Medium 9781475824384

JEBPS Vol 7-N1

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The Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools is a leader in publishing research-to-practice articles for educators and school psychologists. The mission of this journal is to positively influence the daily practice of school-based professionals through studies demonstrating successful research-based practices in educational settings. As a result, the editors are committed to publishing articles with an eye toward improving student performance and outcomes by advancing psychological and educational practices in the schools. They seek articles using non-technical language that (1) outline an evidence-based practice, (2) describe the literature supporting the effectiveness and theoretical underpinnings of the practice, (3) describe the findings of a study in which the practice was implemented in an educational setting, and (4) provide readers with information they need to implement the practice in their own schools in a section entitled Implementation Guidelines. The Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools differs from other scholarly journals in that it features articles that demonstrate empirically-based procedures for readers to apply the practice in their setting.

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Testing Treatments for Oral Reading Fluency Problems: Two Case Studies

ePub

Edward J. Daly III
Jaymi Shroder
Amy Robinson

ABSTRACT: Brief experimental analyses of academic performance problems are gaining in popularity as educators are looking for information about what might actually be effective before they embark on a lengthy treatment process. Work in this area has focused on refining methods for briefly exposing students to control and intervention conditions in order to evaluate possible treatment strategies. Although investigators have strived to keep the analyses as brief as possible, practical demonstrations of their use have not been the primary focus. In addition, the studies reported in the literature do not have long-term outcome data. In this study, a revised and simplified format for examining reading interventions was studied using two students. First, five brief conditions were administered. Hypotheses regarding effective treatment components were then tested in a slightly extended analysis. Hypotheses were confirmed in both cases. Finally, interventions containing treatment components derived from experimental analyses were put into place in natural settings, and their effectiveness was monitored across time. This report should help practitioners to carry out brief tests of treatments in applied settings by demonstrating their use and how to incorporate them in the process of selecting interventions for reading fluency problems.

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IMPLEMENTATION GUIDELINES

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Edward J. Daly III
Jaymi Shroder
Amy Robinson

These implementation guidelines are restricted to the procedures used in the investigation by Daly, Shroder, and Robinson (this issue). For a description of this approach to selecting academic interventions for a broader variety of problems, see Witt, Daly, and Noell (2000).

1.  Identify the level at which the child is currently being instructed.

2.  Choose three passages at the difficulty level at which the child is being instructed and two passages from one grade level below the current instructional level. The latter two passages are for the easier materials (EM) conditions. Be sure to choose passages to which the child has not been or will not be exposed.

3.  Randomly assign the three instructional level passages to one condition—baseline, repeated readings (RR), or listening passage preview (LPP). Randomly assign the easier passages to the remaining two conditions—EM/LPP/RR and EM.

4.  You will need student copies of the passages, examiner copies of the passages, a clipboard, a stopwatch, and a pen.

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Increasing Prosocial Interactions Using Peers: Extension of Positive Peer-Reporting Methods

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Kathryn E. Hoff
Marla J. Ronk

ABSTRACT: Positive peer reporting (PPR) is a peer-mediated intervention that increases positive interactions and decreases negative interactions among peers. The current study investigated the effectiveness of a PPR intervention for seven 3rd- and 4th-grade special education students with cognitive impairments on both a classwide level and an individual level during unstructured classroom time. An ABAB design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of PPR on the prosocial interactions among peers. Results support the use of PPR for increasing prosocial interactions between peers at a classwide and an individual level. Negative social interactions remained low throughout the project. Implications for use in schools, as well as limitations and future directions, are discussed.

Positive peer relations are vitally important for long-term adjustment and healthy development across the lifespan (Parker & Asher, 1987). Moreover, one's peers play a powerful role in the development and maintenance of prosocial behavior (Hartup & Stevens, 1997) and can be exceptional behavior change agents (Patterson & Anderson, 1964). Unfortunately, not all children experience positive peer relations. Children with disabilities, particularly those with cognitive impairment, represent a population with concurrent deficits in social competence (Gresham & McMillan, 1997). These youth may experience limited or negative social interactions and may be actively neglected or rejected by their peers (Kavale & Forness, 1996; Odom & Wolery, 2003; O'Reilly & Glynn, 1995). Still, others do not possess the skills necessary to interact successfully with their peers (Leffert, Siperstein, & Millikan, 2000; Prater, Bruhl, & Serna, 1998).

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IMPLEMENTATION GUIDELINES

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Kathryn E. Hoff
Marla J. Ronk

Before intervention implementation, students complete two 40-minute training sessions to learn pertinent social skill as well as the intervention procedures.

