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Invited Paper

Applying Implementation Science to the Development of a Self-Regulation Intervention for Students with Significant Behavior Problems

A Proactive Approach

Donna Spencer Pitts

Michelle M. Cumming

Ann P. Daunic

Alyssa L. Scafidi

Stephen W. Smith

Kristen M. O’Brien

Courtney E. Allen

ABSTRACT: The effective use of evidence-based practices in educational settings is an ongoing concern, and there is growing consensus that desired outcomes are achieved only when programs are implemented thoughtfully and thoroughly. To encourage the integration of research findings into interventions that are feasible and usable within authentic settings, researchers in the field of implementation science have identified key drivers that promote effective implementation. We assert that educational researchers must incorporate core components of implementation science as they develop interventions and not just at the implementation stage. In this article, we provide an account about developing and piloting a self-regulatory intervention for adolescents with emotional and behavioral disorders, through the lens of implementation science. We introduce the intervention, outline the implementation framework that guided our development work, provide examples of barriers encountered, and discuss how we used implementation drivers to analyze and make adjustments to the curriculum for successful delivery.

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A Review of Interventions to Increase Behavior-Specific Praise

Andrew Markelz

Mary Catherine Scheeler

Jonte C. Taylor

Paul J. Riccomini

ABSTRACT: Classroom management is important for student achievement and teachers’ well-being. Research supports behavior-specific praise (BSP) as an evidence-based practice of classroom management, however, its reliable use by teachers remains elusive. A literature review was conducted to identify interventions designed to increase teachers’ use of BSP and the effects of mastery training on maintenance results. Twenty empirical studies, involving special-education and general-education teachers, were analyzed. Findings identify training, performance feedback, self-monitoring, and tactile prompting as interventions to increase teachers’ use of BSP. Participants who were trained to mastery demonstrated higher and more stable BSP rates during maintenance. Results suggest interventions countered suppressing contingencies of BSP such as insufficient opportunities to practice, lack of reinforcement, and cognitive overload.

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Effects of a Modified Daily Progress Report for Check In/Check Out at the Elementary Level

Courtney A. Dexter

Kathy L. Ruhl

Douglas D. Dexter

ABSTRACT: In an effort to examine a way to modify check in/check out (CICO) to enhance effectiveness, the current study assessed changes to the daily progress report (DPR) component. A multiple-baseline-across-participants design was used, with three sets of student/teacher pairs in an elementary school, to examine how modifying the DPR to reflect specific, positively worded, operationalized behaviors impacts the DPR as a visual prompt for student behavior and teacher feedback. Results indicate all teachers demonstrated increased levels of behavior-specific feedback, with three demonstrating an improved affirmative to corrective feedback ratio. All students demonstrated a reduction in problem behaviors and increased exhibition of prosocial behaviors. Furthermore, students and teachers rated the modified DPR as effective and easy to use. Implications for practice and implementation guidelines are also discussed in this article.

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Effects of Classwide Interventions on Computational Fluency

A Synthesis of the Literature

Lauren E. Cozad

Paul J. Riccomini

ABSTRACT: Learning and applying mathematics requires a seamless blend of critical knowledge of concepts, vocabulary, procedures, computation, and problem solving. Students with mathematics difficulties struggle early and often with many of these ideas, but frequently experience difficulty developing computational fluency. Mathematics classrooms are becoming more and more diverse, often requiring teachers to implement interventions with many students. Classwide intervention (e.g., programs that allow differentiation for an entire class of students) is one avenue by which students are able to acquire, increase, and maintain fluency. The body of research on classwide interventions targeting computational fluency is reviewed. Findings indicate that classwide interventions are effective in increasing computational fluency among students both with and without mathematics difficulties. Implications for practice and future research are presented.

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Reading and Understanding Informational Text Using the Listen-Reread-Adapt and Answer-Comprehend (LRAAC) Intervention

Is Fluency Enough?

