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Jsl Vol 20-N1

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The Journal of School Leadership is broadening the conversation about schools and leadership and is currently accepting manuscripts. We welcome manuscripts based on cutting-edge research from a wide variety of theoretical perspectives and methodological orientations. The editorial team is particularly interested in working with international authors, authors from traditionally marginalized populations, and in work that is relevant to practitioners around the world. Growing numbers of educators and professors look to the six bimonthly issues to: deal with problems directly related to contemporary school leadership practice teach courses on school leadership and policy use as a quality reference in writing articles about school leadership and improvement.

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Editor’s Introduction: Research Revisited: Looking Back to Learn Lessons for the Future in School Leadership

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Jeffrey S. Brooks, Editor

Editor’s Introduction: Research Revisited: Looking Back to Learn Lessons for the Future in School Leadership

The Journal of School Leadership was first published in 1991. During that time the journal has served as a forum for scholarly conversations and cutting-edge that advances our understanding of many issues related to educational leadership. In August 2008, the current editorial team, which includes myself, Cynthia J. Reed of Auburn University, Anthony H. Normore of California State University-Dominguez Hills, Gaetane Jean-Marie of University of Oklahoma-Tulsa, Autumn K. Tooms of Kent State University, and Sydney Freeman of Auburn University began our work with the journal. One of our first endeavors was to review previous volumes of JSL in an effort to become more familiar with various lines of inquiry that have appeared on these pages over the years. In doing so we found rich veins of inquiry on disparate topics and a variety of innovative theoretical perspectives and methodological approaches that give us insight into many aspects of leadership practice and preparation. As we made these discoveries the team developed a plan to collect certain sets of articles into special issues, which we eventually titled the “Research Revisited” series. These issues are at once devoted to surveying the journal’s past and suggesting how looking back might allow us to meet the present and future with a clear view, advised by lessons gleaned from some 18 years of high-quality educational leadership research. This issue is one in the Research Revisited Series. We invite you to explore the past with us and entreat you to join, extend, challenge and refine the conversations on these pages by publishing your own work in upcoming issues of the Journal of School Leadership that help us understand your unique point of view on the topics explored on these pages.

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Guest Editor’s Introduction: Bridge Leadership

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Autumn K. Tooms, Guest Editor

Guest Editor’s Introduction: Bridge Leadership

Have you heard of Bridge People? I have. As a matter of fact, I am a fan: A big fan. No, Bridge People are not a band playing at the Staples Center this Saturday and they are not a post modern performance art group finishing up a three month gig in Las Vegas. Bridge People are leaders. Merchant and Shoho (2006) explain that Bridge People “maintain their viability as persons who communicate effectively between and among groups for the purpose of improving the lives of the people for whom they advocate” (2006, p. 87). The first time I read this passage I was sitting in the back of a soup kitchen in East Cleveland taking a break from serving lunch. As a former principal, I thought “bridge people . . . principals . . . school leaders . . . same thing” because the heart of your work as a school administrator is all about building bridges.

Later, I began to think about bridge people within the intertwined contexts of those who are school leaders and those who prepare them. I argue that academics, especially those in the field of school administration, are inherently responsible for following the example of Bridge People because schools are complex organisms with the power to liberate or constrain the people they serve. They are more than places to learn about gyroscopes, books, and math. They are places that can inspire both children and adults to become something better than they thought possible. But only if there is attention paid to the use of resources and the multiple needs that students and their families have in terms of learning and development. When I began my first elementary principalship, I was fully confident about how to facilitate a meeting; inspiring groups of students at an assembly was nothing. And taking on a grievance didn’t rattle me a bit. But I was scared to death about how to help students improve as readers because I was a high school biology teacher before I was an administrator. What did I know about how one learns to read?

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A Typology of Partnerships for Promoting Innovation

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Bruce G. Barnett

Gene E. Hall

Judith H. Berg

Margaret M. Camarena

A Typology of Partnerships for Promoting Innovation

Abstract: As educational partnerships and collaboratives have become more popular in the last several decades, researchers and practitioners have sought to understand why these arrangements flourish or flounder. Taking into consideration the contextual factors affecting partnerships, we have conceptualized a framework of the types of partnerships that can develop between a school system and an external resource agency. The framework reflects the dynamic nature of partnerships, including the growing complexity of interorganizational arrangements that exist as partnerships move from a cooperative to a collaborative relationship. We conclude by discussing the value and utility of this framework as school districts and external agencies consider establishing short- or long-term partnerships.

The term partnership has become a mantra in education. Talk about the importance of partnerships can be heard at all levels of our education system, from policymakers to practitioners to community members. Partnerships are currently seen by many as the ultimate cure for all of the ills of education. The belief in partnerships has become so strong that they are used increasingly as the lever to bring about reform within and between agencies, institutions, organizations, individuals, and groups. For example, as the 1990s are coming to a close, partnerships are viewed so positively that they appear as mandates in federal statutes, such as the Higher Education Act of 1998 and the re-authorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. In addition, in teacher education a set of standards for professional development schools has been developed to describe what constitutes an ideal partnership between a college and a local school. With this flurry of activity, one could easily be led to believe that by simply humming the mantra— hmmm-partnership-hmmm —all that needs changing in education will become reality.