Training Session 1

1.  Teach students how to give compliments. Steps include the following: notice someone's positive behavior (e.g., doing something nice, helping, sharing), approach the person, look at the person, and tell the person what you like. Provide examples of appropriate and inappropriate compliments, and solicit examples from students. Demonstrate complimenting through modeling and role-playing. Give corrective feedback and reinforcement when necessary.

2.  If necessary, provide students with prompts to facilitate complimenting. Candidates for additional prompts include young children or children with cognitive impairment. First, give each student a different compliment to memorize and practice (e.g., “Amy shared her to crayons”). Second, have students make a poster of compliments with missing keywords (e.g., “I like your ______”). Let students practice creating unique compliments using the poster as a prompt.

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Detect, Practice, and Repair: The Effects of a Classwide Intervention on Elementary Students’ Math-Fact Fluency

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Brian C. Poncy
Christopher H. Skinner
Tish O’Mara

ABSTRACT: An AB design was used to investigate the effect of detect, practice, and repair—a multicomponent classwide mathematics intervention—on subtraction fluency with a group of 14 low-achieving students over a 6-week period. Each student’s median correct digits (CD) per 2-minute score was calculated pre- and postintervention. During baseline, the group averaged 21.7 CD per 2 minutes. Following the intervention, they averaged 41.0 CD per 2 minutes. District norms showed an average weekly growth rate of 0.5 CD per week (3.0 CD over 6 weeks) on 2-minute single-skill mathematics probes using curriculum-based measurement procedures. During the intervention, the students’ average growth rate was 3.2 CD per week. Chi-square analysis revealed a significant increase in growth rates over the district norm. Discussion focuses on developing procedures that educators can use on a classwide basis to prevent and remedy basic math-fact skill deficits.

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IMPLEMENTATION GUIDELINES

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Brian C. Poncy
Christopher H. Skinner

Detect, practice, and repair (DPR) was designed to be used with groups of students who need to increase fluency when completing basic math facts (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division). This intervention is appropriate for students who complete math facts accurately but slowly (e.g., 20 correct digits per minute) and who use counting strategies to arrive at accurate answers. Although DPR will be used primarily for elementary-age students, older students with fluency deficiencies in basic fact skills could benefit as well.

Because DPR is complex, teachers need to give adequate time for students to learn how to work within the structure of the intervention. Teachers also need to explicitly demonstrate procedures and give students multiple opportunities to practice each step. This will need to be done for two or three intervention sessions before students will proficiently perform the steps of DPR. In addition, teachers will need to monitor student behavior throughout the intervention and give individualized feedback to improve implementation (“Remember to move when you hear the click”) and reinforce accurate implementation (“Way to move with the sound of the click”).

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Introducing a Changing-Criterion Design to Hold Students Accountable in Structured Physical Activity Settings

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Peter A. Hastie
Tom Sharpe

ABSTRACT: This study had two purposes: first, to determine the influence of one formal accountability procedure on physical activity levels for students participating in structured physical activity classes; and, second, to support the use of pedometer technology as a formal measurement tool. Eighteen students enrolled in an undergraduate physical activity course were required to reach a designated pedometer-recorded step target for each participation day and were monitored by a teacher-stipulated changing-criterion design. Failure to meet the daily criterion resulted in a response-cost reduction in grade points earned. Results showed that student activity levels—for which they were held formally accountable—consistently rose with the increasing criterion demand. Following criterion and response-cost removal, total daily step counts dropped. In addition, student perceptions of skill competency and activity enjoyment were positively correlated with activity levels. This article provides general support for the design and implementation of formal accountability systems in education settings. In addition, support for the use of a changing criterion design, coupled with a response-cost procedure designed to increase student activity levels, was demonstrated.

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IMPLEMENTATION GUIDELINES

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Peter A. Hastie
Tom Sharpe

The treatment recommended in this study is designed specifically for adult and older K–12 populations engaged within structured physical activity courses. This study was specific to undergraduate college courses serving a young adult population comprising a range of physical ability and experiential levels and engaged within a setting devoted to introductory-level instruction in a team sport. However, the changing-criterion design coupled with step-count information is potentially appropriate for a variety of individual and team sports and fitness activity contents and a range of course-participant ages, with the qualifier that the population served is capable of understanding simple computer-based data gathering for diagnostic purposes.

The primary target behavior is the step counts by students engaged in structured physical activity classes. Step counts are collected through pedometer technology, which has been documented as a viable measurement tool for determining relative activity levels across a variety of team and individual sports and fitness activities (Lauzon et al., 2003; Moreau et al., 2001).

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