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Collections Vol 11 N3

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"Collections: A Journal for Museum and Archives Professionals" is a multi-disciplinary peer-reviewed journal dedicated to the discussion of all aspects of handling, preserving, researching, and organizing collections. Curators, archivists, collections managers, preparators, registrars, educators, students, and others contribute.

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A Note From the Guest Editors

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Emily Clark and Greg Lambousy

The aim of this special issue A Note from the Guest Editors of Collections is twofold. It exploits the potential of Louisiana’s colonial documents to illuminate some of the rewards and challenges of the Atlantic World paradigm—a relatively recent way of researching, writing and thinking about the era that began when Europe, Africa, and the Americas encountered one another and were drawn into dynamic currents of economic, cultural, and political exchange between the fourteenth and nineteenth centuries. The Atlantic World gave birth to the transatlantic slave trade, the Columbian Exchange, and racial hierarchies. It ended with the abolition of slavery and the spasm of rebellions against European power marked by the American and Haitian Revolutions and Latin American independence movements. The Atlantic World was a transnational phenomenon, and although it overlaps what represented the colonial period for much of North America, its history is not easily told from the perspective of any one of the major colonial European powers that exercised sovereignty there. For this reason, the colonial records of Louisiana, which was held by both France and Spain, offer a particularly illuminating case study of the legacies of the Atlantic World in American archives. An ambitious project, undertaken by the Louisiana State Museum, to digitize these records has drawn renewed attention to their importance and their potential to contribute substantially to the growing field of Atlantic history. (This project is scheduled for completion in 2016.)

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A Note From the Guest Editors

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Emily Clark and Greg Lambousy

The aim of this special issue A Note from the Guest Editors of Collections is twofold. It exploits the potential of Louisiana’s colonial documents to illuminate some of the rewards and challenges of the Atlantic World paradigm—a relatively recent way of researching, writing and thinking about the era that began when Europe, Africa, and the Americas encountered one another and were drawn into dynamic currents of economic, cultural, and political exchange between the fourteenth and nineteenth centuries. The Atlantic World gave birth to the transatlantic slave trade, the Columbian Exchange, and racial hierarchies. It ended with the abolition of slavery and the spasm of rebellions against European power marked by the American and Haitian Revolutions and Latin American independence movements. The Atlantic World was a transnational phenomenon, and although it overlaps what represented the colonial period for much of North America, its history is not easily told from the perspective of any one of the major colonial European powers that exercised sovereignty there. For this reason, the colonial records of Louisiana, which was held by both France and Spain, offer a particularly illuminating case study of the legacies of the Atlantic World in American archives. An ambitious project, undertaken by the Louisiana State Museum, to digitize these records has drawn renewed attention to their importance and their potential to contribute substantially to the growing field of Atlantic history. (This project is scheduled for completion in 2016.)

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List of Acronyms

ePub

Emily Clark and Greg Lambousy

The aim of this special issue A Note from the Guest Editors of Collections is twofold. It exploits the potential of Louisiana’s colonial documents to illuminate some of the rewards and challenges of the Atlantic World paradigm—a relatively recent way of researching, writing and thinking about the era that began when Europe, Africa, and the Americas encountered one another and were drawn into dynamic currents of economic, cultural, and political exchange between the fourteenth and nineteenth centuries. The Atlantic World gave birth to the transatlantic slave trade, the Columbian Exchange, and racial hierarchies. It ended with the abolition of slavery and the spasm of rebellions against European power marked by the American and Haitian Revolutions and Latin American independence movements. The Atlantic World was a transnational phenomenon, and although it overlaps what represented the colonial period for much of North America, its history is not easily told from the perspective of any one of the major colonial European powers that exercised sovereignty there. For this reason, the colonial records of Louisiana, which was held by both France and Spain, offer a particularly illuminating case study of the legacies of the Atlantic World in American archives. An ambitious project, undertaken by the Louisiana State Museum, to digitize these records has drawn renewed attention to their importance and their potential to contribute substantially to the growing field of Atlantic history. (This project is scheduled for completion in 2016.)

