Medium 9781475824377

JEBPS Vol 6-N2

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The Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools is a leader in publishing research-to-practice articles for educators and school psychologists. The mission of this journal is to positively influence the daily practice of school-based professionals through studies demonstrating successful research-based practices in educational settings. As a result, the editors are committed to publishing articles with an eye toward improving student performance and outcomes by advancing psychological and educational practices in the schools. They seek articles using non-technical language that (1) outline an evidence-based practice, (2) describe the literature supporting the effectiveness and theoretical underpinnings of the practice, (3) describe the findings of a study in which the practice was implemented in an educational setting, and (4) provide readers with information they need to implement the practice in their own schools in a section entitled Implementation Guidelines. The Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools differs from other scholarly journals in that it features articles that demonstrate empirically-based procedures for readers to apply the practice in their setting.

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Using Incremental Rehearsal to Teach Letter Identification to a Preschool-Age Child

ePub

Rebecca Bunn
Matthew K. Burns
Holly H. Hoffman
Cortney L. Newman

ABSTRACT: Educators today emphasize the importance of teaching young children prereading skills such as letter recognition. The current article demonstrates the use of incremental rehearsal (IR), a technique linked to increased retention, to teach letter recognition to a 4-year-old girl who had previously been unsuccessful in learning alphabet letter names. She rehearsed letter names during 15-minute sessions for 3 weeks, after which she correctly stated the name of each letter within 2 seconds of the visual presentation. Therefore, IR appeared to be a quick and easy tool to use as an intervention for children experiencing difficulty learning letter names.

Approximately 4.7% of all preschool children, ages 3 through 5 years, participate in special education programming through public schools (U.S. Department of Education, 2000). However, little is known about the type of intervention they receive because information obtained by the U.S. Department of Education is not as specific as it is for other age groups (Lerner, 2003). Reading was specifically identified by the President's Commission on Excellence in Special Education (2001) as an area especially in need of early intervention, probably because approximately 80% of children experiencing academic difficulties encounter difficulties in reading (Lerner, 2003). Further, young children with reading difficulties usually continue to experience significant reading difficulties as adults (National Research Council, 1998).

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IMPLEMENTATION GUIDELINES

ePub

Rebecca Bunn
Matthew K. Burns
Holly H. Hoffman
Cortney L. Newman

Incremental rehearsal (IR; Tucker, 1989) can be used with students with and without disabilities from various age groups. Previous research utilized an individual model in which one student is taught by one person. Thus, a one-on-one instructional model should be used until future research examines small group applications. Procedures can be conducted within a classroom as long as a tutorial approach is used in which the student and teacher are seated away from distractions and interruptions.

The study upon which these implementation guidelines are based used letter recognition as the target behavior, but IR could be used for almost any material that requires rote memorization, such as multiplication facts, spelling words, vocabulary words, and so forth. However, the current implementation guidelines will address letter recognition with preschool-age children.

The following procedures can be used to rehearse material that requires retention to the point of automaticity (fast and easy).

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Using Incremental Rehearsal to Teach Sight Words to Adult Students With Moderate Mental Retardation

ePub

Matthew K. Burns
Amanda Kimosh

ABSTRACT: Previous research supports teaching sight words to individuals with mental retardation (MR) to improve various applied reading skills (e.g., reading signs located within the community). The current study examined the use of incremental rehearsal (IR), a drill model using a ratio of 90% known items to 10% unknown, to teach sight words to adults identified with moderate MR using a multiple-baseline design. Hygiene and “shopping list” words were individually taught to 2 adult (21 and 19 years old) female students participating in a special education classroom. The number of words read correctly increased by 15 words per minute for each participant and resulted in effect sizes of 5.91 and 8.06. The percentage of nonoverlapping data was 100% for both. Implications for practice and future research are included.

Reading is an essential skill for independent living among people with disabilities (Beirne-Smith, Patton, & Ittenbach, 1994; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 1999). In order to help ensure independence, the focus of reading instruction for people with mental retardation (MR) often turns to functional reading skills such as sight recognition of words necessary to meet various life needs (Collins & Griffen, 1997; Cuvo & Klatt, 1992; Schloss, Alper, & Young, 1995).

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IMPLEMENTATION GUIDELINES

ePub

Matthew K. Burns
Amanda Kimosh

Incremental rehearsal (IR; Tucker, 1989) can be used with students with and without disabilities from various age groups. Previous research utilized an individual model in which there was one student and one teacher during instructional sessions. Thus, a one-on-one instructional model should be used. Procedures can be conducted within a classroom as long as a tutorial approach is used in which the student and teacher are seated together away from distractions and interruptions.

