Elizabeth McCallum

Ara J. Schmitt

Guest Editors

E

ducators charged with ensuring that all students meet state achievement standards are increasingly exploring avenues of scientifically supported intervention. Given the broad range of student abilities within classrooms and the limited instructional time and resources available to teachers, it is a challenge to meet the unique curricular needs of each child. Instructional practices that allow teachers to most effectively and efficiently educate all students prove to be invaluable educational resources. One manner of meeting these demands is to incorporate technology within instructional practices and interventions. Research indicates that technology can be used to help students acquire new academic competencies and to remediate existing academic skill deficits (Heward, 1994; MacArthur & Hall, 2009;

Wepner & Bowes, 2004). When effective for individual students, technology may not only assist them in increasing their achievement but can also foster self-regulated learning strategies.

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Medium 9781475824483

Reading Pen Decoding and Vocabulary Accommodations: Impact on Student Comprehension Accuracy and Rate

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Reading Pen Decoding and

Vocabulary Accommodations:

Impact on Student

Comprehension Accuracy and Rate

Ara J. Schmitt

Elizabeth McCallum

Danielle Rubinic

Renee O. Hawkins

ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of reading pen assistive technology on the comprehension accuracy and rate of students with identified reading disabilities.

An alternating-treatments design was implemented to compare the effects of (1) a decoding accommodation, (2) concurrent decoding and vocabulary accommodations, and (3) a no-accommodation control condition on the comprehension of three high school students when provided grade-level reading passages. Results indicate that student comprehension accuracy and rate were often negatively affected by use of reading pen accommodations. Of the three conditions, poorest student performance was present when both reading pen accommodations (i.e., decoding and vocabulary) were available for use. Discussion explores reasons for this unexpected finding and emphasizes the importance of evaluating the effectiveness of specific accommodations with individual students.

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Adding Listening Previewing to Decrease Reading Errors During Peer Tutoring and Increase Reading Fluency and Comprehension

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Adding Listening Previewing to Decrease Reading Errors

During Peer Tutoring and

Increase Reading Fluency and Comprehension

Renee O. Hawkins

Elizabeth McCallum

Shannon McGuire

Elizabeth Barkley

Laura Berry

Jennifer Hailley

ABSTRACT: The effects of a peer-mediated repeated-readings condition (PRR) were compared to the effects of the same peer tutoring condition with the addition of a listening-previewing component (PRR + LP) on reading fluency, comprehension, and reading errors during tutoring. An alternating-treatments design was used to compare the effects of the two interventions and a silent reading control condition for six fourth-grade students. Results indicated that both PRR conditions resulted in higher levels of oral reading fluency and comprehension than the control condition. Of the two peer tutoring conditions, the PRR + LP condition resulted in greater reading fluency and comprehension scores and fewer errors during tutoring. Discussion focuses on the benefits of using technology to incorporate LP as part of tutoring programs.

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Medium 9781475824483

Enhancing Sight Word Reading in Second-Grade Students Using a Computer-Based Sight Word Reading System

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Enhancing Sight Word Reading in Second-Grade Students Using a Computer-Based Sight Word

Reading System

Angela N. Hilton-Prillhart

Michael B. Hopkins

Christopher H. Skinner

Sara McCane-Bowling

ABSTRACT: The effectiveness of a computer-based sight word reading intervention was evaluated using a multiple-baseline design across three second-grade students: one English-language learner, one student with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and one general education student. All students were receiving responseto-intervention services to remedy reading skill deficits and had difficulty reading primer and first-grade Dolche words. After a computer-based intervention was applied in conjunction with a self-monitoring procedure, all three students made rapid and steady gains in sight word reading. Discussion focuses on how educators can use simple computer programs to develop procedures designed to enhance students’ sight word reading accuracy, as well as directions for future research.