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Note from the Field

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Sophie White

Associate Professor of American Studies, Concurrent Associate Professor, Dept. of Africana Studies and Dept. of History, University of Notre Dame, 1042 Flanner Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556; swhite1@nd.edu

I write as the digitization project for the Louisiana Colonial Documents Database (LCDD) nears completion. And as I do so, I recall the huge wave of relief that swept over me when I first heard that these extraordinary documents were scanned, and were now safe, permanently. For an archive housed in New Orleans, that is no small thing—as Hurricane Katrina so rudely reminded us. As I saw for myself the exceptional quality of the digitization, and how technology can magnify documents to facilitate deciphering, my thoughts meandered to the significance of this achievement for historians like me: unfettered access to a signal collection of national and international importance.

This astoundingly rich archive is quite simply a historian’s dream, because of the range of information contained within the collection, about economic, political, religious, and social events for example, found within documents ranging from business records, to marriage contracts, and criminal investigations. But it is in the evidence pertaining to the lives of the non-literate that this archive stands out, allowing us—and indeed nudging us—to re-interpret the experience of non-elites and of women, not least through the courtroom testimony of enslaved individuals (the scope of which is unique in any North American archive).

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Note from the Field

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Sophie White

Associate Professor of American Studies, Concurrent Associate Professor, Dept. of Africana Studies and Dept. of History, University of Notre Dame, 1042 Flanner Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556; swhite1@nd.edu

I write as the digitization project for the Louisiana Colonial Documents Database (LCDD) nears completion. And as I do so, I recall the huge wave of relief that swept over me when I first heard that these extraordinary documents were scanned, and were now safe, permanently. For an archive housed in New Orleans, that is no small thing—as Hurricane Katrina so rudely reminded us. As I saw for myself the exceptional quality of the digitization, and how technology can magnify documents to facilitate deciphering, my thoughts meandered to the significance of this achievement for historians like me: unfettered access to a signal collection of national and international importance.

This astoundingly rich archive is quite simply a historian’s dream, because of the range of information contained within the collection, about economic, political, religious, and social events for example, found within documents ranging from business records, to marriage contracts, and criminal investigations. But it is in the evidence pertaining to the lives of the non-literate that this archive stands out, allowing us—and indeed nudging us—to re-interpret the experience of non-elites and of women, not least through the courtroom testimony of enslaved individuals (the scope of which is unique in any North American archive).

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Survivor(s)! Historical Peregrinations of New Orleans’s French Superior Council and Spanish Judicial Records

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Howard Margot

Curator, The Historic New Orleans Collection, Williams Research Center, 410 Chartres Street, New Orleans, LA 70130; howardm@hnoc.org

Abstract The city of New Orleans is home to extensive notarial and judicial manuscript records that document, often in minute detail, economic and legal activity in the Lower Mississippi Valley during the French (1699–1768) and Spanish (1769–1803) colonial periods. The legal custodianship of New Orleans’s largest colonial period archive has changed hands quite often over the last three centuries. This article recounts the peregrinations of these documents and their insertion into the collections of the Notarial Archives Division of the Orleans Parish Clerk of Civil Court’s office (NONA) and Old U.S. Mint of the Louisiana State Museum (LSM).

In addition to the considerable parochial archives of its Catholic Archdiocese (baptisms, marriages, deaths) and a modest but very important archive held in its main Public Library (the records of the Spanish Cabildo), the city of New Orleans is home to extensive notarial and judicial1 manuscript records that document, often in minute detail, economic and legal activity in the Lower Mississippi Valley during the French (1699–17682) and Spanish (1769–1803) colonial periods. Taken together, these three sets of records bear the names and witness to the lives of virtually every colonist who was propertied, and of many or most who were not, and of virtually every enslaved person who was ever publicly bought or sold or freed in New Orleans and environs during that span of time. But whereas the ecclesiastical and Cabildo (city hall) records have been continuously curated by the respective institutions that generated them in the eighteenth century, the legal custodianship of New Orleans’s largest colonial period archive—its notarial acts and judicial records—has changed hands quite often over the last three centuries, the most recent occurrence having been in 2007. Most often, the changes in custodianship have entailed changes in physical location, with the records’ having been transported a distance of anything from a few city blocks to a hundred miles. These peregrinations have for over two centuries compromised both the coherence of this priceless archive and the public’s ability to access it, and on too many occasions they have threatened its very existence.

