Medium 9781475824445

JEBPS Vol 10-N1

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The Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools is a leader in publishing research-to-practice articles for educators and school psychologists. The mission of this journal is to positively influence the daily practice of school-based professionals through studies demonstrating successful research-based practices in educational settings. As a result, the editors are committed to publishing articles with an eye toward improving student performance and outcomes by advancing psychological and educational practices in the schools. They seek articles using non-technical language that (1) outline an evidence-based practice, (2) describe the literature supporting the effectiveness and theoretical underpinnings of the practice, (3) describe the findings of a study in which the practice was implemented in an educational setting, and (4) provide readers with information they need to implement the practice in their own schools in a section entitled Implementation Guidelines. The Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools differs from other scholarly journals in that it features articles that demonstrate empirically-based procedures for readers to apply the practice in their setting.

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Classwide Effects of Positive Peer Reporting on the On-Task Behavior of Children With Emotional Disturbance

ePub

Kristi L. Hofstadter
Kevin M. Jones
William J. Therrien

ABSTRACT: Positive peer reporting (PPR) has emerged as one method for increasing positive outcomes for at-risk students. The current study employed an increasing-intensity design to evaluate the impact of two levels of treatment—namely, targeted PPR and classwide PPR—on the on-task behavior of children with emotional disturbance in a restrictive placement: Targeted PPR consisted of classmates’ directing praise statements to the two children with lowest levels of on-task behavior; class-wide PPR consisted of peer praise statements being exchanged among all children. Results indicated that both strategies were moderately effective, although benchmark levels of task engagement were achieved during classwide PPR only. Implications of these findings toward a better understanding of PPR causal mechanisms are discussed.

THE PROBLEM

Classroom disruptive behavior may have deleterious effects on children’s educational and social outcomes. Disruptive behaviors compose the majority of school discipline referrals to the office (Sterling-Turner, Robinson, & Wilczynski, 2001), and the frequently used solution to the problem of educational disruption has been to remove highly disruptive students from the general education setting (Algozzine & Algozzine, 2007). Thus, students with high rates of distracting and potentially disruptive behavior are grouped in restrictive settings, such as self-contained classrooms for students with emotional disturbance, in which aggregated levels of disruption may considerably detract from time engaged in academic tasks. Furthermore, poor peer relations and the belief that norm-breaking behavior elicits peer acceptance have been shown to increase levels of off-task behavior, exacerbating educational difficulties for students classified with emotional disturbance (Bru, 2006). Positive peer relations, however, have been found to contribute to children’s optimal development (Brownell & Gifford-Smith, 2003).

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Effects of a Brief Experimental Analysis and a Reading Intervention on Multiple Dependent Variables

ePub

Laura R. Kuhn
LaQuanta Watson
Masanori Ota
Mary ColeKristin N. Johnson-Gros

ABSTRACT: A brief experimental analysis was used to examine the effects of empirically based reading interventions on reading fluency, comprehension, and generalization, with a second-grade female student. The student was referred to a university school psychology clinic because of difficulties in oral reading fluency. After a baseline period, a brief experimental analysis was conducted, followed by a sustained treatment phase and a maintenance probe at 1 month. The impact of treatment was assessed on instructional and high word-overlap passages, as well as comprehension questions and maze performance. The results suggest that brief experimental analysis can facilitate identifying the most effective reading intervention in the areas of fluency, comprehension, and generalization for a student with reading difficulties. Furthermore, perception of treatment outcomes yielded satisfactory results with intervention procedures and results.

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Functional Assessment-Based Intervention in the General Education Setting

ePub

Sekhar S. Pindiprolu

ABSTRACT: Functional assessments were conducted to identify the conditions associated with off-task behavior of a general education student. The functional assessments consisted of the Student-Assisted Functional Assessment Interview, forced-choice preference assessments, and structured antecedent analyses. Based on the results of the assessments, an intervention package was implemented consisting of reinforcement and curriculum revision. Results indicate that the intervention package was successful in reducing off-task behavior. Furthermore, component analysis was conducted to identify the intervention components that are critical in maintaining the decreases in off-task behavior. Results are discussed in terms of how functional assessment procedures can be applied to typical students in general education classrooms and how multiple assessment measures facilitated the identification of an effective intervention package.

