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Watt

ePub

The African American Male AVID Initiative

A Study of Implementation and Impact on Student Aspirations and School Performance

Karen M. Watt

Jeffery Huerta

Jennifer Butcher

ABSTRACT: This is a study of five high schools awarded external funding to implement a project, the African American Male Initiative (AAMI). During the first year of implementation, interviews, focus groups, surveys, and student academic transcripts provided sources of data. Survey data showed that AAMI students exhibited high aspirations and anticipations for college. In addition, significant positive correlations were found between the number of people students communicate with about college and financial aid requirement information and their level of college knowledge. Characteristics such as African American male mentoring and advocacy, raised expectations, and forming a “brotherhood” emerged from focus group data.

Purpose of the Study

This study examined the implementation process of the African American Male Initiative (AAMI) in five selected schools across the nation. The purpose was to identify any unique and common characteristics of AAMI implementation in each of the selected schools, as well as to explain the initiative’s impact on AAMI students’ aspirations and academic performance. The following research questions are addressed in this study:

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Thessin

ePub

Key Features to Inform Student Outcomes

Learning from a High School Healthcare Education Program

Rebecca A. Thessin

Ellen Scully-Russ

Jeanine Hildreth

Daina S. Lieberman

ABSTRACT: At a time when U.S. policymakers are demonstrating their commitment to CTE established to address particular workforce shortage areas, this mixed methods evaluation study sought to understand the key features and outcomes of an existing healthcare education program (HEP) founded with this intent. Findings demonstrated that the HEP incorporates several unique features that should be considered by other programs including hands-on work using hospital equipment, workplace observations, and a strong emphasis on career decision-making efficacy. Evidence showed that students who continue in a Career and Technical Education (CTE) program for more than one year may exhibit somewhat higher rates of college enrollment.

KEY WORDS: career and technical education, CTE innovation, healthcare, workforce

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Maranto

ePub

Desert Bloom?

Lessons from Two Decades of Arizona Charter Schooling

Robert Maranto

Alexandra Vasile

ABSTRACT: For decades, scholars and politicians have debated the likely impacts of school choice. Yet few have studied the nation’s largest state-level charter school market, Arizona, whose 20-year-old charter sector accounts for about 17% of Arizona public school enrollment. This article summarizes the extant literature on this market, some 23 studies, supplemented with original fieldwork to derive tentative lessons for social scientists and policymakers. While the charter sector seems to have promoted innovation, teacher and parent empowerment, and modest improvement in traditional public schools, findings regarding student learning and segregation are less clear.

KEY WORDS: charter schools, school choice, school innovation, parent satisfaction

Introduction

Supporters argue that the market provision of education will foster innovation, improve overall academic performance, empower parents who have been disempowered by school bureaucracies and hierarchical politics, offer a better fit between educational programs and individual student needs, push traditional public schools to improve, and increase classroom-level integration (Friedman, 1962; Greene, 2005; Chubb & Moe, 1990; Thernstrom & Thernstrom, 2003; works within Fox & Buchanan, 2014). Further, some argue that increased school choice may foster better citizenship by creating school-level communities rather than large, atomistic school settings (Campbell, 2001; Wolf, 2005, 2007; Greene & Kingsbury, 2017; Mohme, 2017). Supporters also argue that choice empowers teachers, who may start their own schools or education cooperatives (Dirkswager, 2002; Maranto & Maranto, 2006), perhaps reflecting progressive ideals (works within Rofes & Stulberg, 2004).

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Morse

ePub

Homeschooling

A Growing School Choice Option for Meeting Special Educational Needs

Mary L. Morse

Sherry Mee Bell

ABSTRACT: The unexplained, rapid growth of homeschooling over the past two decades provides the context for this quantitative study. The relation between parental involvement in education, special educational needs, and the school choice option of homeschooling is examined via completion of an online survey. Of the 309 homeschooling families that responded to the survey, more than half (50.8%) had a child who attended public or private school before they made the decision to homeschool, and 60.6% of these families indicated they were currently homeschooling a child who had special educational needs (SEN). Results suggest that when parents perceive needs of a child with SEN are not being met in a public or private school, the child’s SEN is an important factor in their decision to homeschool. Furthermore, for all participating homeschooling parents (those with and without children with special educational needs) in this sample, the desire to be more involved in their children’s education was rated as the most important factor in the decision to homeschool.

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Smith

ePub

Development of a 50-State Typology of Education Governance

Joanna Smith

Hovanes Gasparian

ABSTRACT: To better understand the complexities of state education governance systems, this study uses Brewer and Smith’s (2008) framework to examine the structures, policies, and processes in each state’s K–12 education system. We conducted a legislative review to examine three dimensions of educational governance: (1) level of control, (2) distribution of authority, and (3) degree of participation. The resulting 7 indicators and 35 sub-indicators were weighted to create a typology that sorts states into eight possible designations. This typology enables policymakers and future researchers to understand how various policies enhance or inhibit educational goals in different state settings.

