Medium 9781475816549

IJER Vol 17-N3

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The mission of the International Journal of Educational Reform (IJER) is to keep readers up-to-date with worldwide developments in education reform by providing scholarly information and practical analysis from recognized international authorities. As the only peer-reviewed scholarly publication that combines authors’ voices without regard for the political affiliations perspectives, or research methodologies, IJER provides readers with a balanced view of all sides of the political and educational mainstream. To this end, IJER includes, but is not limited to, inquiry based and opinion pieces on developments in such areas as policy, administration, curriculum, instruction, law, and research.
IJER should thus be of interest to professional educators with decision-making roles and policymakers at all levels turn since it provides a broad-based conversation between and among policymakers, practitioners, and academicians about reform goals, objectives, and methods for success throughout the world.
Readers can call on IJER to learn from an international group of reform implementers by discovering what they can do that has actually worked. IJER can also help readers to understand the pitfalls of current reforms in order to avoid making similar mistakes. Finally, it is the mission of IJER to help readers to learn about key issues in school reform from movers and shakers who help to study and shape the power base directing educational reform in the U.S. and the world.

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6 Articles

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Teaching and Learning in Australian Transnational Higher Education: Distilling Principles of Quality From Stakeholder Accounts

ePub

David Pyvis

Anne Chapman

ABSTRACT: This article provides an overview of the progress of efforts to formulate quality frameworks for Australian higher education delivered overseas, notably in the Asian region. With the quest for quality frameworks for Australian transnational higher education established as the context, the article then traces our work to draw out and establish principles of quality that might inform such frameworks. Distinguishing this work is the endeavor to extract understandings about the constitution of quality in Australian transnational higher education. The article reports initial findings of ongoing empirical research into academic stakeholders’ perspectives on issues of quality in teaching and learning in transnational programs aimed at developing principles to enhance quality frameworks.

Contemporary education reform in Asia—particularly, the creation of education hubs and knowledge societies—has coincided with intensified activity by Australian universities to internationalize their operations. A key outcome in this regard is the extensive delivery of Australian university programs to international students studying in Asia. This article concerns the quest to develop quality assurance frameworks for these Australian transnational programs. The first section reveals the importance of quality transnational education to the agenda of education hubs in the Asian Pacific region. The second section describes recent efforts in Australia to develop quality control mechanisms for transnational educational delivery. Empirical research is then reported on the perspectives of academics involved in two modes of transnational delivery, on issues of quality teaching and learning. The final section draws on that research to suggest principles that may enhance quality frameworks for Australian transnational education.

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Positioning as Regional Hub of Higher Education: Changing Governance and Regulatory Reforms in Singapore and Malaysia

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Ka Ho Mok

ABSTRACT: With strong intention to enhance the global competitiveness of their university systems, the Singapore and Malaysia governments have made attempts to develop their societies into regional hubs of education. Specifically, they have invited foreign universities to set up their campuses to offer academic programs or to establish private institutions creating more opportunities of higher learning. In the last decade, reforms have been introduced to the higher education sectors in Singapore and Malaysia, particularly when corporatization and incorporation strategies are adopted to transform national (public) universities. This article discusses, first, what major strategies the governments of Singapore and Malaysia adopted to reform their university governance and, second, how their aspiration to become a regional hub of education is realized.

The rise of the knowledge economy has generated new global infrastructures in which information technology plays an increasingly important role; furthermore, the popularity and prominence of information technology has changed the nature of knowledge and is currently restructuring higher education, research, and learning. To make their university systems more globally competitive, the Singaporean and Malaysia governments have introduced corporatization and incorporation strategies to reform their national (public) universities. This article critically examines the policy background for their quest to establish themselves as regional hubs of education, with reference to the major strategies that these Asian governments have adopted to transform their university governance and promote transnational higher education to realize their ambitions.

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The Challenges and Strategies of Internationalizing Hong Kong’s Higher Education in a Globalized World

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Shun-wing Ng

Sylvia Yee Fan Tang

ABSTRACT: This article presents a study of how to attract students from the Asian markets to pursue higher education in Hong Kong. The study found that the strategies of internationalization, at both the system level and the institutional level, attempted to address problems generated from the barriers of exporting higher education and so build on the attractions of studying in Hong Kong’s higher education system. These strategies are mainly driven by concerns of brain gain and income generation. Although these strategies help to attract overseas students, we caution the importance of going beyond recruiting overseas students and put forward a more humanized way of looking at internationalization to counteract the overriding economic-driven globalization.

Internationalization becomes increasingly important in higher education in a globalized world. Exporting higher education services by recruiting overseas students is an integral facet of the internationalization of higher education. Alongside this global trend, Singapore, Malaysia, and Hong Kong are of no exception. They have embarked on the process of internationalizing their higher education campuses by recruiting more nonlocal students and thereby striving to achieve the policy goal of developing themselves into regional education hubs.

