Medium 9781475824490

JEBPS Vol 13-N1

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The Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools is a leader in publishing research-to-practice articles for educators and school psychologists. The mission of this journal is to positively influence the daily practice of school-based professionals through studies demonstrating successful research-based practices in educational settings. As a result, the editors are committed to publishing articles with an eye toward improving student performance and outcomes by advancing psychological and educational practices in the schools. They seek articles using non-technical language that (1) outline an evidence-based practice, (2) describe the literature supporting the effectiveness and theoretical underpinnings of the practice, (3) describe the findings of a study in which the practice was implemented in an educational setting, and (4) provide readers with information they need to implement the practice in their own schools in a section entitled Implementation Guidelines. The Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools differs from other scholarly journals in that it features articles that demonstrate empirically-based procedures for readers to apply the practice in their setting.

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A Treatment Package for Reducing Aggression and Improving Playground Behavior

ePub

Michelle Marchant, K. Richard Young, Jana Lindberg Adam Fisher, and Brock Solano

ABSTRACT: Referrals of elementary students who had engaged in aggressive behavior on the playground prompted the implementation of a nonclassroom treatment package as an extension of a schoolwide positive behavior support program. The package consisted of (1) teaching students new playground rules during physical education class and posting the rules in the gym and on the playground, (2) providing reminders of the rules, (3) modifying the playground to facilitate appropriate play, (4) encouraging playground monitors to take a more active supervisory role, and (5) conducting a self-management program for the students who consistently engaged in aggressive behavior. The effects of the program were evaluated by recording three students’ levels of physical and verbal aggression and appropriate play and by asking the playground supervisors to rate the recess behavior of all students during baseline and treatment.

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IMPLEMENTATION GUIDELINES PLAYGROUND STRATEGIES: UNIVERSAL AND TARGETED INTERVENTIONS

ePub

Michelle Marchant, K. Richard Young, Jana Lindberg Adam Fisher, and Brock Solano

The most frequent request for technical assistance by teachers and administrators involves management of student behavior (Algozzine & Kay, 2002; Furlong, Morrison, & Dear, 1994; Sugai & Horner, 1999). Unstructured time, such as inadequately monitored and supervised recess, when the students congregate en masse often leads to problem behaviors (Leff, Power, Costigan, & Manz, 2003; Pepler, Craig, & Roberts, 1998; Walker, Ramsey, & Gresham, 2004; Wolke, Woods, Stanford, & Schulz, 2001). Many school personnel nationwide lack training in methods for approaching behavior proactively and comprehensively, in both classroom and nonclassroom contexts. The purpose of this article is to present strategies that reduce problem behaviors frequently observed on the playground and that assist students in developing appropriate social behavior essential to playground interactions.

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Teaching Story Planning: Effect on Production, Accuracy, and Time Spent Writing

ePub

Amanda K. Schnee, Merilee McCurdy, and Amanda Bleck

ABSTRACT: Writing has been identified as a critical skill for school and career success. However, very few school-age students perform proficiently in the area of writing. An important component of effective writing includes generating and organizing content, or planning. The impact of instruction in planning on student writing performance is examined with one 10-year-old student in a home-based tutoring program. The effects of planning on writing production, writing accuracy, and time spent writing are examined, and all increased substantially during the intervention. The planning intervention is described, as well as limitations and implications for future research.

Findings from the National Assessment of Educational Progress suggest that a majority of our nation’s students are not supplied with, or do not employ, the skills and strategies that are necessary to succeed academically or vocationally. Specifically, the results of the 2002 National Assessment of Educational Progress study indicated that sufficient writing skills and knowledge were demonstrated by only 25% of 4th-, 8th-, and 12th-grade students (Persky, Daane, & Jin, 2003). When this assessment was administered in 2007, results indicated that 8th-grade students had improved, although this improvement was not significantly different from the 2002 results (Salahu-Din, Persky, & Miller, 2008). Additionally, performance for 12th graders in 2007 was similar to their performance in 2002, and 4th graders were not assessed in 2007 (Salahu-Din et al., 2008). These findings are especially disappointing when the trajectory for poor writers is considered. Research shows that individuals who have difficulty writing are less likely to be hired, retained, or promoted when they attempt to enter the workforce (National Commission on Writing for America’s Families, Schools and Colleges, 2004).