KEY WORDS: education governance, typology, education systems, education policy

Development of a 50-State Typology of Education Governance

Education policymaking often receives more limelight and more controversy than other governance decisions. It is a sphere where everyone has had some personal experience (from having been a student) and parents have a second, vicarious experience through their children. As a result, education policy decision-making at the state and local levels is rife with opinions and, often, strife, which if not led by them, in turn influences policymakers. Yet, the path of an education policy from formulation (e.g., the list of approved textbooks derived at the state level) to adoption at the district level (e.g., selection of certain textbooks from the state list), down to implementation at the classroom level (e.g., a teacher basing instruction and assessment on the selected text) is rarely straightforward. The various bumps and hurdles along the way are seldom understood by those arguing for a particular policy agenda.

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Bernato

ePub

Aligning the Tuning Forks

Using the Intersections of Organizational Frames and Systems Disciplines: Facilitating Effective Collaboration between Schools Needing Improvement and Regional Improvement Agencies

Richard Bernato

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this article is to align the needs and wants of schools in need of improvement and state, federal, and regional agencies charged with assisting them in their reform efforts by using spreadsheet thinking through two lenses, Bolman and Deal’s four organizational paradigms and Peter Senge’s five disciplines of a learning organization. Taken together, in a force-fitting Tuning Forks model approach, where analysts use the intersection of each framework insofar as they act on each other, enables school improvement collaborators to align new action perspectives.

This article is divided into three sections: The first part presents the context to the issues associated with collaboration between Regional Educational Improvement Agencies (REA) and Schools in Need of Improvement (SU). The second section provides descriptions of the two analytical dimensions. These are then synthesized into cross impact charts that demonstrate potential issues either driving or obstructing their collaborative efforts. A third section provides guidelines to minimize obstructions and promotes collaborative alignment between schools in need of reform and regional agencies charged with assisting their efforts.

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A Regional Network of Superintendents Confronting Equity

ePub

Sharon D. Kruse

Katherine C. Rodela

Kristin S. Huggins

A Regional Network of Superintendents Confronting Equity

Public and Private Messy Messages

ABSTRACT: Research into equity leadership has been a growing focus within educational leadership. Few studies explore the role of the superintendent in equity work. Drawing from interview data and observation of monthly regional leadership meetings, this article examines how 12 superintendents describe their equity leadership practices. Focusing on the ways their practice is evidenced across public and private domains of talk and action, we employ the term “messy messages” to communicate the complex, fluid, and uncomfortable nature of this work. Discussion illustrates the complexity of district equity advocacy, and increasing need for social justice education in superintendent leadership preparation programs.

KEY WORDS: Superintendents, Equity Leadership, Social Justice

INTRODUCTION AND RATIONALE

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Instruction to Author

ePub

INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS

Submitting Papers to the Journal:

1. Manuscripts submitted for publication consideration should be sent electronically, via e-mail attachment, to Dr. Elizabeth Murakami and Dr. Natalie Tran, Editors, Journal of School Leadership, at jsl@unt.edu. Two (2) copies of the manuscript should be attached: a master copy, including a title page (see instructions below) and all citations and references, and a masked copy of the manuscript, with the title page and all other author identifying information removed (including citations and references pertaining to any of the contributing authors’ works). Attachments should be in Microsoft Word format. Authors will receive e-mail acknowledgment of receipt of their manuscript within two weeks of submission. If confirmation is not received within this period, contact the editor.

2. All manuscripts should be typed, double-spaced, and follow the style outlined in the sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

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Teacher Collaborative Action Research

ePub

Katherine A. Curry

Jackie Mania-Singer

Ed Harris

Shawna Richardson

Teacher Collaborative Action Research

The Complexity of Professional Development in Rural and Alternative School Environments

ABSTRACT: This qualitative case study utilized distributed leadership theory and Capobianco and Feldman’s (2006) conceptualization of conditions for collaborative action research (CAR) to describe the implementation of CAR as professional development (PD) and school improvement strategy in two educational contexts, one alternative school and one rural, in a Midwestern state. Findings indicate that distributed leadership facilitates CAR as a powerful PD tool and results in development of action plans for school improvement; however, conditions are necessary for CAR to effect professional practice.

KEY WORDS: Action Research, Professional Development, Distributed Leadership, Rural Schools, Alternative Schools

Research is replete with evidence that continuing, practical PD is vital to school success (Darling-Hammond, Wei, Andree, Richardson, & Orphanos, 2009; Yoon, Duncan, Wen-Yu Lee, & Shapley, 2007; Zichner & Noffke, 2001). However, current financial situations and other barriers in states across the United States may limit the ability of districts to provide PD as effectively as they have in the past (Leachman, Albares, Masterson, & Wallace, 2016).

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Principal Competencies That Make a Difference

ePub

Dallas Hambrick Hitt

Dennis Woodruff

Coby V. Meyers

Guorong Zhu

Principal Competencies That Make a Difference

Identifying a Model for Leaders of School Turnaround

ABSTRACT: Literature in the field of school leadership substantiates principals’ influence on student achievement. Less clarity is available concerning principals’ influence on school turnaround or the competencies needed for principals to effectively engage in and sustain the turnaround of low-performing schools. This study seeks to illuminate principal competencies that support an individual’s ability to influence turnaround as evidenced by increased student achievement. We analyzed behavioral event interviews conducted with 19 principals whose schools experienced a rapid increase in student achievement. This sample is the successful 10% of a population of 200 principals who each attempted to lead a turnaround. From the interview data, we derived seven competencies that capture the specific characteristics and actions of principals leading turnaround. Our research provides an initial framework for the actions, behaviors, and dispositions of successful turnaround principals. Results of this study suggest ways to improve the selection and development of turnaround principals.

