Medium 9781475824421

JEBPS Vol 9-N1

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The Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools is a leader in publishing research-to-practice articles for educators and school psychologists. The mission of this journal is to positively influence the daily practice of school-based professionals through studies demonstrating successful research-based practices in educational settings. As a result, the editors are committed to publishing articles with an eye toward improving student performance and outcomes by advancing psychological and educational practices in the schools. They seek articles using non-technical language that (1) outline an evidence-based practice, (2) describe the literature supporting the effectiveness and theoretical underpinnings of the practice, (3) describe the findings of a study in which the practice was implemented in an educational setting, and (4) provide readers with information they need to implement the practice in their own schools in a section entitled Implementation Guidelines. The Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools differs from other scholarly journals in that it features articles that demonstrate empirically-based procedures for readers to apply the practice in their setting.

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Extending the External Validity of the Color Wheel Procedures: Increasing On-Task Behavior in an Urban Kindergarten Classroom

ePub

Briana L. Hautau
Christopher H. Skinner
Jay Pfaffman
Sandra Foster
Janice C. Clark

ABSTRACT:An empirical case study (AB design) was used to evaluate the effects of a modified Color Wheel intervention with an interdependent group-oriented contingency on the on-task behavior of students in an intact urban kindergarten classroom. Results show an increase of on-task behavior during seatwork and carpet time after the intervention was applied. These results provide evidence of the external validity of the Color Wheel intervention plus group reward by demonstrating its application across schools, teachers, classrooms, and target behaviors. Discussion focuses on the need to use (a) scientific procedures to establish the efficacy of this intervention and (b) component analysis studies to isolate causal mechanisms responsible for the behavior change.

THE PROBLEM

Akindergarten teacher volunteered to work with a school psychology consultant (a practicum student) to address several problem behaviors. During the problem identification interview, the teacher indicated that many of her students engaged in a variety of inappropriate behaviors, including hitting, spitting, out-of-seat behavior, excessive talking, name-calling, failing to follow directions, and high levelsof off-task behavior. Following this interview, the consultant collected direct observation data using unstructured narrative recording. The data confirmed the teacher’s reports.

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Decreasing a Fifth-Grade Teacher’s Repeated Directions and Students’ Inappropriate Talking by Using Color Wheel Procedures

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Lee Saecker
Katie Sager
Christopher H. Skinner
Jacqueline L. Williams
Elisa Luna
Shawn Spurgeon

ABSTRACT:An empirical case study (AB design) was used to evaluate the effects of the Color Wheel procedure in an intact urban fifth-grade classroom. Dependent variables include the students’ behavior (inappropriate talking) and the teacher’s behavior (repeated directions). Results show decreases in inappropriate talking and repeated directions after Color Wheel procedures were applied. These results provide evidence of the external validity of the Color Wheel intervention and suggest that this classroom management procedure can increase students’ attention to and compliance with directions and instructions.

THE PROBLEM

A fifth-grade teacher worked with several school psychology students enrolled in a consultation and intervention practicum course sequence. The teacher indicated having several problem behaviors in her classroom. Data from a Problem Identification Interview (Kratochwill & Bergan, 1990) and direct observations using narrative and time-sampling recording procedures (Watson & Steege, 2003) indicated that students were often talking with one another ratherthan paying attention to the teacher’s instructions and directions. Thus, the teacher had to frequently repeat classwide instructions and directions and reprimand students for inappropriate talking. The teacher indicated that she was becoming frustrated with these behaviors and that they were interfering with learning.

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Decreasing Out-of-Seat Behavior in a Kindergarten Classroom: Supplementing the Color Wheel With Interdependent Group-Oriented Rewards

ePub

Jaime L. Below
Amy L. Skinner
Christopher H. Skinner
Christy A. Sorrell
Ashley Irwin

ABSTRACT: An AB design was used to evaluate the effects of a modified Color Wheel intervention with an interdependent group-oriented contingency on the outof-seat behavior of students in an intact kindergarten classroom. Data were collected for the class and for Mike, a student who exhibited high levels of out-of-seat behavior. Results show an immediate and dramatic reduction in out-of-seat behavior after the intervention was applied. Discussion focuses on the external validity and pragmatic characteristics of the Color Wheel and the need for additional efficacy studies to establish the causal mechanisms responsible for changes in behavior.

THE PROBLEM

Akindergarten teacher requested consultation services to address three problems. She noted that students were frequently touching one another (e.g., pushing), getting out of their seats during seatwork time (e.g., approaching the teacher with questions, talking to classmates), and gathering around her to ask questions or complain about classmate’s behavior (e.g., tattling). This teacher was particularly concerned with one student’s (“Mike’s”) high levels of out-ofseat behavior.

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Supplementing the Color Wheel With Interdependent Group-Oriented Rewards: Implementation Guidelines

ePub

Amy L. Skinner
Jay Pfaffman
Kathryn E. Jaspers
Christopher H. Skinner

TARGET STUDENTS AND BEHAVIOR

The Color Wheel (CW) procedures described in these and earlier articles were adapted from the procedures developed by educators at Centennial School (1986) for use in elementary and secondary classrooms serving students with emotional–behavioral disorders (Below, Skinner, Skinner, Sorrell, & Irwin, 2008 [this issue]; Choate, Skinner, Fearrington, Kohler, & Skolits, 2007; Fudge, Reece, Skinner, & Cowden, 2007; Hautau, Skinner, Pfaffman, Foster, & Clark, 2008 [this issue]; Saecker et al., 2008 [this issue]; Skinner, Scala, Dendas, & Lentz, 2007; Skinner & Skinner, 2007). Because the students were young and the teachers wanted to enhance the classroom climate, the teacher and the consultant decided to supplement CW procedures with group-oriented rewards (Below et al., 2008; Hautau et al., 2008). The implementation procedures described here provide a brief overview of CW procedures and focus on supplementing CW procedures with group rewards. For a comprehensive description of CW implementation procedures, see Skinner et al. (2007).

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