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Survivor(s)! Historical Peregrinations of New Orleans’s French Superior Council and Spanish Judicial Records

ePub

Howard Margot

Curator, The Historic New Orleans Collection, Williams Research Center, 410 Chartres Street, New Orleans, LA 70130; howardm@hnoc.org

Abstract The city of New Orleans is home to extensive notarial and judicial manuscript records that document, often in minute detail, economic and legal activity in the Lower Mississippi Valley during the French (1699–1768) and Spanish (1769–1803) colonial periods. The legal custodianship of New Orleans’s largest colonial period archive has changed hands quite often over the last three centuries. This article recounts the peregrinations of these documents and their insertion into the collections of the Notarial Archives Division of the Orleans Parish Clerk of Civil Court’s office (NONA) and Old U.S. Mint of the Louisiana State Museum (LSM).

In addition to the considerable parochial archives of its Catholic Archdiocese (baptisms, marriages, deaths) and a modest but very important archive held in its main Public Library (the records of the Spanish Cabildo), the city of New Orleans is home to extensive notarial and judicial1 manuscript records that document, often in minute detail, economic and legal activity in the Lower Mississippi Valley during the French (1699–17682) and Spanish (1769–1803) colonial periods. Taken together, these three sets of records bear the names and witness to the lives of virtually every colonist who was propertied, and of many or most who were not, and of virtually every enslaved person who was ever publicly bought or sold or freed in New Orleans and environs during that span of time. But whereas the ecclesiastical and Cabildo (city hall) records have been continuously curated by the respective institutions that generated them in the eighteenth century, the legal custodianship of New Orleans’s largest colonial period archive—its notarial acts and judicial records—has changed hands quite often over the last three centuries, the most recent occurrence having been in 2007. Most often, the changes in custodianship have entailed changes in physical location, with the records’ having been transported a distance of anything from a few city blocks to a hundred miles. These peregrinations have for over two centuries compromised both the coherence of this priceless archive and the public’s ability to access it, and on too many occasions they have threatened its very existence.

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A Guide to Early Modern French Louisiana Sources

ePub

Mélanie Lamotte

Postdoctoral Research Fellow, University of Cambridge, Newnham College, Sidgwick Road, Cambridge CB3 9DF, United Kingdom; melanie. lamotte@cantab.net

Abstract Recent decades have witnessed steady and significant historiographical interest in the history of early modern French Louisiana. The field presently boasts a dynamic set of analysts actively investigating primary sources across America and France. In addition, many French Louisiana sources and historical issues remain unexplored, thereby suggesting that the historiography of early modern French Louisiana will continue to grow substantially. While numerous inventories of Louisiana sources have been published, few have specifically focused their attention on early modern French Louisiana documents. Several of these guides contain information that is no longer valid by pointing to sources that have been moved or have subsequently disappeared. In addition, many sources are being made more readily available through digitization and the creation of online databases. This article provides much-needed guidance on identifying and using French Louisiana sources. It lists the sources available and investigates their nature, details of access, state of preservation, as well as their state of digitization. It also suggests potential uses and interpretations that might be gleaned from such source material.

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“The Most Wonderful Collection of Original Documents in the United States”

ePub

Jenny Marie Forsythe

Graduate Student in the Department of Comparative Literature, University of California, Los Angeles, 450 Humanities Building, Los Angeles, CA 90095; jmforsythe@gmail.com

Susan Tucker

Archivist Emeritus, Newcomb Archives, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118; susannah@tulane.edu

Abstract Heloise Hulse Cruzat (1862–1931) and Laura Louise Porteous (1875– 1952) worked in New Orleans during the first half of the twentieth century to transcribe, translate, and index the Louisiana Historical Society’s (LHS) vast collection of French and Spanish colonial judicial records. This essay places the body of their work for the LHS in national perspective, describes their lives in the context of evolving roles for women in New Orleans cultural institutions, and considers the significance of their work for past and future scholars.1

