2903 Articles
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Medium 9781538105863

The Preexistence and Transcendence of the Risen One in Robert Jenson’s Theology

Pro Ecclesia Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

The Preexistence and Transcendence of the Risen One in Robert Jenson’s Theology

Sang Hoon Lee

Introduction

Does the Son of God preexist creation? Does the Son transcend time? Is he risen now? How does time unfold? How does the future relate to the past and the present? And, finally, how are these questions related?

Ever since Robert W. Jenson offered an audacious and idiosyncratic account of the preexistence of the Son, it has often been the object of specious criticism. Its underlying logic and conviction have gone unnoticed, and his insightful understanding of the transcendence of the Son, which is closely related to his account of the preexistence of the Son, has been lost in most critics’ expositions. Such readings have not been properly disputed but still remained dominant. So, Jenson’s account of the preexistence of the Son is now due for a fresh and careful reading and a more legitimate evaluation, uncovering its subterranean logic and conviction.

The purpose of this article, then, is twofold: to attempt a more legitimate exposition of Jenson’s doctrine of the preexistence of the Son and to reflect on the transcendence of the risen Jesus, which is covertly operative in Jenson’s account. In the course of this article, I will argue that even though Jenson’s blatant rejection of the pretemporal and preincarnate state of the Son is problematic, his insight into the transcendence of the risen one should not be dismissed and that it deserves more careful constructive engagements. To achieve this, the essay will unfold in three stages: (1) identification of misleading expositions, conducted by such major critics as George Hunsinger, Simon Gathercole, and Oliver Crisp; (2) an attempt for a more adequate exposition of Jenson’s account; and (3) reflection on the transcendence of the risen Jesus and its metaphysical implications.

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Facticity and Faithfulness

Pro Ecclesia Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Facticity and Faithfulness

Divine Simplicity in Barth’s Christology

Tyler R. Wittman

Introduction

This essay explores critically Karl Barth’s Christological distribution of God’s unity of singularity and simplicity, with a focus on the latter. There are narrow reasons for undertaking such an analysis, like illuminating the connections between Barth’s doctrine of God’s perfections and his late Christology, or probing more deeply into the doctrinal underpinnings of his Christology. But more important is the broader task of dogmatic reflection on the unity of God’s essence, which is among the more neglected loci over the course of the last century, particularly in Protestant divinity.1 As the history of the doctrine of divine simplicity alone testifies, the exegetical and metaphysical intelligibility, conceptual articulation, and systematic distribution of the divine attributes accommodate a wide variety of interpretations throughout the tradition. Doctrinal retrieval stands to gain from patient yet critical attention to this variety. How, then, if at all, does divine unity in its aspects of singularity and simplicity intersect with Barth’s Christology? To what effect?

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Anglican Saint, Anglican Poet

Pro Ecclesia Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Anglican Saint, Anglican Poet

Nicholas Ferrar and T. S. Eliot at Little Gidding

Timothy Fuller

I

It was through my encounter with T. S. Eliot’s Four Quartets, which I first read when I was about fourteen, and which I have continued to read and to study, that I learned of Little Gidding. Later, I learned about Nicholas Ferrar, who lodged his family and household of approximately thirty to forty members at Little Gidding as a religious community early in seventeenth-century England. It is fair to say that Ferrar is an Anglican saint; Eliot is an Anglican poet, in the tradition of Anglican poets such as George Herbert, who was a contemporary and friend of Ferrar. Herbert and Ferrar were at Cambridge together and brilliant men of affairs, who retired from public life in pursuit of spiritual fulfillment. Herbert became a country priest and poet, and at his death, Ferrar became his executor.

Little Gidding is famous now because the name is the title of the fourth of Eliot’s Four Quartets. Eliot of course knew about Ferrar and visited Little Gidding himself, which was the occasion for his writing the fourth quartet. I want to say something about Ferrar and his community at Little Gidding, and then something about Eliot’s poetic evocation of Little Gidding, in the context of tracing one theme, among the many themes, which run through Four Quartets as a whole. Ferrar and Eliot both instantiate great achievements of the Anglican spirit.