Christine E. Neddenriep

Natalie D. Rose

Kali J. Olson

Shawna P. Loniello

Celine M. Santos

Stephanie L. Koenigsman

Jenna M. Mathew

ABSTRACT: How can students’ understanding of informational text be improved? Is fluency alone sufficient to improve their comprehension of informational text? The Listen-Reread-Adapt and Answer-Comprehend (LRAAC) intervention combines a repeated readings intervention with listening passage preview as well as a question-generation intervention to improve students’ reading fluency and comprehension of informational text. Three third-grade students were included in the intervention. Using a multiple-baseline design across participants, the effects of the fluency intervention were evaluated alone and then in combination with the comprehension intervention on participants’ number of words read correctly per minute and the percentage of the passage the participants comprehended per minute. A functional relation was established between the participants’ increased fluency and the implementation of the repeated readings intervention with listening passage preview. With the addition of the question-generation intervention, participants demonstrated improved understanding of informational text as well. In addition, students reported satisfaction with the intervention indicating that they learned strategies that were helpful and useful to them in the classroom. Limitations and implications for practice with regard to the use of the LRAAC intervention are discussed.

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Democratic Accountability in Teacher Education: Now More Than Ever


Democratic Accountability in Teacher Education

Now More Than Ever

Marilyn Cochran-Smith

Molly Cummings Carney

Elizabeth Stringer Keefe

Stephani Burton

Wen-Chia Chang

M. Beatriz Fernández

Andrew F. Miller

Juan Gabriel Sánchez

Megina Baker

ABSTRACT: During the two decades from 1998 to 2017, “holding teacher education accountable” emerged as the major approach to reforming teacher education in the United States (Cochran-Smith et al., 2016; Lewis & Young, 2013; Taubman, 2009). The logic was that greater accountability would boost teacher education quality, which would boost teacher quality (defined primarily in terms of students’ achievement), which would in turn ensure individual prosperity as well as the long-term economic health of the nation (Cochran-Smith et al., 2017). The key accountability assumption here is that enhanced teacher education quality depends on systematic and vigilant public evaluation and monitoring of outcomes related to teacher education institutions, programs, and teacher candidates. Across teacher education and other public domains, the rise in accountability regimes reflected the broad shift to a global and competitive knowledge society shaped by principles and policies derived from neoliberal economics and from the business world (Ambrosio, 2013; Furlong, Cochran-Smith & Brennan, 2009; O’Neill, 2002; Taubman, 2009).

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Talk Aloud Problem Solving and Frequency Building to a Performance Criterion Improves Science Reasoning Ginny A. Dembek and Richard M. Kubina Jr.


Talk Aloud Problem Solving and Frequency Building to a Performance Criterion Improves Science Reasoning

Ginny A. Dembek

Richard M. Kubina Jr.

ABSTRACT: The present study examined the effects of a combined intervention: Talk Aloud Problem Solving (TAPS) and Frequency Building to a Performance Criterion (FBPC). The experimenter introduced TAPS/FBPC to five students diagnosed with a disability and receiving specialized reading instruction. The intervention presented TAPS formatted lessons and FBPC strengthened the student’s verbal repertoire making the problem-solving process a durable behavior. A multiple baseline design showed improvements in problem-solving performance when compared to baseline. All students became more accurate in the problem-solving task, as shown in immediate changes upon the implementation of the intervention and sustained growth over time. Maintenance in learning was also demonstrated. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

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Comparing the Effectiveness of Student Performance in Face-to-Face and Online Modes of Learning


Comparing the Effectiveness of Student Performance in Face-to-Face and Online Modes of Learning

Anjeela Jokhan

Ravneel Rajneel Chand

Salsabil Nusair

ABSTRACT: Many educational institutions offer a number of different delivery modes of learning in order to meet the educational needs of students from different walks of life. The purpose of this research was to compare the effectiveness of online and face-to-face delivery modes for an introductory information system course (IS121) delivered by the School of Computing, Information and Mathematical Sciences at the University of the South Pacific (USP). The research compares and analyses the learning activities of the course in both modes, taught by the same coordinator in the same semester to first-year students. This research showed that there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the performance of students between the face-to-face and online delivery modes. The findings from the current study also revealed that face-to-face mode students had a greater level of understanding when answering questions in relation to Bloom’s taxonomy (Higher-Order Thinking Skills).