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IMPLEMENTATION GUIDELINES

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Amanda K. Schnee, Merilee McCurdy, and Amanda Bleck

This intervention was designed for the purpose of increasing student writing production for a student who was struggling with the planning component of writing. Although this intervention was implemented with one student, it appears feasible to implement with larger groups of students, although modifications may be warranted.

Data collection is necessary to determine the effectiveness of the intervention. Therefore, data collection should be an ongoing process during the intervention. As writing production was the variable that was most strongly affected by the intervention, total words written are an important variable to monitor. If time spent writing is low, this may be a related variable to monitor. Additionally, if accurate writing is difficult for the student, it may be helpful to monitor percentage correct writing sequence.

1. Identify students who are having difficulty writing and the skill area of concern (e.g., production, accuracy, time spent writing). Collect data on the skill area, using randomly chosen story topics.

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An Evaluation of the Math to Mastery Intervention Package With Elementary School Students in a School Setting

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Michael D. Mong, R. Anthony Doggett, Kristi W. Mong, and Carlen Henington

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the Math to Mastery intervention package in remediating the academic skills deficits of referred students in a school setting. The participants in this study included three third-grade elementary school students who were performing at least 1 year below grade level in math. A multiple-baseline across-participants design was used to evaluate the effects of the packaged intervention across 8 weeks of implementation. Data were collected on single-skill intervention probes and multiple-skill grade-level progress-monitoring probes. Results revealed that the multicomponent intervention was successful in addressing students’ academic skill deficits on single-skill intervention probes. Improvement was also observed on multiple-skill grade-level progress-monitoring probes; however, the impact was not as large as for the single-skill probes. Limitations, implications for practice, and future research are discussed.

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IMPLEMENTATION GUIDELINES

ePub

Michael D. Mong, R. Anthony Doggett, Kristi W. Mong, and Carlen Henington

Once the appropriate instructional passage was identified, the primary author verbally and manually completed each math problem on the probe while the student followed along on a separate but identical math probe. This step was called probe previewing and served to model correct problem completion and fluency for the referred student.

The student then practiced completing each math problem on the math probe in a series of 1-minute trials until a criterion was obtained—namely, 20 digits correct with fewer than 2 errors. This goal was based on guidelines established by Deno and Mirkin (1977). Sessions were conducted until the student reached the established criterion, the student performed ten 1-minute repeated practice trials, or a total of 30 minutes elapsed. The last trial of the session was graphed during the intervention phase.

While the student was completing each problem, the interventionist followed along, marking digits in error and giving immediate corrective feedback for each incorrect digit. Each digit below the line for addition problems was evaluated and scored according to procedures outlined by Shapiro (2004).

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Using Active Supervision and Precorrection to Improve Transition Behaviors in a Middle School Classroom

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Todd Haydon, Julia DeGreg, Lawrence Maheady, and William Hunter

ABSTRACT: The combination of active supervision and precorrection has been described as an effective classroom management technique. We used an ABCBC design to compare the effects of active supervision and precorrection with an explicit timing procedure on (1) a teacher’s redirections and (2) the number of minutes during transition before a seventh-grade health science class lesson. During baseline, students failed to quickly transition to class, which resulted in frequent teacher redirection. The intervention package of active supervision, precorrection, and an explicit timing procedure reduced the amount of transition time and the frequency of teacher redirection. Furthermore, the teacher met her criterion of two redirections per session and 2 minutes of transition time. A maintenance check demonstrated continued effectiveness of the combined intervention package. A discussion on study limitations, implications, and future research directions is included.

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IMPLEMENTATION GUIDELINES

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Todd Haydon, Julia DeGreg, Lawrence Maheady, and William Hunter

To increase students’ appropriate behavior while transitioning from the cafeteria to the classroom.

Given the implementation of active supervision and precorrection during the transition from the cafeteria to the classroom,

• Students will quietly enter the classroom in a single file.

• Students will keep their hands, feet, and belongings to themselves while entering the classroom.

• Students will have materials on their desks and be ready to learn within 2 minutes.

Identify Contexts in Which Problem Behaviors Are Likely to Occur

Ask yourself,

“What types of behavior are problematic?” (e.g., running, out of line, walking on the wrong side, hitting, pushing, bumping, yelling, talking loudly)

“What setting am I having the most difficulty with problem behaviors?”

“What time of day are these behaviors most likely to occur?”

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