3108 Articles
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Medium 9781475837575

Pitts

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Invited Paper

Applying Implementation Science to the Development of a Self-Regulation Intervention for Students with Significant Behavior Problems

A Proactive Approach

Donna Spencer Pitts

Michelle M. Cumming

Ann P. Daunic

Alyssa L. Scafidi

Stephen W. Smith

Kristen M. O’Brien

Courtney E. Allen

ABSTRACT: The effective use of evidence-based practices in educational settings is an ongoing concern, and there is growing consensus that desired outcomes are achieved only when programs are implemented thoughtfully and thoroughly. To encourage the integration of research findings into interventions that are feasible and usable within authentic settings, researchers in the field of implementation science have identified key drivers that promote effective implementation. We assert that educational researchers must incorporate core components of implementation science as they develop interventions and not just at the implementation stage. In this article, we provide an account about developing and piloting a self-regulatory intervention for adolescents with emotional and behavioral disorders, through the lens of implementation science. We introduce the intervention, outline the implementation framework that guided our development work, provide examples of barriers encountered, and discuss how we used implementation drivers to analyze and make adjustments to the curriculum for successful delivery.

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Markelz

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

A Review of Interventions to Increase Behavior-Specific Praise

Andrew Markelz

Mary Catherine Scheeler

Jonte C. Taylor

Paul J. Riccomini

ABSTRACT: Classroom management is important for student achievement and teachers’ well-being. Research supports behavior-specific praise (BSP) as an evidence-based practice of classroom management, however, its reliable use by teachers remains elusive. A literature review was conducted to identify interventions designed to increase teachers’ use of BSP and the effects of mastery training on maintenance results. Twenty empirical studies, involving special-education and general-education teachers, were analyzed. Findings identify training, performance feedback, self-monitoring, and tactile prompting as interventions to increase teachers’ use of BSP. Participants who were trained to mastery demonstrated higher and more stable BSP rates during maintenance. Results suggest interventions countered suppressing contingencies of BSP such as insufficient opportunities to practice, lack of reinforcement, and cognitive overload.

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Dexter

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Effects of a Modified Daily Progress Report for Check In/Check Out at the Elementary Level

Courtney A. Dexter

Kathy L. Ruhl

Douglas D. Dexter

ABSTRACT: In an effort to examine a way to modify check in/check out (CICO) to enhance effectiveness, the current study assessed changes to the daily progress report (DPR) component. A multiple-baseline-across-participants design was used, with three sets of student/teacher pairs in an elementary school, to examine how modifying the DPR to reflect specific, positively worded, operationalized behaviors impacts the DPR as a visual prompt for student behavior and teacher feedback. Results indicate all teachers demonstrated increased levels of behavior-specific feedback, with three demonstrating an improved affirmative to corrective feedback ratio. All students demonstrated a reduction in problem behaviors and increased exhibition of prosocial behaviors. Furthermore, students and teachers rated the modified DPR as effective and easy to use. Implications for practice and implementation guidelines are also discussed in this article.

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Medium 9781475837575

Cozad

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Effects of Classwide Interventions on Computational Fluency

A Synthesis of the Literature

Lauren E. Cozad

Paul J. Riccomini

ABSTRACT: Learning and applying mathematics requires a seamless blend of critical knowledge of concepts, vocabulary, procedures, computation, and problem solving. Students with mathematics difficulties struggle early and often with many of these ideas, but frequently experience difficulty developing computational fluency. Mathematics classrooms are becoming more and more diverse, often requiring teachers to implement interventions with many students. Classwide intervention (e.g., programs that allow differentiation for an entire class of students) is one avenue by which students are able to acquire, increase, and maintain fluency. The body of research on classwide interventions targeting computational fluency is reviewed. Findings indicate that classwide interventions are effective in increasing computational fluency among students both with and without mathematics difficulties. Implications for practice and future research are presented.

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Neddenriep

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Reading and Understanding Informational Text Using the Listen-Reread-Adapt and Answer-Comprehend (LRAAC) Intervention

Is Fluency Enough?