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Ivan Illich, Catholic Theologian (Part II):

Pro Ecclesia Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Ivan Illich, Catholic Theologian (Part II):

Illich And Catholic Social Teaching

Colin Miller

In a previous essay in these pages,1 I argued that for Ivan Illich the modern world is at its heart the doxological betrayal of Catholicism, an idolatrous technocratic liturgy prohibiting the true cultus from which it is ultimately derived. Like all cults, modern tools seek to subsume all of life into their rites, and yet, perhaps as never before, these rites mask their character as foreign with a new set of fundamental certainties feigning Christian truth. So the trusting, hopeful, fleshy, useless eucharistic liturgy is replaced by various systems expected to deliver a terrestrial salvation in the cathedrals of medicine, education, transport, and cybernetics. The Church’s irreducible personalism—the contingent particularity of embodied existence in space and time—is abstracted into possibilities and risk management and explained by behaviorism as the way things have to be. Persons become manipulatable concepts. The body becomes a chartable system in need of upkeep, its once salutary suffering first taxonomized and then reduced to a minimum. The pursuit of truth is separated from a tradition-bound way of life and replaced with bare, un-situated nominalist “information,” and a moral order reducible to the play of power. In this world, subsistence work or gendered practice dissolves under economic analysis into interchangeable units of “activity” always vulnerable to being unmasked as inequitable instances of the will to power and the violation of rights. This, for Illich, is the corruption of the best, which is the worst.

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The Catholic Spirit of Protestantism

Pro Ecclesia Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

The Catholic Spirit of Protestantism

A Very Methodist Take on the Third Article, Visible Unity, and Ecumenism

Tom Greggs

Protestants have a reputation for being schismatic. Were it not enough that they broke with Rome in the sixteenth century, Protestants, from the very off, have been divided among themselves: Luther and Zwingli could not find agreement over the nature of Holy Communion at the Marburg Colloquy; more profoundly, Radical and Magisterial Reform divided; and ever since the Reformation, there has been division upon division of churches who have all protested against their parent church that it has not proclaimed Scripture or performed church practice or celebrated the sacraments or ordered itself or articulated its doctrine correctly. Moving to Scotland in recent years, I have been particularly aware of this propensity to divide. Reading Scottish church history can feel a little similar to reading a script from an episode of Dallas: unending fall outs, divisions, and divorces, followed by the odd makeup and ostentatiously glamorous wedding. Diagrams of Protestant church history can bear an unhealthy similarity to complex plumbing maps, with lines dividing off and coming back together in almost inscrutable ways. It is rumoured indeed that one particularly narrow and exclusive Protestant sect even has a hymn that goes:

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Adoption of the Six Traits Analytic Writing Model with a Low-Income Student Population: A Comparative Study of Improvement in Student Writing

International Journal of Educational Ref Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Adoption of the Six Traits Analytic Writing Model with a Low-Income Student Population

A Comparative Study of Improvement in Student Writing

Rachel M. B. Collopy

Jackie Marshall Arnold

ABSTRACT: Common Core State Standards (CCSS) have renewed attention on writing instruction. This study investigates the impact of teachers’ use of the Six Traits Analytic Writing model on random stratified samples of upper elementary students from a low-income population. All students, on average, made significant gains in each of the six traits during the school year. However, students in the Six Traits group made significantly greater gains in the trait of voice. The Six Traits Model showed some promise in improving the writing achievement of a low-income population, a critical concern in the current context of CCSS implementation.

KEYWORDS: writing instruction, writing programs, professional development, poverty, low-income students, Common Core State Standards

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Special Need Students in the Struggle for the Character of Schooling in America

International Journal of Educational Ref Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Special Need Students in the Struggle for the Character of Schooling in America

Lenford C. Sutton

Jane A. Beese

Tiffany Puckett

ABSTRACT: One of the most contentious issues over American educational reform is government sponsorship of school vouchers and tax credits in elementary and secondary education.Voucher advocates have long believed that public schools have little interest in education reform which diminishes its monopolistic position in the public education enterprise which effectuates a system of escalating cost, inefficiencies, and unacceptable student performance. Also, they claim that in a nation historically devoted to free enterprise and equal education opportunity, the expansion of school choice opportunity is a natural progression. Conversely, voucher opponents posit that such programs are not only unconstitutional, but would also redirect valuable resources away from schools serving students with the greatest need. They view voucher policy as highly divisive in that it fosters government entanglement with churches and serves as a catalyst for the re-segregation of public schools, further amplifying educational inequality. High-profile public battles over school vouchers in the United States have mainly focused on poor and minority children served by public schools in large urban areas. On the other hand, school choice for special need students, though expanding significantly, has not received as much attention. This article reviews the legal history of private contracting for special education services, describes the current choice programs for students with disabilities, recounts the legal challenges, discusses policy implications, and considers its formulation in the context of the largest levels of inequality in American History.