A cast of men in Louisiana—leaders born and educated in the northeastern U.S. and France as well as influential native residents of the francophone and anglophone sectors of New Orleans—founded the Louisiana Historical Society (LHS) in 1836. Almost immediately, they began collecting colonial records, but it was not until the early twentieth century that they gained sustained intellectual and physical control of the documents.2

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“The Most Wonderful Collection of Original Documents in the United States”

ePub

Jenny Marie Forsythe

Graduate Student in the Department of Comparative Literature, University of California, Los Angeles, 450 Humanities Building, Los Angeles, CA 90095; jmforsythe@gmail.com

Susan Tucker

Archivist Emeritus, Newcomb Archives, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118; susannah@tulane.edu

Abstract Heloise Hulse Cruzat (1862–1931) and Laura Louise Porteous (1875– 1952) worked in New Orleans during the first half of the twentieth century to transcribe, translate, and index the Louisiana Historical Society’s (LHS) vast collection of French and Spanish colonial judicial records. This essay places the body of their work for the LHS in national perspective, describes their lives in the context of evolving roles for women in New Orleans cultural institutions, and considers the significance of their work for past and future scholars.1

A cast of men in Louisiana—leaders born and educated in the northeastern U.S. and France as well as influential native residents of the francophone and anglophone sectors of New Orleans—founded the Louisiana Historical Society (LHS) in 1836. Almost immediately, they began collecting colonial records, but it was not until the early twentieth century that they gained sustained intellectual and physical control of the documents.2

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“The Books of the Office of My Charge”

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Jenny Marie Forsythe

Graduate Student in the Department of Comparative Literature, University of California, Los Angeles, 450 Humanities Building, Los Angeles, CA 90095; jmforsythe@gmail.com

Abstract Heloise Hulse Cruzat and Laura Louise Porteous spent decades of their lives feeding the quill and ink symbols scratched onto eighteenth century Spanish and French colonial judicial records to their typewriters. Cruzat worked for the Louisiana Historical Society (LHS) from 1917 to 1931 as a translator of French colonial records, and Porteous worked from 1920 to 1948 on the Spanish records. Translation was a central part of the process that transformed the colonial notarial and judicial records into historical documents. In this case study, one Spanish judicial record is compared to Porteous’s corresponding English “Index” entry. Examining such work closely allows us to spotlight what Porteous chose to omit; moreover, her “Index” entry becomes a tool for reading between the lines of one Spanish colonial judicial record.

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“The Books of the Office of My Charge”

ePub

Jenny Marie Forsythe

Graduate Student in the Department of Comparative Literature, University of California, Los Angeles, 450 Humanities Building, Los Angeles, CA 90095; jmforsythe@gmail.com

Abstract Heloise Hulse Cruzat and Laura Louise Porteous spent decades of their lives feeding the quill and ink symbols scratched onto eighteenth century Spanish and French colonial judicial records to their typewriters. Cruzat worked for the Louisiana Historical Society (LHS) from 1917 to 1931 as a translator of French colonial records, and Porteous worked from 1920 to 1948 on the Spanish records. Translation was a central part of the process that transformed the colonial notarial and judicial records into historical documents. In this case study, one Spanish judicial record is compared to Porteous’s corresponding English “Index” entry. Examining such work closely allows us to spotlight what Porteous chose to omit; moreover, her “Index” entry becomes a tool for reading between the lines of one Spanish colonial judicial record.

See All Chapters

Access, Indexes, and Technology

ePub

Erin Roussel

Scanning Manager, The Louisiana Colonial Documents Digitization Project, Louisiana State Museum, 400 Esplanade Ave, New Orleans, LA 70116; eroussel@crt.la.gov

Erin Kinchen

Reading Room Attendant, The Louisiana Historical Center, Louisiana State Museum, 400 Esplanade Ave, New Orleans, LA 70116; ekinchen@crt.la.gov

AbstractThe Louisiana State Museum’s Louisiana Historical Center holds approximately thirty thousand French Superior Council and Spanish Judicial Colonial Documents. These documents contain quotidian details about life in the colonial Atlantic, showcase the judicial and legal structure of the French and Spanish colonies, and place the colonies within the context of developing global political and economic structures. The only existing indexes of the Colonial Documents were created in the first half of the twentieth century and are incomplete. This is in large part a consequence of cultural, social and political constructions that informed the processes of conservators, translators and scholars. However, an ongoing, collaborative initiative entitled The Louisiana Colonial Documents Digitization Project (LCDDP) aims to preserve the hundreds of thousands of individual pages from these records to culminate in an online, newly-indexed, comprehensive database that will be accessible internationally and free of charge. This article demonstrates how the LCDDP, in addition to digitally preserving manuscripts, provides solutions to technical and historiographical issues presented by current indexes as well as physical limitations of the collection. This article also examines the LCDDP for its limitations vis à vis access and conservation as well as its relationship to new research based on current trends and theories in Atlantic World research.