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Toward Glocality: Facilitating Leadership in an Age of Diversity

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J. TIM GODDARD

Toward Glocality: Facilitating Leadership in an Age of Diversity

ABSTRACT: As a result of inter- and intranational migrations, urban schools in early 21st-century Western nations serve more ethnoculturally diverse populations than ever before. The impact of global events resonates in these schools at the local community level. In this article1 I argue for the administrative fusion of local and global perspectives, a leadership of glocality that facilitates educational renewal and the enhancement of a socially transforming culture.

The early years of the 21st century are notable for many reasons, including the “movement of people as tourists, immigrants, refugees, and others” (Spring, 2001, p. 9) around the world. Such ethnocscapes, as Spring (2001) has called them, are both optional (e.g., people seeking economic advantage) and forced (e.g., as a result of conflict or environmental degradation). Those who choose to move from one environment to another generally do so with the knowledge that the transition will be difficult. They prepare for this in different ways. Some seek to accumulate monetary savings, others to upgrade their skills or to establish a network of contacts in the new location. In essence, these migrants are building their economic, human, and social capital. Other populations, those who are forced by circumstance to relocate as refugees or otherwise displaced persons, often find the move to be at short notice and a cause of great traumatic stress. Although population movements are a global phenomenon, and also include (for example) migrations “to industrial towns in Africa, [of] Koreans in Japan and [of] Chinese in Indonesia” (Erikson, 2002, p. 14), many of these migrating populations seek to develop a new life in the robust economies of “the West.” For purposes of this article, “West” is defined as the liberal democracies of countries within Europe, North America, and to a lesser extent Australia and New Zealand. Canada is one of those countries.

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Training Administrators for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse School Populations: Opinions of Expert Practitioners

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Vishna A. Herrity

Naftaly S. Glasman

Training Administrators for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse School Populations: Opinions of Expert Practitioners

ABSTRACT: Cultural and linguistic diversity has changed the social fabric of today’s schools. Currently, there is a wider variety of cultural, language, and family backgrounds than ever before. As a result of the increasing numbers of language minority students with unique educational and social needs, some studies suggest that principals need specialized training to ensure that all students have equal access to an education based on academic excellence and high expectations. Yet there are limited opportunities for aspiring administrators to receive specialized training for working with culturally and linguistically diverse school populations. As a result, many school administrators may lack the necessary preparation to develop policies and implement educational programs for diverse students.

This paper is based on the premise that administrator preparation programs exist within the context of school and society interactions. Changes in administrator practices in school settings require corresponding changes in university-based administrator training programs. The research study reported in this paper describes and examines the recommendations of “expert” principals for the modification of administrator preparation programs based on interactions that exist between the changes in the demographics of society, impact on the schools, and impact on administrators. The goal is that university-based training programs would play a critical role in equipping aspiring administrators with the necessary competencies to become effective instructional leaders in multiethnic school settings.

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Developing an Industry-Education Community: The United Auto Workers/General Motors Quality Educator Program

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Stephen Jacobson

James Walline

Developing an Industry-Education Community: The United Auto Workers/General Motors Quality Educator Program

ABSTRACT: In this paper we review the evolution of the Quality Educator Program (QEP), a program sponsored by the United Auto Workers (UAW)/General Motors (GM) that employs school teachers, administrators, and college and university faculty each summer in GM assembly plants. The QEP provides educators and those in industry the unique opportunity to interact and observe one another in a common workplace for a 4–6 week time period. Participation in the QEP allows educators the chance to observe first-hand the UAW/GM’s use of “quality networks.” We argue that quality networks hold promise for improving the day-to-day operation of public schools by allowing new and better relationships to develop among educational professionals, and between educators and the communities they serve.

Implicit in this work is the fact that a larger community is being developed, a community of labor and management from industry working closely with educators to improve the quality of public education for their mutual benefit. To better understand the implications of this emerging community, a brief review of conceptual differences in the dominant social relationships characteristic of communities as compared to organizations is developed from Tonnies’ (1887) distinction between Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft societal types, Sergiovanni’s (1993) distinction between organization and community as dominant school metaphors, and Maxwell’s (1994) and distinction between similarity and contiguity as modes of relationship central to community solidarity.

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Viewing Reading Recovery as a Restructuring Phenomenon

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James S. Rinehart

Paula Myrick Short

Viewing Reading Recovery as a Restructuring Phenomenon

ABSTRACT: This study investigated components of Reading Recovery that relate to a restructuring paradigm. Specifically, Reading Recovery was analyzed as a way to redesign teachers’ work, empower teachers, and affect the core technology of teaching. Data were collected by a survey that consisted of open-ended questions and of categorical response items. These items were analyzed using the restructuring paradigm. Implications for the restructuring of schools are discussed.

Introduction

School restructuring gained attention with the Carnegie Forum Report, “A Nation Prepared: Teachers for the 21st Century” (1986). Authors of the report emphasized the need for the development of a school environment in which educators could decide how to meet state and local goals for children while, being held accountable for student achievement. While much debate exists on the form that restructuring should take, approaches already may be underway that change the traditional format of teaching and learning. One such approach is the Reading Recovery Program.

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