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Diploma Program Graduates’ CGPA as Predictor of Success in the Teachers’ Professional Licensing Written Exam Result with Gender Analysis: The Case of 2014/15 Diploma Graduates of KUC

International Journal of Educational Ref Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Diploma Program Graduates’ CGPA as Predictor of Success in the Teachers’ Professional Licensing Written Exam Result with Gender Analysis

The Case of 2014/15 Diploma Graduates of KUC

Yoseph Shumi Robi

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which diploma graduates’ Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) predicts their success in teachers’ professional licensing written exam result (TPLWER). A total of 588 graduating students (317 males and 271 females) were included in the study. Correlation, simple regression analyses, and independent sample t-test were employed on the data. The result revealed a statistical significant correlation between CGPA and TPLWER. CGPA appeared to be valid predictor of success of TPLWER and accounted for 33.40% of the variation in TPLWER. The results indicated statistically significant gender differences in diploma graduates’ CGPA and TPLWER.

KEYWORDS: CGPA, gender, predictor, TPLWER

Introduction

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Medium 9781475836790

Commemorating the 10th Anniversary of World Autism Awareness Day: An Opportunity to Reflect about Educating Students with Autism

International Journal of Educational Ref Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Commemorating the 10th Anniversary of World Autism Awareness Day

An Opportunity to Reflect about Educating Students with Autism

Tim Morse

ABSTRACT: On December 18, 2007, the United Nations General Assembly adopted resolution 62/139 which established World Autism Awareness Day—one of only four official health-specific UN Days. The original resolution had four main components, which included celebrating World Autism Awareness Day every April 2 and encouraging member states to raise the awareness of autism at all levels in society. In accordance with this latter component of the resolution, the purpose of this article is to raise educators’ awareness about some of the most salient issues that need to be addressed as schools continue to implement necessary reforms for meeting the educational challenges posed by students with autism.

KEYWORDS: autism, early intervention, school programming, transition services, diagnosis

The 10th anniversary of the United Nations General Assembly’s adoption of resolution 62/139, which established April 2 as World Autism Awareness Day, will take place on December 18, 2017 (United Nations General Assembly, 2007). During the 10 years since the adoption of this resolution, the prevalence of autism has continued to increase, resulting in educators around the world having to work to keep pace with the numerous emerging challenges that have been identified with respect to providing appropriate school programs for students with this complex, diverse disorder.

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Medium 9781475836790

The Status of Universities in China: The Awkward Defendant from the Special Power Relation to Being Constrained

International Journal of Educational Ref Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

The Status of Universities in China

The Awkward Defendant from the Special Power Relation to Being Constrained

Liying Rong

ABSTRACT: In China, higher education administrative litigation started from mid-1990s. The case Tian Yong v. University of Science and Technology Beijing (USTB) in 1998 marked the beginning of such litigation. Since then, students have gone to the court to challenge higher education institutions for disputes over enrollment, school management, degree certificates granting, etc. This wave of lawsuits gradually gained momentum and attracted widespread social attention. When we reflect on this phenomenon, we can find the driving forces behind the emergence of higher education litigation, mainly, are institutional reforms and social structure changes. The establishment of relevant system requires the joint efforts of law practitioners and theorists to conscientiously study the objective laws in higher education and the rule of law in China, thus making a contribution to the higher education relief system.

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Investigating Global–Local Networks and Policy Learning in University Curriculum Policy Transformations: A Proposed Research Approach for the Asia-Pacific Region

International Journal of Educational Ref Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Investigating Global–Local Networks and Policy Learning in University Curriculum Policy Transformations

A Proposed Research Approach for the Asia-Pacific Region

Thomas O’Donoghue

Lesley Vidovich

ABSTRACT: The focus is on universities around the world strengthening their competitive positioning in a global knowledge era through curriculum policy transformations. It highlights the need to study how ideological shifts and policy flows as well as networks between global and local levels are producing ‘radical’ change in curriculum policies in certain research-intensive universities. The article sets out a research approach for such study in relation to the Asia-Pacific Region. Pursuing such a research approach should make a significant contribution to the field of globalization and higher education.