Avariety of assessment methodologies have been employed to study the relationship between problem behaviors and controlling variables (Umbreit, 1995). These methodologies include descriptive assessment methods (Mace, Lalli, Lalli, & Shea, 1993), which suggest possible functional relations between variables and behavior, as well as experimental methods (e.g., Iwata, Dorsey, Slifer, Bauman, & Richman, 1982/1994), which verify functional relations. This development of functional assessment techniques has led to function-based interventions, and it has contributed to an increased interest and implementation of proactive, reinforcement-based interventions for problem behaviors (Gable, 1996).

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Feature Article

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Laura L. Grow
James E. Carr
Linda A. LeBlanc

ABSTRACT: Designing treatments to address the function of problem behavior is currently considered best practice. One of the most common behavioral functions is that of contingent social attention. The present article describes several function-based treatments for attention-maintained problem behavior, and it discusses the unique challenges associated with this behavioral function in school settings. Clinical recommendations are provided for selecting and modifying treatments based on individual student needs.

Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) is the process of identifying environmental events associated with problem behavior, which allows school psychologists to generate hypotheses about behavioral function (Asmus, Vollmer, & Borerro, 2002; Gresham, Watson, & Skinner, 2001). This information can be used to design treatments that alter important environmental antecedents or consequences to produce positive behavior change. Before the development of FBA, treatments often consisted of selecting arbitrary reinforcers or punishers to overpower preexisting reinforcers for problem behavior (Pelios, Morren, Tesch, & Axelrod, 1999). Treating problem behavior based on its operant function has several advantages. First, research suggests that treatments based on FBA outcomes are more effective in reducing problem behavior and increasing appropriate behavior than are treatments selected without knowledge of behavioral function (e.g., Iwata, Pace, Cowdery, & Miltenberger, 1994). Second, knowledge of behavior function allows the clinician to avoid irrelevant or contraindicated treatments that might otherwise be reasonable treatment options. For example, guided compliance is a commonly recommended treatment for escape-maintained noncompliance. If noncompliance is maintained by attention, however, guided compliance may be contraindicated because the copious attention provided contingent on problem behavior might actually further reinforce the behavior.

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Treatments for Attention-Maintained Problem Behavior: Empirical Support and Clinical Recommendations

ePub

Laura L. Grow
James E. Carr
Linda A. LeBlanc

ABSTRACT: Designing treatments to address the function of problem behavior is currently considered best practice. One of the most common behavioral functions is that of contingent social attention. The present article describes several function-based treatments for attention-maintained problem behavior, and it discusses the unique challenges associated with this behavioral function in school settings. Clinical recommendations are provided for selecting and modifying treatments based on individual student needs.

Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) is the process of identifying environmental events associated with problem behavior, which allows school psychologists to generate hypotheses about behavioral function (Asmus, Vollmer, & Borerro, 2002; Gresham, Watson, & Skinner, 2001). This information can be used to design treatments that alter important environmental antecedents or consequences to produce positive behavior change. Before the development of FBA, treatments often consisted of selecting arbitrary reinforcers or punishers to overpower preexisting reinforcers for problem behavior (Pelios, Morren, Tesch, & Axelrod, 1999). Treating problem behavior based on its operant function has several advantages. First, research suggests that treatments based on FBA outcomes are more effective in reducing problem behavior and increasing appropriate behavior than are treatments selected without knowledge of behavioral function (e.g., Iwata, Pace, Cowdery, & Miltenberger, 1994). Second, knowledge of behavior function allows the clinician to avoid irrelevant or contraindicated treatments that might otherwise be reasonable treatment options. For example, guided compliance is a commonly recommended treatment for escape-maintained noncompliance. If noncompliance is maintained by attention, however, guided compliance may be contraindicated because the copious attention provided contingent on problem behavior might actually further reinforce the behavior.

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