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Reflective Practice in Professional Learning Communities: A Study of Mandarin Pre-service Teachers


Reflective Practice in Professional Learning Communities

A Study of Mandarin Pre-service Teachers

Ping Liu

Abstract: This study examines the professional development of pre-service teachers in a Mandarin credential program. The focus of discussion is on their reflective practice in professional learning communities. The primary data were collected when the participants took a bilingual methodology course to learn, teach, and reflect on their experiences. Multiple sources of data were collected in a dynamic context to answer the research questions. Results suggest that the participants transitioned into the credential program in many different aspects, from identity, teacher attitude, addressing students’ needs to lesson planning/teaching, classroom management, and professional collaboration. Through reflective practice, the participants learned to make decisions in an instructional context and were active in exploring effective ways to improve learning and teaching independently and in collaboration with others. Educational implications are discussed on how to better support Mandarin teacher candidates in a credential program.

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Bibliography and Sources


Bibliography and Sources

For Further Reading

Beviglia, Jim. 2015. “Behind the Song: The Grateful Dead, ‘Ripple.’” American Songwriter: The Craft of Music. September 29, 2015, http://americansongwriter.com/2015/09/behind-the-song-the-grateful-dead-ripple.

Browne, David. 2015. “Grateful Dead’s Robert Hunter on Jerry’s Final Days: ‘We Were Brothers,’ Part 2.” Rolling Stone. March 11, 2015, www.rollingstone.com/music/features/grateful-deads-robert-hunter-on-jerrys-final-days-we-were-brothers-20150311.

Carr, Revell. 2010. “Where All the Pages Are My Days: Metacantric Moments in Deadhead Lyrical Experience.” In The Grateful Dead in Concert: Essays on Live Improvisation, ed. Jim Tuedio and Stan Spector, 107–17. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Dasaro, Daniel J., and Christian Crumlish. 2017. “The Dead’s Three Decades of ‘Dancin’ in the Streets’ (1966–1987).” March 24, 2018, http://deadessays.blogspot.com/2017/03/dancin-in-streets-guest-post.html.

Dodd, David. 2005. The Complete Annotated Grateful Dead Lyrics. New York: Free Press.

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Effects of Explicit Instruction on Fidelity of Teacher Candidates’ Creation of Trigger-Based Video Models Sarah K. Howorth, David F. Cihak, and Don McMahon


Effects of Explicit Instruction on Fidelity of Teacher Candidates’ Creation of Trigger-Based Video Models

Sarah K. Howorth

David F. Cihak

Don McMahon


ABSTRACT: Video Modeling has been established as an evidence-based practice for teaching students with disabilities. The purpose of this study was to (a) examine the fidelity of use of the augmented reality (AR) application Aurasma by special education teacher candidates as a platform for video-based instructional support for students with high incidence learning disabilities in their clinical placements, and (b) to survey the teacher candidates’ impressions of the AR application Aurasma as a tool to provide video-based instructional supports to elementary school students with high incidence disabilities. Students in a teaching-methods undergraduate class were taught how to create basic trigger-based videos using the Aurasma application. Fidelity of their video models was measured using a repeated-measures within-subjects design. Results indicate that special education teacher candidates can rapidly improve their fidelity of trigger-based video model implementation as an instructional support. Preservice teacher survey results indicated that participants would encourage classroom teachers to use AR video models to help students reach deeper understanding of a concept and supports universal design for learning concepts of multiple means of content representation and student engagement.