KEYWORDS: Universities, curriculum policy, education change, Asia-Pacific Region, globalization

Introduction

Curriculum policies in particular research-intensive universities in various parts of the world have recently been featuring engagement with reforms at the undergraduate level which are considered “radical” in relation to their own historical contexts. In this article, “policies” are taken to be a set of processes which include “agenda setting as well as work on the production of the policy texts . . . and implementation processes, which are never straightforward” (Rizvi & Lingard, 2010, p. 5); they are about change and are value-laden. According to Grumet and Yates (2011), “curriculum” should be about what matters in the world, and curriculum decision-making is always subjective and highly contested. Rizvi and Lingard (2010) make the point that curriculum policy is an under-researched area of policy, especially in higher education.

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Medium 9781475836776

Internationalization at Home: A Study of a Comprehensive Regional University

International Journal of Educational Ref Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Internationalization at Home

A Study of a Comprehensive Regional University

Sheena Choi

Joseph Khamalah

ABSTRACT: Responding to the needs of intercultural understanding and competencies in a global economy, universities have devised strategies and programs to internationalize the campus to prepare students to work effectively in an increasingly interconnected economy and society. Internationalization at home (IaH) attempts to more effectively address gaps left by the traditional study abroad. This study examines the IaH activities at a regional higher education institution in a Midwestern city of the United States in faculty/staff recruitment and development, policies, and curriculum development. Results show that implementation of IaH is at odds with the institution’s regional mission and underscores the need for a reconceptualization to better serve the region in this global era.

KEYWORDS: Internationalization of higher education, international program, internat ionalization at home, globalization and higher education, regional institution

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Medium 9781475836776

Instructional Leadership Practices among Principals in Israeli and US Jewish Schools

International Journal of Educational Ref Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Instructional Leadership Practices among Principals in Israeli and US Jewish Schools

Jeffrey Glanz

Haim Shaked

Chanina Rabinowitz

Shmuel Shenhav

Rachel Zaretsky

ABSTRACT: Extant research indicates that principals are expected to serve as instructional leaders. Instructional leadership practices of principals in Israeli and US Jewish schools have, until recently, been unexplored. Therefore, this mixed-methodological study explores instructional leadership perceptions and behaviors among Israeli and US principals. Data, via questionnaires and interviews, were collected from 90 principals from each country. Findings suggest that US principals demonstrated significantly higher levels of instructional leadership. In both groups, women principals demonstrated higher levels of instructional leadership. Our interviews provided unique insights leading to our suggestions for ways of promoting greater attention to instructional leadership by principals of both countries.

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Culture of Inquiry in Professional Development

International Journal of Educational Ref Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Culture of Inquiry in Professional Development

William V. Morris

ABSTRACT: Research on teacher collaboration and student achievement, along with culture of inquiry theory, was reviewed in an attempt to propose a theory of culture of inquiry for teacher professional development. Three empirical studies on teacher collaboration revealed positive correlations between teacher collaboration and student achievement. The literature on culture of inquiry and relevant theory from organizational management yielded five characteristics essential to a culture in which teachers plan and carry out professional development to evaluate and experiment with new teaching methods: transformational leadership, inquiry and healthy debate, license to experiment, collegiality and sharing, and an ongoing cycle of reflection.

KEYWORDS: collaboration, collegiality, culture, professional development, reflective practice

With the rush to fully implement the new Common Core Standards and deliver on their promise of raising the bar for learning, it is easy to brush over an element pivotal to bringing about desired change in our schools: well-designed professional development embracing the very principles of teaching that visionary school leaders espouse for their students. The central emphasis of the Core is leading students in researching, writing, sharing, and reflecting about a given question or area of study; in other words, teaching them to learn within a culture of inquiry. If a culture of inquiry within the classroom is essential to carrying out the goals of the Common Core Standards, it should follow logically that meaningful collaboration among teachers and administrators must also be grounded in a culture of inquiry, thereby reinforcing this philosophy as the shared culture of the whole learning community.

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Improving Student Achievement through Strengthening Principal and School Counselor Partnership

International Journal of Educational Ref Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Improving Student Achievement through Strengthening Principal and School Counselor Partnership

Olcay Yavuz

Nur Cayirdag

Carol Dahir

Aliİlker Gümüşeli

ABSTRACT : The purpose of the study was to examine 1466 school principals’ opinions on six different aspects of counseling practices in K-12 public and private schools. Results indicated that there were significant differences between public and private school principals’ opinions on school counseling priorities, perceptions, academic development, and program management. School type and school-level interactions were significant for career and academic development and marginally significant for personal–social development. School level had also significant main effects on personal–social, career, and academic developments. These results may be of value to school leaders and educators concerned with improving student achievement and school effectiveness through revising and improving their school counseling services.

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