THE PROBLEM

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Enhancing Math Fact Fluency via Taped Problems in Intact Second- and Fourth-Grade Classrooms

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Enhancing Math Fact Fluency via Taped Problems in

Intact Second- and

Fourth-Grade Classrooms

Daniel F. McCleary

Kathleen B. Aspiranti

Christopher H. Skinner

Lisa N. Foster

Elisa Luna

Katrina Murray

Sara J. McCane-Bowling

Amanda Woody

ABSTRACT: Researchers conducted two studies—one in an urban fourth-grade classroom and one in a rural second-grade classroom—designed to evaluate the effects of a taped-problems intervention on addition and multiplication fact fluency. Both studies were initiated by educators, and both employed across-tasks, multiple-baseline designs. Data from the second-grade class suggest that the procedure was effective, but increasing baseline-phase data hindered interpretation.

Data from the fourth-grade class provide clearer support that the intervention increased fluency; however, over time this class’s improvements ceased, and its performance became highly variable. Consequently, the taped-problems intervention was supplemented with an interdependent group-oriented reward, and the class average reached mastery criteria. Between the two studies, most students increased their fluency, and these increases were maintained; however, some students showed no gains. Discussion focuses on limitations and directions for future applied and theoretical research.

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Using a Cell Phone to Prompt a Kindergarten Student to Self-Monitor Off-Task/Disruptive Behavior

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Using a Cell Phone to Prompt a Kindergarten Student to

Self-Monitor Off-Task/

Disruptive Behavior

Colin C. Quillivan

Christopher H. Skinner

Meredith L. Hawthorn

Debbie Whited

Donny Ballard

ABSTRACT: A withdrawal design was used to evaluate the effects of a self-monitoring intervention using a cell phone to prompt a kindergarten student to self-record his on- or off-task behavior. The intervention was developed, implemented, and evaluated during a behavioral consultation case that included collaboration among the student, his teacher, and a school psychology doctoral student. Results showed a clear immediate decrease in off-task/disruptive behavior after the intervention was applied and a return to baseline levels after its withdrawal. These findings extend the self-monitoring research by demonstrating a kindergarten student’s ability to discriminate and record his on- and off-task behavior and the use of the ubiquitous cell phone to occasion self-monitoring.

THE PROBLEM

A

lthough educators may teach and assign work, little learning will occur unless students choose to engage by attending to instruction and working on assignments (Skinner, Pappas, & Davis, 2005). Thus, academic engagement is a critical component needed to enhance student

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Medium 9781442229198

OUR LADY OF SACRAMENTAL COMMUNION: MARIAN POSSIBILITIES EMERGING FROM CATHOLIC-METHODIST DIALOGUE

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OUR LADY OF SACRAMENTAL

COMMUNION: MARIAN

POSSIBILITIES EMERGING

FROM CATHOLIC-METHODIST

DIALOGUE1

Maura Hearden

The French ecumenical Dombes Group observed, “the Virgin Mary . . . is perhaps the point at which all the underlying confessional differences, especially in soteriology, anthropology, ecclesiology, and hermeneutics, become most clear.”2 Hers is the story of the way in which God has chosen to save mankind. It concretizes the aforementioned doctrines resulting in a uniquely powerful immediacy of understanding. For this reason, post-Reformation Christianity has often regarded the mother of our Lord as a symbol of that which divides us and a potentially inflammatory topic for those engaged in ecumenical dialogue. Such a state of affairs can be nothing less than tragic for all who desire a common Christian household, a household that must surely include the woman from whom the Son drew his humanity.

Fortunately, nearly a century of intra-Christian dialogue has chipped away at the walls that divide us and laid the groundwork for some significant progress in the area of Mariology. The most obvious signs of progress can be found in laudable dialogue efforts focusing specifically on “Marian” topics, each resulting in varying degrees of agreement.3

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“A SWORD WILL PIERCE THROUGH YOUR OWN SOULALSO”: THE SANCTIFICATION, CONVERSION, AND EXEMPLARY WITNESS OF THE BLESSED MARY

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“A SWORD WILL PIERCE

THROUGH YOUR OWN SOUL

ALSO”: THE SANCTIFICATION,

CONVERSION, AND EXEMPLARY

WITNESS OF THE BLESSED MARY

Gary Culpepper

And Simeon blessed them and said to Mary his mother, “Behold, this child is set for the fall and rising of many in Israel, and for a sign that is spoken against, and a sword will pierce through your own soul also, that thoughts out of many hearts will be revealed.”

