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Jsl Vol 5-N2

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The Journal of School Leadership is broadening the conversation about schools and leadership and is currently accepting manuscripts. We welcome manuscripts based on cutting-edge research from a wide variety of theoretical perspectives and methodological orientations. The editorial team is particularly interested in working with international authors, authors from traditionally marginalized populations, and in work that is relevant to practitioners around the world. Growing numbers of educators and professors look to the six bimonthly issues to: deal with problems directly related to contemporary school leadership practice teach courses on school leadership and policy use as a quality reference in writing articles about school leadership and improvement.

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Cognitive Perspectives on School Leadership

ePub

KENNETH LEITHWOOD1

ABSTRACT: Cognitive perspectives have the potential to make three central contributions to the study and practice of school leadership: to redefine the meaning of effective leadership; to change our understanding of the knowledge base required to exercise effective leadership; and to reform the means for developing effective school leadership. This paper describes the nature of each of these contributions and the present status of efforts to progress with each.

Cognitive perspectives have the potential to make three central contributions to the study and practice of school leadership:

This paper describes the nature of these potential contributions. In addition, the current status of theory and research useful in realizing these contributions is illustrated. Research used for these illustrations includes a series of studies carried out by me and my colleagues since about 1986 (a comprehensive description of these studies can be found in Leithwood and Steinbach (1995); additional sources include the research reported by others in Hallinger, Leithwood and Murphy (1993) and in a special issue of Educational Administration Quarterly [1993, 29(3)]. The paper also clarifies challenges that lie ahead if the three potential contributions are to be significantly realized. After painting in a bit of historical and conceptual context, the paper addresses each potential contribution, in turn.

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Exploring Connections between Teacher Efficacy and Principals’ Leadership Behaviors

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KRISTINE A. HIPP1
PAUL V. BREDESON.*

ABSTRACT: This paper reports the results of an exploratory investigation of the connections between principals’ leadership behaviors and teachers’ sense of efficacy in selected middle schools currently involved in building-level change efforts. Our findings indicate that there is a significant difference between general teaching efficacy (GTE) and personal teaching efficacy (PTE), the two dimensions that define the construct of teacher efficacy. When asked to interpret principals’ leadership behaviors, there was a significant difference between teachers’ and principals’ perceptions of principals’ leadership behaviors. Finally, the principal leadership behaviors most strongly related to GTE were models behavior, provides contingent rewards and inspires group purpose. Modeling behaviors and providing contingent rewards were also significantly related to PTE. Implications for further research, for principal preparation, and for administrative practice are discussed.

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Theory to Practice in Administrator Preparation: An Evaluation Study

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DIANA G. POUNDER1

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of a field-based doctoral program in educational administration on linking theory and research to the improvement of practice. Specifically, the study evaluates the degree and ways in which doctoral student field-based projects and studies completed as an integral part of the University of Utah's field-based Ed.D. program have resulted in program or policy changes in schools or other education-related agencies.

This evaluation of the theory-practice emphasis in the University of Utah’s Ed.D. program suggests that the program is successfully meeting its central program objective. Study data indicate that approximately one-half to two-thirds of student projects resulted in some sort of policy or program change in educational practice. Projects that resulted in change in local schools, districts or other education-related agencies tended to be either policy adoptions addressing legal and/or personnel administration concerns or instructional program implementations for students and staff. Factors that enhanc 3d the likelihood of a project resulting in a policy or program change were: 1) the student’s familiarity with relevant problems of practice; 2) the degree to which students worked closely with other organizational employees in developing and refining the project; and 3) the utility and conceptual/analytical quality of the proposal itself.

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Designing Effective School-Linked Services Programs: Lessons from Collaborative Programs for Children with Disabilities

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CAROLYN KELLEY1.*
JOSEPH KAHNE2

ABSTRACT: After approximately twenty years of experience with federal education legislation for individuals with disabilities, educational researchers have developed an extensive knowledge base on collaborative delivery systems for children with disabilities. Drawing on this experience, the article examines research in the areas of funding, parent involvement and accountability for lessons which can be applied to the design of school-linked service programs for at-risk youth.

Numerous reports and initiatives promote school-linked services (SLS) as a means of better addressing the interdependent social, emotional, economic and educational needs of children (see for example, Family Welfare Research Group, 1991; Kirst, 1989; Kusserow, 1991; Melaville and Blank, 1993; Shaver, Wagner, Newman and Wechsler, 1994). This delivery system provides a rational alternative to the traditional fragmented model in which children with multiple problems must overcome numerous logistical challenges to receive needed services. Today, collaboration initiatives at the state and local levels are operating in virtually every state, with over a thousand programs in existence (Kahn and Kammerman, 1992). There are clear indications that collaborative reform will continue to be viewed as a positive response to the complex economic and social problems facing children and their families (Sullivan, 1993).

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Superintendent Evaluation–More Than a Technical Process

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RUTH FEDERMAN STEIN

ABSTRACT: Current articles on formal superintendent evaluation suggest that evaluations are beneficial for superintendents. A critical evaluation, however, can cause numerous problems for school board members. In this case study, the author shows how school board members resolved a major community crisis precipitated by a critical superintendent evaluation. Issues are analyzed through four major frameworks: symbolic, political, human resources, and structural.

Formal superintendent evaluations have become commonplace, and currrently nearly 90 percent of all superintendents are evaluated at least once a year (Robinson and Bickers, 1990). In responding to separate surveys for Building Better BoardAdministrator Relations (McCurdy, 1992), 87 percent of school board presidents and 88 percent of all superintendents from different districts said that “the chief executives of their schools are evaluated regularly by the boards” (p.81). Dillon and Halliwell (1991) ascribed the development of formal superintendent evaluations to the effective schools and accountability movements. Since state legislatures such as New York (New York State Education Department, 1985) and Ohio (Dillon and Halliwell, 1991) have passed measures requiring superintendents to be held accountable and to be formally evaluated each year, the prevalence of formal superintendent evaluations is understandable. Because boards of education are responsible for hiring–and firing–their district superintendents, formal superintendent evaluation has consequently become a major board responsibility.

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