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Schooling and the Manners of Democracy


Schooling and the Manners of Democracy

Robert V. Bullough Jr.

Contending Views

Digging down into definitions, a kind of conceptual warfare rages beneath the word democracy. As political scientist Robert Hoffert reminded us,

[It] is simply not the case that modern democracy, in the United States or anywhere else in the world, has a singular, coherent, and self-evident structure of meanings and implications. In fact, democracy has simultaneously given coherence to contemporary life and generated many of its greatest conflicts. (2001, p. 39)

In making the case for support of the Constitution in The Federalist Papers, James Madison distinguished between democracies and republics. His distinction was relatively straightforward: “In a democracy the people meet and exercise the government in person; in a republic they assemble and administer it by their representatives and agents” (Madison, Hamilton, & Jay, 1788/1987, p. 144). These two forms of government were understood to be “two species” of what Madison called “popular government,” what might be thought of “in our contemporary terminology as . . . two kinds of democracy: direct and representative” (Tarcov, 1996, p. 26).

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Notions of Discretionary Power: Images Over Time


Notions of Discretionary Power

Images Over Time

Ulla Karin Nordänger

Per Lindqvist

ABSTRACT: This chapter describes statements made by a cohort of Swedish teacher students regarding their expectations on the job, from graduation in 1993 up to 2013, when 60 percent still remain active as teachers. The statements are related to analyses of the relation between teachers’ perception of their own discretionary power and the change in governance during the same time period. In the results an image of a substantially decreased level of discretion emerges, but at the same time, the results indicate that this image needs to be nuanced. After twenty years of work, a third of the still active teachers’ expressions point toward a new space of discretion, in line with the new governance, possibly leading to the development of an alternate professional identity.

In the new year of 1993, eighty-seven compulsory school teachers for earlier years, graduated from one of Sweden’s minor universities. Shortly before graduation, they were asked what expectations they had on their future job and if there were specific things they feared having trouble with, as teachers. The majority of these aspiring teachers had very high expectations. The work they saw ahead was characterized by discretion, variation, and development. One of them, whom we can call Ingrid, writes:

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Turkish Secondary School Teachers’ Conceptions of Teaching and Assessment


Turkish Secondary School Teachers’ Conceptions of Teaching and Assessment

Sevda Yerdelen-Damar

ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate Turkish secondary school teachers’ beliefs about teaching and the purposes of assessment, and the interrelations among their beliefs. The teachers’ conceptions were compared in terms of their gender, years of experience, and academic areas. The participants of the study consisted of 768 (311 Female, 457 Male) secondary school teachers from various academic disciplines in Turkey. The results of the study revealed that the participants endorsed a constructivist view of teaching more than a traditional view of teaching. They supported improvement and student accountability more than school accountability and irrelevant conceptions. The multivariate analysis of the teachers’ conceptions indicated that there were significant differences across academic disciplines and nonsignificant differences between male and female teachers. The teachers adopting constructivist conceptions tended to believe assessment was for improving students’ learning and accountability. The results of the study also supported the cultural dependency of teachers’ beliefs.

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Online Grateful Dead Resources


Online Grateful Dead Resources

In writing this book, we’ve been helped immensely by the work of others that is available on the internet. This page lists many of those resources. To fully inform yourself about the Grateful Dead, these are recommended places to start. Of course, you can simply google “Grateful Dead,” and you’ll find more than 12,000,000 results!

All Grateful Dead Original Song Debuts

A wonderful Archive.org list of every debut live performance of original Dead tunes with direct links to the debut performances. (Resources #1)


Although it’s not exclusively Grateful Dead, this site offers a thorough Dead discography and song list, among other items of interest. (Resources #2)

Annotated Grateful Dead Lyrics by David Dodd

Dodd’s site has a terrific section on the Dead’s song lyrics as well as discographies for the band and musicians. No cover songs at this site. (Resources #3)


Complete set lists for most every Dead show with reviews, highlights, and streaming. (Resources #4)

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