See All Chapters

Access, Indexes, and Technology

ePub

Erin Roussel

Scanning Manager, The Louisiana Colonial Documents Digitization Project, Louisiana State Museum, 400 Esplanade Ave, New Orleans, LA 70116; eroussel@crt.la.gov

Erin Kinchen

Reading Room Attendant, The Louisiana Historical Center, Louisiana State Museum, 400 Esplanade Ave, New Orleans, LA 70116; ekinchen@crt.la.gov

AbstractThe Louisiana State Museum’s Louisiana Historical Center holds approximately thirty thousand French Superior Council and Spanish Judicial Colonial Documents. These documents contain quotidian details about life in the colonial Atlantic, showcase the judicial and legal structure of the French and Spanish colonies, and place the colonies within the context of developing global political and economic structures. The only existing indexes of the Colonial Documents were created in the first half of the twentieth century and are incomplete. This is in large part a consequence of cultural, social and political constructions that informed the processes of conservators, translators and scholars. However, an ongoing, collaborative initiative entitled The Louisiana Colonial Documents Digitization Project (LCDDP) aims to preserve the hundreds of thousands of individual pages from these records to culminate in an online, newly-indexed, comprehensive database that will be accessible internationally and free of charge. This article demonstrates how the LCDDP, in addition to digitally preserving manuscripts, provides solutions to technical and historiographical issues presented by current indexes as well as physical limitations of the collection. This article also examines the LCDDP for its limitations vis à vis access and conservation as well as its relationship to new research based on current trends and theories in Atlantic World research.

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The Allure of the Archives

ePub

Arlette Farge, translated by Thomas Scott-Railton

New Haven: Yale University Press. 2013. 152 pp. ISBN: 9780300176735

Reviewed by Matt Brennan, Ph.D candidate, Tulane University, Department of History, 6823 St. Charles Ave., 115 Hebert Hall, New Orleans, LA 70118; mbrenna2@tulane.edu

In her remarkable book The Allure of the Archives, first published in 1989 and now available in Thomas Scott-Railton’s fine English translation, Arlette Farge offers an incisive examination of the historian’s craft for researchers and archivists alike. Though rooted in her extensive experience using the judicial archives of eighteenth-century France, Farge’s deft blend of anecdote and analysis offers insight into the process of historical inquiry that transcends topical, temporal, and geographic boundaries. The Allure of the Archives thus illuminates the ways in which archives and archivists shape the strategies for viewing, organizing, questioning, and synthesizing materials that comprise the historical imagination. As Farge writes, “[t] he archive is an excess of meaning,” yet her handbook for research, interpretation, and writing successfully suggests the approaches by which historians uncover their understandings of the past from the archive’s sometimes overwhelming depths (31).

See All Chapters

The Allure of the Archives

ePub

Arlette Farge, translated by Thomas Scott-Railton

New Haven: Yale University Press. 2013. 152 pp. ISBN: 9780300176735

Reviewed by Matt Brennan, Ph.D candidate, Tulane University, Department of History, 6823 St. Charles Ave., 115 Hebert Hall, New Orleans, LA 70118; mbrenna2@tulane.edu

In her remarkable book The Allure of the Archives, first published in 1989 and now available in Thomas Scott-Railton’s fine English translation, Arlette Farge offers an incisive examination of the historian’s craft for researchers and archivists alike. Though rooted in her extensive experience using the judicial archives of eighteenth-century France, Farge’s deft blend of anecdote and analysis offers insight into the process of historical inquiry that transcends topical, temporal, and geographic boundaries. The Allure of the Archives thus illuminates the ways in which archives and archivists shape the strategies for viewing, organizing, questioning, and synthesizing materials that comprise the historical imagination. As Farge writes, “[t] he archive is an excess of meaning,” yet her handbook for research, interpretation, and writing successfully suggests the approaches by which historians uncover their understandings of the past from the archive’s sometimes overwhelming depths (31).

