Medium 9781475824438

JEBPS Vol 9-N2

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The Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools is a leader in publishing research-to-practice articles for educators and school psychologists. The mission of this journal is to positively influence the daily practice of school-based professionals through studies demonstrating successful research-based practices in educational settings. As a result, the editors are committed to publishing articles with an eye toward improving student performance and outcomes by advancing psychological and educational practices in the schools. They seek articles using non-technical language that (1) outline an evidence-based practice, (2) describe the literature supporting the effectiveness and theoretical underpinnings of the practice, (3) describe the findings of a study in which the practice was implemented in an educational setting, and (4) provide readers with information they need to implement the practice in their own schools in a section entitled Implementation Guidelines. The Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools differs from other scholarly journals in that it features articles that demonstrate empirically-based procedures for readers to apply the practice in their setting.

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Editors’ Comments

ePub

Mark D. Shriver
T. Steuart Watson

This issue presents articles based directly on presentations provided by the authors at the Wing Institute’s Second Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education, in Oakland, California, on April 26, 2007. The topic of this summit was response to intervention (RtI), and the speakers and respective authors for the articles in this series have notable expertise on implementing models of RtI at the state, district, and local school level, as well as within classrooms and with individual students. The articles in this series provide readers with conceptual as well as practical information that will directly assist with the continuing efforts that we know many readers are currently implementing with respect to RtI in their schools.

In the first article, Detrich and colleagues introduce and describe what RtI means and what it does not mean. They provide a review of the empirical evidence for RtI, and they explicitly outline the implications of RtI for educators. This article helps to set the context of RtI for the articles that follow in the series.

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Response to Intervention: What It Is and What It Is Not

ePub

Ronnie Detrich
Jack States
Randy Keyworth

ABSTRACT: Recent federal policy has increased interest in and confusion about response to intervention (RtI). The Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act has endorsed RtI as an alternative for identifying students with specific learning disabilities. The confusion results from the authorization’s coming from a special education initiative, but RtI requires participation from general education as well as special education. Many educators, both special education and general education, have questions about RtI is and how it can be implemented. As such, the purpose of this article is to describe what RtI is and what it is not. In addition, the article considers the evidence base for RtI and discusses the implications for practitioners.

With the reauthorization of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA), response to intervention (RtI) has received a great deal of attention from educators. Much of that interest is the result of two separate sections of the legislation that address RtI. In the first and as an alternative to the traditional discrepancy model, education agencies are now permitted to “use a process that determines if the child responds to scientific researchbased intervention as part of the evaluation procedures” to determine if a student has a specific learning disability.

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Identifying Research-Based Practices for Response to Intervention: Scientifically Based Instruction

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Janet S. Twyman
Melinda Sota

ABSTRACT: The use of research-based programs and frequent direct measurement and evaluation of student learning is imperative in teaching all children to read. However, confusion among educators and policy makers surrounding the meaning of research-based and what constitutes evidence hamper the adoption and development of effective programs. This article describes the types of research encompassed by the term research-based, the types and levels of evidence for program effectiveness, the connection between research-based practices and response to intervention, and the additional questions that educators must ask when evaluating evidence. Implications for classroom instruction are discussed, and resources available to assist educators in evaluating evidence are provided.

Evidence. The word itself conveys a certain strength of conviction, an indisputableness that should go unchallenged. Each of us takes evidence into account in making everyday decisions, even though the range of evidence may differ, depending on the context. When purchasing a new computer, for example, we might look at consumer guides, read reviews, and consult friends and coworkers who have used a particular model. Even such simple decisions such as whether to bring an umbrella on a particular day are usually based on evidence.

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Taking Response to Intervention to Scale: Developing and Implementing a Quality Response-to-Intervention Process

ePub

Edward J. Daly III
Sara Kupzyk
Michael Bossard
John StreetRose Dymacek

ABSTRACT: This article frames the process of helping schools “scale up” their RtI services while offering some ideas about how schools can go about their task by outlining critical elements of a high quality RtI process, sketching a developmental course for moving toward full scale implementation, and briefly describing a model for evaluating and refining the RtI practices over time. The article first examines how a correct understanding of RtI’s purpose and an overarching focus on establishing valid outcome for children (through a technically adequate process) are essential to ensuring an appropriate foundation for RtI services. The article then delineates how schools can develop a valid RtI process by specifying essential elements of RtI practice, proceeding developmentally, using evaluation to refine the process, and taking local ownership of procedures to assure integration into the organizational structure and routines of the school.

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Conceptual and Empirical Issues Related to Developing a Response-to-Intervention Framework

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John M. Hintze

ABSTRACT: Response to intervention (RtI) is used to promote the use of evidencebased instruction in classrooms, with the goal to make general, remedial, and special education work together in a more integrated way. In doing so, RtI provides a means of identifying students who are at risk for academic difficulties and specialized forms of education, using assessment data that reflect students’ response to general education instruction and more targeted forms of intervention. This article presents a conceptual overview of RtI and discusses key dimensions most salient to RtI development. Implementation issues and empirical research needs are discussed.

At the present time, students with learning disabilities (LD) constitute the majority of school-age individuals with disabilities, with the number of the former increasing from 1.2 million in 1979–1980 to 2.9 million in 2003–2004 (U.S. Department of Education, 2004). As a result of increasing prevalence rates, establishing acceptable criteria for the identification of LD has been a controversial issue in the field (Bradley, Danielson, & Hallahan, 2002). From a policy perspective, the identification of LD is a particularly salient issue, in part because of the increase cost associated in providing special education to students being served under this classification: $12,000 per student in special education versus $6,500 per student in general education per year (Chambers, Parrish, & Harr, 2002).

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