Medium 9781475824414

JEBPS Vol 8-N2

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The Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools is a leader in publishing research-to-practice articles for educators and school psychologists. The mission of this journal is to positively influence the daily practice of school-based professionals through studies demonstrating successful research-based practices in educational settings. As a result, the editors are committed to publishing articles with an eye toward improving student performance and outcomes by advancing psychological and educational practices in the schools. They seek articles using non-technical language that (1) outline an evidence-based practice, (2) describe the literature supporting the effectiveness and theoretical underpinnings of the practice, (3) describe the findings of a study in which the practice was implemented in an educational setting, and (4) provide readers with information they need to implement the practice in their own schools in a section entitled Implementation Guidelines. The Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools differs from other scholarly journals in that it features articles that demonstrate empirically-based procedures for readers to apply the practice in their setting.

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4 Articles

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Establishing an Evidence Base for a Classroom Management Procedure With a Series of Studies: Evaluating the Color Wheel

ePub

Christopher H. Skinner
Amy L. Skinner

ABSTRACT: The relationships between applied experimental studies and empirical case studies (e.g., single-subject AB designs) are examined within the context of one experiment and four empirical case studies presented in this and the next issue of Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools. With these studies, we demonstrate how applied efficacy studies, even those with strong experimental designs and results, may fail to control for all threats to internal validity in classroom settings. Next, we discuss how a series of empirical case studies (effectiveness studies) can be used to provide additional evidence of effectiveness, enhance the external validity of experiments designed to evaluate interventions, and provide evidence of an intervention’s practical utility. Thus, we demonstrate how a series of applied studies can contribute to the process of establishing an evidence base for classroom interventions.

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Using Multiple Classroom Rules, Public Cues, and Consistent Transition Strategies to Reduce Inappropriate Vocalizations: An Investigation of the Color Wheel

ePub

Daniel L. Fudge
Lisa Reece
Christopher H. Skinner
Dan Cowden

ABSTRACT: An ABAB withdrawal design was used to evaluate the effects of the Color Wheel (CW) on inappropriate talking (IT) in an intact fourth-grade urban classroom. The CW is a classroom management technique that includes three sets of rules, posted cues indicating which set of rules are in effect at any given time, and transition procedures for switching from one activity to another and from one set of rules to another. Results show immediate and sustained decreases in IT when the CW is applied and that IT returns to baseline levels when CW is withdrawn. Discussion focuses on using specific and reasonable rules and transition procedures to prevent and remedy inappropriate classroom behavior. Directions are provided for future research that is designed to enhance the internal and external validity of the CW procedures.

THE PROBLEM

Many teachers report feeling unqualified, untrained, and unable to manage their students’ inappropriate classroom behaviors (Kauffman, Wong, Lloyd, Hung, & Pullen, 1991). Both location transitions (e.g., room to room) and within-classroom activity transitions may be particularly challenging. Within-classroom activity transitions involve stopping one activity and beginning another (Rice & Spetz, 1982; Schmit, Alper, Raschke, & Ryndak, 2000). Managing within-classroom activity transitions is challenging because students may not always complete activities at the same time. When it is time to transition, those students who have not finished may be reticent to stop; therefore, they may not be prepared for the next activity. When new activities are initiated, teachers provide directions (e.g., “Open the workbook to page 17”) and instruction for the next activity (e.g., description and demonstration of how to convert fractions to percents). Those students who are still attending to the previous task, as opposed to attending to teacher directions, may have to be prompted and reprimanded (e.g., “Johnny, why don’t you have your book out and opened to page 17?”). Students not paying attention to the teacher’s instruction may have to be retaught.

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Extending the External Validity of the Color Wheel Procedures: Decreasing Out-of-Seat Behavior in an Intact Rural First-Grade Classroom

ePub

Stephani M. Choate
Christopher H. Skinner
Jamie Fearrington
Billie Kohler
Gary Skolits

ABSTRACT: An empirical case study (AB design) was used to evaluate the effects of a Color Wheel (CW) intervention on the out-of-seat (OS) behavior of students in an intact first-grade classroom. Data analyses include classwide behavior and the behavior of one student who was often OS. Results show an immediate decrease in OS behavior for the class and the target student after CW was applied. These results support the efficacy of the CW procedure and provide evidence of the external validity of the CW intervention by demonstrating its application across students, teachers, classrooms, and target behaviors.

THE PROBLEM

Afirst-grade teacher requested consultation services to reduce the inappropriate and disruptive behaviors of a particular student (“Joe”). However, during the process of consultation, the teacher indicated that many of her students frequently asked questions without raising their hands, got of out their seats without permission, did not listen to her instructions, and talked to classmates when they were supposed to be working. The teacher indicated that she was frustrated with the lack of classroom discipline, and she was concerned that the large amount of time that she spent managing disruptions was reducing the time to teach academic skills, the quality of her instruction, and student learning (e.g., their seat work suffered because of the constant disruptions). Her biggest concern was the high rates of out-of-seat (OS) behavior during reading time. This teacher’s concerns regarding disruptions during instructional time and reading in particular are not uncommon.

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The Color Wheel: Implementation Guidelines

ePub

Christopher H. Skinner
Gina Scala
Deb Dendas
Francis Edward Lentz

TARGET STUDENTS AND BEHAVIOR

Color Wheel (CW) procedures were designed as one component of a comprehensive program for classrooms that serve students with emotional and behavioral disorders across all grade levels (Centennial School, 1986). The two studies presented in this issue demonstrate that CW procedures can be adapted and integrated into general education elementary classrooms to reduce inappropriate talking and out-of-seat behavior (Choate, Skinner, Fearrington, Kohler, & Skolits, 2008 [this issue]; Fudge, Reece, Skinner, & Cowden, 2008 [this issue]). Formal and informal observations and teacher reports from these and other studies suggest that CW procedures may reduce other inappropriate behaviors, increase academic achievement by allowing for more high-quality instruction and learning time, reduce teacher frustration and burnout, and improve the classroom climate (Below, Skinner, Skinner, Sorrell, & Irwin, in press; Hautau, Skinner, Pfaffman, Foster, & Clark, in press; Saecker et al., in press; Skinner & Skinner, 2008 [this issue]). The implementation procedures described here are minor adaptations from the Centennial School Training Manual (Centennial School, 1986).

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