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Cross-Border Choice as Identity Investment: Cases of Malaysian and Indonesian Ethnic Chinese Students in Hong Kong

ePub

Pik Lin Choi

ABSTRACT: This article reports a case study on two ethnic Chinese students, one from Malaysia and one from Indonesia, who chose to pursue higher education in Hong Kong. By placing the students at the center of investigation against the social, political, economic, and educational contexts of their home countries, as well as the host territory, the present life history study seeks to gain a holistic understanding of cross-border mobility. Findings suggest that the external push-pull factors were mediated by the students’ personal backgrounds and dispositions in their decision making. Although data show that the two students benefited from the cross-border mobility in terms of redefining their ethnic identities and creating global academic and professional identities, implications of the purposes of crossborder mobility and study methods for student mobility are discussed.

In the global trend of internationalizing higher education, efforts of recruiting nonlocal students to study in Hong Kong have become increasingly evident since the release of the report Higher Education in Hong Kong (Sutherland, 2002). In 2007–2008, Hong Kong had 7,293 nonlocal students, which constituted 10% of its total student enrollment in the public-funded higher education programs (University Grants Committee, 2008). The majority of these nonlocal students came from mainland China (93%). One of the probable reasons why they chose Hong Kong as an educational destination is that Hong Kong is a destination in itself as well as a stepping-stone for their further international development (Li & Bray, 2007). Nevertheless, about 5% of nonlocal students in 2007–2008 (n = 347) were from other Asian countries, such as Malaysia and Indonesia. Although the number of nonlocal students from other Asian countries is small, it constitutes an increase of about 20% when compared with the enrollment figures of the previous year (n = 292 students in 2006–2007). The growth rate of nonmainland Chinese students can be attributed to the enhanced internationalization efforts of Hong Kong at its institutional and system levels (Education and Manpower Bureau, 2006), however, this increase merits an in-depth inquiry into the cross-border decision making of these students.

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Developing Transnational Higher Education: Comparing the Approaches of Hong Kong and Singapore

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David Chan

Pak Tee Ng

ABSTRACT: This article examines the approaches that Hong Kong and Singapore have adopted in trying to develop themselves as regional hubs of higher education through their developments of transnational higher education. Hong Kong and Singapore compete for this market share of global higher education because it can be a lucrative business. Adapting a model from the business management literature, this article compares the approaches that Hong Kong and Singapore adopt in developing their transnational higher education sectors. Through its analysis, it argues that despite similarities in their visions, the business approach, culture, process, and resource commitments of the two economies are quite different. More important, such differences reflect the different philosophy and style of governance of the two governments.

The term transnational education refers to education programs and services in which learners are located in a country different from the one where the awarding institution is based. According to Knight (2006b), it is “the movement of people, knowledge, programs, providers and curriculum across national or regional jurisdictional borders” (p. 18). This mode of education is gaining importance, and it is becoming increasingly popular in the higher education sector. Why is that so? The advent of transnational education is a phenomenon that is part and parcel of the globalization of trade in goods and services (McBurnie & Ziguras, 2001), and its emergence is fueled by the inclusion of higher education as an industry under the framework of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (Knight, 2002). Although a number of reasons may be provided for the internationalization of higher education, including social, political, and academic ones (Knight, 2004), the fundamental reason is mainly economic, and it all boils down to “the competitive rush for international students and their money” (De Vita & Case, 2003, p. 384). Matthews expresses a similar view and argues that such education is driven by national economic objectives with “the dollar signs stamped on the foreheads of full fee-paying overseas students” (2002, p. 377).

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Exporting Hong Kong’s Higher Education in Asian Markets: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats

ePub

Alan Chi Keung Cheung

Timothy Wai Wa Yuen

Celeste Yuet Mui Yuen

ABSTRACT: With the rapid growth and expansion of the Asian economies in recent years, there has been a continued rise of students in Asia who are studying outside their home countries. This study attempts to highlight the major strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of Hong Kong’s higher education in relation to its potential of being a regional education hub in Asia. The article concludes by examining the implications for the Hong Kong government and the higher education sector in their seeking to capture these increasingly growing Asian markets.

Globalism and international free trade are mutually supportive. Globalization has brought great benefits to East Asia’s economy and provided international markets and technologies (Eggins, 2003). It has also created the need to educate global citizens and align standards. Higher education is believed to be the key agent of each society to respond to globalization; thus, it is in the process of repositioning itself to increase effectiveness and efficiency (Eggins, 2003). Indeed, the demand for international higher education has experienced phenomenal growth in the past 2 decades (Institute of International Education, 2007, 2008a, 2008b, 2008c; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2004a, 2004b, 2007, 2008). As of 2007, approximately 2.7 million students were studying outside their countries of origin, a 47% increase over the 2000 figure of 1.7 million students and a 200% jump over the 1985 figure of 900,000 students (Chow & Marcus, 2008). Based on a recent survey conducted by UNESCO and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, more than 70% of these international students are enrolling in several key hosting countries (Institute of International Education, 2008a). As seen in Figure 1, the United States remains the most favorite choice for many international students, enrolling 22% of all students, followed by the United Kingdom, France, Germany, China, Australia, Japan, and Canada. Each year international students contribute billions of dollars to the economy of these countries through tuition, fees, and living expenses (Linacre, 2007; Obst, 2008). Other than the economic benefits generated, the quest for people with talents and skills in these countries is a keen consideration in the export of higher education services (Duhamel, 2004; Harman, 2004).

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