Christine E. Neddenriep

Natalie D. Rose

Kali J. Olson

Shawna P. Loniello

Celine M. Santos

Stephanie L. Koenigsman

Jenna M. Mathew

ABSTRACT: How can students’ understanding of informational text be improved? Is fluency alone sufficient to improve their comprehension of informational text? The Listen-Reread-Adapt and Answer-Comprehend (LRAAC) intervention combines a repeated readings intervention with listening passage preview as well as a question-generation intervention to improve students’ reading fluency and comprehension of informational text. Three third-grade students were included in the intervention. Using a multiple-baseline design across participants, the effects of the fluency intervention were evaluated alone and then in combination with the comprehension intervention on participants’ number of words read correctly per minute and the percentage of the passage the participants comprehended per minute. A functional relation was established between the participants’ increased fluency and the implementation of the repeated readings intervention with listening passage preview. With the addition of the question-generation intervention, participants demonstrated improved understanding of informational text as well. In addition, students reported satisfaction with the intervention indicating that they learned strategies that were helpful and useful to them in the classroom. Limitations and implications for practice with regard to the use of the LRAAC intervention are discussed.

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Medium 9781475846973

Democratic Accountability in Teacher Education: Now More Than Ever

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Democratic Accountability in Teacher Education

Now More Than Ever

Marilyn Cochran-Smith

Molly Cummings Carney

Elizabeth Stringer Keefe

Stephani Burton

Wen-Chia Chang

M. Beatriz Fernández

Andrew F. Miller

Juan Gabriel Sánchez

Megina Baker

ABSTRACT: During the two decades from 1998 to 2017, “holding teacher education accountable” emerged as the major approach to reforming teacher education in the United States (Cochran-Smith et al., 2016; Lewis & Young, 2013; Taubman, 2009). The logic was that greater accountability would boost teacher education quality, which would boost teacher quality (defined primarily in terms of students’ achievement), which would in turn ensure individual prosperity as well as the long-term economic health of the nation (Cochran-Smith et al., 2017). The key accountability assumption here is that enhanced teacher education quality depends on systematic and vigilant public evaluation and monitoring of outcomes related to teacher education institutions, programs, and teacher candidates. Across teacher education and other public domains, the rise in accountability regimes reflected the broad shift to a global and competitive knowledge society shaped by principles and policies derived from neoliberal economics and from the business world (Ambrosio, 2013; Furlong, Cochran-Smith & Brennan, 2009; O’Neill, 2002; Taubman, 2009).

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Talk Aloud Problem Solving and Frequency Building to a Performance Criterion Improves Science Reasoning Ginny A. Dembek and Richard M. Kubina Jr.

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Talk Aloud Problem Solving and Frequency Building to a Performance Criterion Improves Science Reasoning

Ginny A. Dembek

Richard M. Kubina Jr.

ABSTRACT: The present study examined the effects of a combined intervention: Talk Aloud Problem Solving (TAPS) and Frequency Building to a Performance Criterion (FBPC). The experimenter introduced TAPS/FBPC to five students diagnosed with a disability and receiving specialized reading instruction. The intervention presented TAPS formatted lessons and FBPC strengthened the student’s verbal repertoire making the problem-solving process a durable behavior. A multiple baseline design showed improvements in problem-solving performance when compared to baseline. All students became more accurate in the problem-solving task, as shown in immediate changes upon the implementation of the intervention and sustained growth over time. Maintenance in learning was also demonstrated. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

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Effects of Explicit Instruction on Fidelity of Teacher Candidates’ Creation of Trigger-Based Video Models Sarah K. Howorth, David F. Cihak, and Don McMahon

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Effects of Explicit Instruction on Fidelity of Teacher Candidates’ Creation of Trigger-Based Video Models

Sarah K. Howorth

David F. Cihak

Don McMahon

 

ABSTRACT: Video Modeling has been established as an evidence-based practice for teaching students with disabilities. The purpose of this study was to (a) examine the fidelity of use of the augmented reality (AR) application Aurasma by special education teacher candidates as a platform for video-based instructional support for students with high incidence learning disabilities in their clinical placements, and (b) to survey the teacher candidates’ impressions of the AR application Aurasma as a tool to provide video-based instructional supports to elementary school students with high incidence disabilities. Students in a teaching-methods undergraduate class were taught how to create basic trigger-based videos using the Aurasma application. Fidelity of their video models was measured using a repeated-measures within-subjects design. Results indicate that special education teacher candidates can rapidly improve their fidelity of trigger-based video model implementation as an instructional support. Preservice teacher survey results indicated that participants would encourage classroom teachers to use AR video models to help students reach deeper understanding of a concept and supports universal design for learning concepts of multiple means of content representation and student engagement.