—Lk 2:34–35

I. INTRODUCTION

There is abundant evidence today that many evangelicals and Catholics are prepared to reconsider together the basic features of a scripturally governed understanding of Mary in God’s plan of salvation. Chosen to be the mother of the Messiah, Mary interprets the significance of this election when she exclaims “all generations will call me blessed, for he who is mighty has done great things for me” (Lk 1:48–49). On the part of Roman

Catholics, much work has been done since the Second Vatican Council to clarify that the Blessed Mary is one of us, a member of the community of

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BLESSING: A SCRIPTURAL AND THEOLOGICAL REFLECTION

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BLESSING: A SCRIPTURAL AND

THEOLOGICAL REFLECTION

Ephraim Radner

In May 2007 the House of Bishops of the Anglican Church of Canada issued a pastoral statement on same-sex blessings. At the end of the statement, the bishops made the following request:

Looking ahead, we ask the Primate and General Synod for a report on:

1. The theological question whether the blessing of same-sex unions is a faithful, Spirit-led development of Christian doctrine (St. Michael

Report)1

2. The implications of the blessing of same-sex unions and /or marriage for our church and the Communion (The Windsor Report)

3. Scripture’s witness to the integrity of every human person and the question of the sanctity of human relationships.

The reflections that follow are a contribution to the discussion that this requested report has engendered.2 Rather than looking broadly at the question of same-sex blessings, my remarks concentrate on the scriptural meaning of blessing as it has been taken up by the church, and provides some preliminary evaluations of how this meaning applies to the question of same-sex blessings.

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SOME RECENT BOOKS ON MARY

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SOME RECENT BOOKS

ON MARY

Lawrence S. Cunningham

It is hardly a secret that the sixteenth-century magisterial reformers reacted strongly against the Marian piety regnant in the late medieval church. Marian pilgrimages, shrines, feast days, images, rosaries, books of prayer, and the other apparatus of the Marian cult were to larger and lesser degrees swept away even though the creedal communions still professed that Jesus was “born of the Virgin Mary.” It is, and has been, a subject of scholarly debate the degree to which the reformers threw out the proverbial baby with the bathwater in their reforming zeal.

Roman Catholic reactions to the reforming volte face with respect to

Marian devotion were complex. The Council of Trent satisfied itself by saying that invoking the intercession of Mary and the other saints was a legitimate part of Catholic piety; that their images were to be venerated; and, finally, that it was necessary to “root out utterly any abuses that may have crept into these holy and saving practices so that no representations of false doctrine should be set up which give occasion of dangerous error to the unlettered” (Session 25; 3–4 December 1565). That Trent did not say more or feel compelled to say more is easy to understand; the Reformers were resistant to many traditional Catholic practices but neither Catholics nor the magisterial Reformers were in dispute about the fundamental doctrines articulated by the ancient creeds. The Council of Trent was also careful not to pronounce on the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception, as this doctrine was still a matter of theological disputation within Catholic circles even though from the late sixteenth century on the majority of the doctores were more inclined in favor of the doctrine than not.

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“WHAT IS LITTLE MARY HERE FOR?” BARTH, MARY, AND ELECTION

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“WHAT IS LITTLE MARY

HERE FOR?” BARTH, MARY,

AND ELECTION

Tim Perry

INTRODUCTION1

The trend among Protestants, and especially evangelical Protestants, to pay greater attention to the place of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Christian doctrine and devotion has been well documented and continues to show no sign of slowing down.2 In the popular and academic publications that grow out of and reflect this interest, however, little notice has been paid to the place and purpose of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the Church Dogmatics (CD) of Karl Barth.3 Indeed, in the exploding secondary bibliography of Barth research, scant attention is offered. Only three essays and one book have been published since 1967 that devote themselves exclusively

Rev. Deacon Tim Perry, Ph.D., 5 Oak Crescent, Steinbach, Manitoba R5G 0G3,

Canada. E-mail: timothyscottperry@hotmail.com

1. This article began as a lunchtime conversation about my book, Mary for Evangelicals:

Toward an Understanding of the Mother of Our Lord (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 2006) with the Rev. Professor Mac Watts. It is an attempt to answer his question, “What do you think old Barth would make of your book?” A student of T. F. Torrance, Mac was very helpful and encouraging, suggesting the avenues of thought that have led to these pages.

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