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Aerobic Physical Activity and the Leadership of Principals

ePub

Kari Kiser

Jennifer Clayton

Aerobic Physical Activity and the Leadership of Principals

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to explore if there was a connection between regular aerobic physical activity and the stress and energy levels of principals as they reported it. The current aerobic physical activity level of principals was discovered. Energy and stress levels of principals who engage in aerobic physical activity, and those who do not, were determined. A survey administered via e-mail was distributed to a national sample of those in Center for Educational Improvement (CEI). The data were analyzed using frequencies and percentages, as well as chi square and t-tests. Findings revealed the majority of principals (65.7%, n = 73) did not engage in the recommended amount of aerobic physical activity and most principals (56.7%, n = 63) engage two days or less per week.

KEY WORDS: Aerobic Physical Activity, Principal Leadership, Stress, Energy

INTRODUCTION

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Teacher Perceptions of the Impact of an Evaluation System on Classroom Instructional Practices

ePub

Erika Donahue

Linda R. Vogel

Teacher Perceptions of the Impact of an Evaluation System on Classroom Instructional Practices

ABSTRACT: While many states have adopted new requirements for teacher evaluations in pursuit of Race to the Top funding (Darling-Hammond, 2013), this qualitative case study of one Rocky Mountain school district that has been working on developing a system of supervision and evaluation to support teacher effectiveness for over a decade examines how teachers believe the supervision and evaluation practice impacts their daily classroom instructional practices. Five themes emerged from the interview data of 30 teachers across the district and in diverse teaching positions. Feedback, quality of relationships, the evaluation rubric, modeling, personal integrity, and self-reflection were identified as mechanisms that enabled teachers to benefit from the existing system. These themes revealed the complexity of the system in which multiple mechanisms must work in coordination in order for teachers to realize the benefits in their daily instructional practice.

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Context for Content Teachers’ Learning

ePub

Felice Atesoglu Russell

Context for Content Teachers’ Learning

Leadership and Supports in a Linguistically Diverse High School

ABSTRACT: This article examines the context for content teachers’ professional learning concerning English learners (ELs), paying particular attention to the role of leadership in supporting and constraining this capacity development. The contextual features of the school are analyzed, specifically the leadership of the principal and an EL facilitator, as well as supports that influenced the development of teacher capacity. The data used in this analysis comes from a yearlong qualitative case study of professional learning and the instruction of ELs in one diverse, urban high school. Data analysis revealed two main themes (1) the significance of the role and vision of the principal and (2) the relevance of cultural norms, structures, and activities that contributed to content teachers’ capacity to meet the needs of ELs. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

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When Johnny Becomes Janie

ePub

Walter H. Hart

Laura Hart

When Johnny Becomes Janie

An Investigation of the Attitudes of School Leaders on the Placement and Hiring of Transgender Teacher Candidates

ABSTRACT: As transgender individuals receive more attention nationwide, it is only a matter of time before increased numbers of transgender educators seek placement in teacher education programs, and eventually, employment as teachers. Given the high levels of discrimination against transgender individuals historically, it is reasonable that P–12 school leaders and educator preparation programs (EPPs) would seek to proactively determine obstacles that may exist when placing transgender teacher candidates (and future employees) in schools for field experiences. The researchers for this study engaged in a qualitative approach, interviewing 14 school leaders in seven different districts on their attitudes regarding field placement and possible hiring of transgender teacher candidates. Emerging themes noted that while school leaders expressed an appreciation for diversity, they believed the presence of a transgender teacher candidate would stimulate resistance in their local communities. Further comments by participants indicated a need for training to provide leaders with guidance on navigating these issues, as well as training to better understand the transgender experience.

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Editor

ePub

EDITOR

Gaëtane Jean-Marie, PhD

University of Northern Iowa

College of Education

150 Schindler Education Center

8120 Jennings Drive

Cedar Falls, IA 50614-0610

E-mail: jsl@uni.edu Office: 319.273.2717 Fax: 319.273.2607

ASSOCIATE EDITORS

Curt M. Adams, PhD

University of Oklahoma

Bradley W. Carpenter, PhD

University of Houston

Sonya Douglass Horsford, EdD

Teachers College, Columbia University

Denise S. Schares, EdD

University of Northern Iowa

Natalie A. Tran, PhD

California State University, Fullerton

ASSISTANT EDITOR

Michelle Cook

University of Northern Iowa

MANAGING EDITOR

Carlie Wall

Associate Editor

Rowman & Littlefield

PRODUCTION EDITOR

Ashleigh Cooke

Associate Editor

Rowman & Littlefield

Rowman & Littlefield appreciates the University of Louisville College of Education and Human Development for their support and assistance in the production of the Journal of School Leadership.

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