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Schooling and the Manners of Democracy

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Schooling and the Manners of Democracy

Robert V. Bullough Jr.

Contending Views

Digging down into definitions, a kind of conceptual warfare rages beneath the word democracy. As political scientist Robert Hoffert reminded us,

[It] is simply not the case that modern democracy, in the United States or anywhere else in the world, has a singular, coherent, and self-evident structure of meanings and implications. In fact, democracy has simultaneously given coherence to contemporary life and generated many of its greatest conflicts. (2001, p. 39)

In making the case for support of the Constitution in The Federalist Papers, James Madison distinguished between democracies and republics. His distinction was relatively straightforward: “In a democracy the people meet and exercise the government in person; in a republic they assemble and administer it by their representatives and agents” (Madison, Hamilton, & Jay, 1788/1987, p. 144). These two forms of government were understood to be “two species” of what Madison called “popular government,” what might be thought of “in our contemporary terminology as . . . two kinds of democracy: direct and representative” (Tarcov, 1996, p. 26).

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INTRO: Improving the Pathway to Employment in STEM Fields: The Role of Education James D. Stocker Jr.

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

INTRO

Improving the Pathway to Employment in Stem Fields: The Role of Education

James D. Stocker Jr.

Over the past 70 years, the U.S. economy has prospered from advances in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). As leaders in scientific innovation, the United States possesses an abundant population to supply a STEM workforce and STEM-related occupations (National Research Council, NRC, 2011, 2012). Yet, the United States struggles to produce enough workers for jobs that demand STEM skillsets raising concerns that the country is losing its competitive advantage in the global marketplace (Fayer, Lacey, & Watson, 2017; NRC, 2012).

The latest projection indicates slower growth for new STEM jobs at 8.9% versus a 24.4% gain over previous 10-year previous projections between 2005 and 2015 (Noonan, 2017). STEM jobs will occur in computer systems design and related services sector yielding over one million jobs to fill positions in government, university, and the private sector. Nearly 25% of STEM jobs will only require a high school degree, some college or associate degree (Noonan, 2017). Sample high demand jobs in this cross section include Web developers, computer user support, and network support specialists (Fayer, et al., 2017). Health-care occupations, considered a secondary STEM-related domain by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Services, are predicted to drive the most growth in jobs due to an aging population, longer life expectancies, and an increase in chronic conditions. Projections indicate healthcare will contribute 18% of all new jobs from 2016 to 2026 (Fayer et al., 2017; Lacey, Toosi, and Dubina, 2017).

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Comparing the Effects of Different Timings to Build Computational and Procedural Fluency with Complex Computations James D. Stocker Jr., Richard M. Kubina Jr., Paul J. Riccomini, and Amanda Mason

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Comparing the Effects of Different Timings to Build Computational and Procedural Fluency with Complex Computations

James D. Stocker Jr.

Richard M. Kubina Jr.

Paul J. Riccomini

Amanda Mason

ABSTRACT: An alternating treatments design was used to compare (a) three, one-minute timings plus feedback after each timing, (b) one, three-minute timing plus feedback, and (c) one, one-minute timing without feedback (no treatment) on the calculation rates of four seventh graders practicing three distinct mathematics complex computations. Complex computations included order of operations, adding and subtracting fractions with uncommon denominators, and long division with and without a remainder. Components of the intervention comprised of cue cards, practice sheets, and answer keys to self-manage feedback. Despite gains in correct problems per minute, performance differences could not be attributed to the number and length of timed trials. Student responding increased in relation to the most stable and predictable procedures. Future directions for research are shared.