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Digital Preservation for Libraries, Archives, and Museums

ePub

Edward M Corrado and Heather Lea Moulaison

Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2014. 294 pp. ISBN: 978-0-8108-8712-1

Reviewed by Kristin Condotta, Adjunct Instructor in History, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO; condotta@wustl.edu

Digital preservation is a leadership issue. This is the key and convincing argument of Edward M. Corrado and Heather Lea Moulaison’s Digital Preservation for Libraries, Archives, & Museums. Their book—which explores “preserving curating and preserving digital content for long-term access” in the arts and sciences—offers a reflective look at the digitization process from two scholars well experienced with web technologies (xix). Its stance is more “I wish I thought of/planned for that before starting” than “how-to,” and purposefully so. This big-picture approach allows their suggestions to be applicable across systems and institutions.

Corrado and Moulaison particularly promote a proactive approach to artifact and research digitization. They emphasize that such projects are long-term and need to be defined as clear yet flexible organizational, technological and financial commitments early in their inception. More centrally, the authors expand on the concerns of subject forerunner Michael Lesk as expressed in the book’s forward, that too much attention has gone to the IT aspects of digital preservation. They instead argue for a “triad of interrelated [and interdependent] activities,” or those relating to management, technology and content (17). They identify management, or the ability of project leaders to make transparent decisions about their digital collection’s access, composition and authenticity during its life-cycle, as the most valuable of these three commitments. As a result, Digital Preservation is geared towards a specific audience of librarians, archivists and curators—as opposed to collections specialists, cataloguers and systems technicians—who typically are charged with shaping the long-term trajectory of digital projects. It points out the ways that digital media share many issues with physical collections (i.e., fitting organizational missions, copyright and preservation), yet have their own challenges (i.e., rapidly changing formats). Above all, it provides the insight needed for these professionals and their institutes to craft forward-looking Memorandum of Understanding for their own digital preservation projects.

See All Chapters

Digital Preservation for Libraries, Archives, and Museums

ePub

Edward M Corrado and Heather Lea Moulaison

Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2014. 294 pp. ISBN: 978-0-8108-8712-1

Reviewed by Kristin Condotta, Adjunct Instructor in History, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO; condotta@wustl.edu

Digital preservation is a leadership issue. This is the key and convincing argument of Edward M. Corrado and Heather Lea Moulaison’s Digital Preservation for Libraries, Archives, & Museums. Their book—which explores “preserving curating and preserving digital content for long-term access” in the arts and sciences—offers a reflective look at the digitization process from two scholars well experienced with web technologies (xix). Its stance is more “I wish I thought of/planned for that before starting” than “how-to,” and purposefully so. This big-picture approach allows their suggestions to be applicable across systems and institutions.

Corrado and Moulaison particularly promote a proactive approach to artifact and research digitization. They emphasize that such projects are long-term and need to be defined as clear yet flexible organizational, technological and financial commitments early in their inception. More centrally, the authors expand on the concerns of subject forerunner Michael Lesk as expressed in the book’s forward, that too much attention has gone to the IT aspects of digital preservation. They instead argue for a “triad of interrelated [and interdependent] activities,” or those relating to management, technology and content (17). They identify management, or the ability of project leaders to make transparent decisions about their digital collection’s access, composition and authenticity during its life-cycle, as the most valuable of these three commitments. As a result, Digital Preservation is geared towards a specific audience of librarians, archivists and curators—as opposed to collections specialists, cataloguers and systems technicians—who typically are charged with shaping the long-term trajectory of digital projects. It points out the ways that digital media share many issues with physical collections (i.e., fitting organizational missions, copyright and preservation), yet have their own challenges (i.e., rapidly changing formats). Above all, it provides the insight needed for these professionals and their institutes to craft forward-looking Memorandum of Understanding for their own digital preservation projects.

See All Chapters

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