Target Behavior

The study on which these guidelines are based used sight-word acquisition as the target behavior, as has previous research (MacQuarrie, Tucker, Burns, & Hartman, 2002). However, IR could be used for almost any material that requires rote memorization, such as multiplication facts, spelling words, vocabulary words, and so forth.

Procedures

The following procedures can be used to rehearse material that requires retention to automaticity. These procedures will use reading sight words as the example, but this technique could be used with other stimuli.

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Using PDAs to Increase the Homework Completion of Students With ADHD

ePub

Daniel Currie
David L. Lee
Mary Catherine Scheeler

ABSTRACT: Homework assignments have increased in recent years, commensurate with increases in required academic content. This is increasingly problematic for students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), who often have difficulty with organizational skills and may not record assignments. One solution may be using personal data assistants (PDAs) to document homework assignments. In this study, a multiple baseline across participants design was used to evaluate the effects of PDAs on percentage of homework completion. Results were that PDAs increased homework completion for 3 of 4 middle school students. Furthermore, all 3 students indicated that the PDAs were easy to use and helpful in keeping track of homework assignments. Classroom teachers' perceptions of the usefulness of PDAs were mixed and were partly a function of level of effectiveness across students. PDAs give teachers a viable method to help compensate for the organizational difficulties of students with ADHD to enhance assignment completion.

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IMPLEMENTATION GUIDELINES

ePub

Daniel Currie
David L. Lee
Mary Catherine Scheeler

The hallmark characteristic of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is heightened activity levels. A less noticeable, but just as detrimental, characteristic of these students is poor organizational skills. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the area of homework completion. In order to realize the academic benefits of homework, students must correctly document the assignment, complete the assignment, and return their work for corrective feedback. Unfortunately, students with ADHD omit the first step of this process, and as a result, miss out on academic gains.

Personal data assistants (PDAs) are handheld computers that students can use to better organize their homework assignments. These computers allow students to document the specifics about assignments and the dates those assignments are due. In addition, many PDAs allow users to develop "to do" lists with audible reminders for upcoming due dates. More recent advances in technology allow teachers to download assignments to students' PDAs using a process called beaming.

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FEATURE ARTICLE

ePub

F. Donald Kelly
Frances Prevatt

ABSTRACT: The need to identify empirically validated, or evidence-based, treatments for the academic, behavioral, emotional, and social problems of children and adolescents has been a critical issue facing the psychology profession. Until recently, there has been no structured and commonly accepted approach for evaluating and determining evidence-based interventions. In response to this problem, the Society for the Study of School Psychology and Division 16 of the American Psychological Association produced the Procedural and Coding Manual for Review of Evidence-Based Interventions (hereafter referred to as the Manual). We used this Manual to review and evaluate a body of literature focusing on dropout prevention (Prevatt & Kelly, 2003). During the execution of this review, we encountered a variety of challenges that raised questions as to the difficulty level in applying the Manual, and to its effectiveness in identifying and validating evidence-based practices. Based on this experience, this article discusses challenges and difficulties, as well as advantages and disadvantages, in using this Manual to review and code individual studies. A number of areas are discussed: conducting a thorough literature review, training coders and obtaining adequate inter-rater reliability, time constraints, suitability of the coding categories, and presenting the final review. Finally, the implications for practitioners and researchers in school psychology are discussed, with particular attention to the issues of primary outcomes and multicomponent intervention programs.

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Evaluating Evidence-Based Interventions in Schools

ePub

F. Donald Kelly
Frances Prevatt

ABSTRACT: The need to identify empirically validated, or evidence-based, treatments for the academic, behavioral, emotional, and social problems of children and adolescents has been a critical issue facing the psychology profession. Until recently, there has been no structured and commonly accepted approach for evaluating and determining evidence-based interventions. In response to this problem, the Society for the Study of School Psychology and Division 16 of the American Psychological Association produced the Procedural and Coding Manual for Review of Evidence-Based Interventions (hereafter referred to as the Manual). We used this Manual to review and evaluate a body of literature focusing on dropout prevention (Prevatt & Kelly, 2003). During the execution of this review, we encountered a variety of challenges that raised questions as to the difficulty level in applying the Manual, and to its effectiveness in identifying and validating evidence-based practices. Based on this experience, this article discusses challenges and difficulties, as well as advantages and disadvantages, in using this Manual to review and code individual studies. A number of areas are discussed: conducting a thorough literature review, training coders and obtaining adequate inter-rater reliability, time constraints, suitability of the coding categories, and presenting the final review. Finally, the implications for practitioners and researchers in school psychology are discussed, with particular attention to the issues of primary outcomes and multicomponent intervention programs.

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