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Accountable to Many: A Call to Action for Teacher Educators

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Accountable to Many

A Call to Action for Teacher Educators

Julia T. Atiles

Connor K. Warner

ABSTRACT: We are accountable to our teacher candidates to provide quality learning experiences and to the administration and schools to provide teacher candidates who will be able to perform competently. As teacher educators, we are also accountable to the PK-12 students themselves. At times we have witnessed or have read teacher candidates’ accounts of unethical incidents within classrooms. These incidents range from teacher bullying to emotional abuse. Our response to these accounts has a tremendous impact on our teacher candidates’ experiences and development. Using a series of narratives derived from teacher educator and teacher candidate experiences, we attempt to illuminate the tensions we have felt in confronting troubling situations in field experience contexts. We hope by sharing these narratives our readers understand our weighty responsibility and accountability to teacher candidates and most importantly, to PK-12 students. Our call to action is for our readers to accept their own accountability as well.

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Teacher Education and Democratic Accountability in Norway

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Teacher Education and Democratic Accountability in Norway

Tobias Werler

A Democratic Mind-set

According to recent survey studies, Norway is one of the most ­democratic countries in the world (EIU 2017, Global democracy ranking 2016). Those results are partially reflecting the results from International Civic and Citizenship Education Studies (1999 & 2009) investigating pupils’ knowledge and understanding of civic values (Mikkelsen et al., 2001; Schulz et al., 2010; Mikkelsen, Fjeldstad, & Lauglo, 2011). Norwegian pupils achieved high results.

Here, democracy is seen as aspiration or as “a mode of associated living, a conjoint communicated experience” (Dewey, 1966, 1987). As such, it is mirrored in Norwegian teacher education. In accordance with the education act (KUD 2017, § 1–1), Norway’s previous and current teacher education regulations do explicitly demand from teacher educators to establish democratic attitudes and values among future teachers (KUD, 2016a, b). However, such official expectations or curricula of intentions (Goodlad, 1984) of appropriate teacher competence represent state-mandated ideals. They may or may not square with what teacher educators do and what student teachers will be able to do in schools. On this background the question in what ways does current teacher education practice in Norway, determined by a neoliberal education reform ideology (Trippestad, Swennen, & Werler, 2017) open up for teachers’ democratic accountability.

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Editorial: Democratic Accountability in/for/through Teacher Education

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Editorial

Democratic Accountability in/for/through Teacher Education

Patrick M. Jenlink

Few in education today, in particular teacher education, as well as those in society that believe, as did Dewey (1916), that education serves a critical function in a democratic society1 would argue against the belief that the current culture of standards and accountability2 enacted in our society and its educational systems is ill-suited to the function of education in our democratic society, and “democracy’s longer-term goals of transforming the United States into an egalitarian society in which today’s often disempowered youth become tomorrow’s critically engaged, efficacious, and empowered adult citizens” (Levinson, 2011, p. 136).

The past several decades have witnessed the advancement of neoliberalism3 and with it a “New Public Managerialism” leading to the subordination of education as a social institution (Hill, 2006). Hill explained “New Public Managerialism” as the “importation into the old public services of the language and management style of private capital,” which he rightly argues “has replaced the ethic, language and style of public service and duty” (2006, p. 119). We have become “the performative society” (Ball, 2001); our schools are overshadowed by this new managerialism4 and enforced by a regimen of standards and accountability.

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Using Concrete-Representational-Abstract Sequence to Teach Fractions to Middle School Students with Mathematics Difficulties Elizabeth M. Hughes, Paul J. Riccomini, and Bradley Witzel

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Using Concrete-Representational-Abstract Sequence to Teach Fractions to Middle School Students with Mathematics Difficulties

Elizabeth M. Hughes

Paul J. Riccomini

Bradley Witzel

ABSTRACT: Many students have challenges learning and retaining important mathematics concepts, such as fractions. Concrete-representational-abstract (CRA) sequence of instruction has a growing body of research that supports use with students who struggle with mathematical concepts. This article shares results from an experimental study comparing the effects of a CRA-sequenced fractions instruction to traditional fractions instruction on the mathematics achievement and knowledge retention of students with learning disabilities and those who struggle to learn mathematics. Findings indicate students who received CRA-sequenced instruction outperformed peers who received traditional fractions instruction on measures of retention. Implications for the field and instructional examples are provided.

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