Medium 9781475816501

IJER Vol 16-N3

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The mission of the International Journal of Educational Reform (IJER) is to keep readers up-to-date with worldwide developments in education reform by providing scholarly information and practical analysis from recognized international authorities. As the only peer-reviewed scholarly publication that combines authors’ voices without regard for the political affiliations perspectives, or research methodologies, IJER provides readers with a balanced view of all sides of the political and educational mainstream. To this end, IJER includes, but is not limited to, inquiry based and opinion pieces on developments in such areas as policy, administration, curriculum, instruction, law, and research.
IJER should thus be of interest to professional educators with decision-making roles and policymakers at all levels turn since it provides a broad-based conversation between and among policymakers, practitioners, and academicians about reform goals, objectives, and methods for success throughout the world.
Readers can call on IJER to learn from an international group of reform implementers by discovering what they can do that has actually worked. IJER can also help readers to understand the pitfalls of current reforms in order to avoid making similar mistakes. Finally, it is the mission of IJER to help readers to learn about key issues in school reform from movers and shakers who help to study and shape the power base directing educational reform in the U.S. and the world.

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4 Articles

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Lessons From the Past: Three Modest Suggestions Toward School Reform for Poor Students

ePub

Matthew D. Davis

At the end of August 2005, Hurricane Katrina laid bare a wide swath of the U.S. Gulf Coast. The devastation left in the wake of this natural disaster and the all-too-slow governmental response to it shocked the nation. Perhaps most disturbing to many Americans was the recognition that a group of Americans, with numbers that never fully registered in the national psyche, lived in heartbreaking and soul-depleting poverty. Resentment erupted when in the midst of these emotions, many Americans found the only referent available to them for the visible nature of poor victims was the label Third World. For an all-too-brief moment, the moving pictures from urban Louisiana and rural Mississippi humbled the nation’s citizens living elsewhere (e.g., Dyson, 2006).

Hidden even deeper in the media aftermath of Katrina were the stories of the particularly harsh fury that the hurricane had visited upon the region’s children. The refusal by many Americans to recognize the stark abjection of all-too-real American poverty continues to be overwhelmed by their shared elision of the experiences of poor children, particularly African Americans. Indeed, in the modern rush toward the “one best system” of education (Tyack, 1974), the schooling of poor children and youth remain principally outside the collective American eyesight. Recent attempts at the illumination of their stories by David C. Berliner (2005) and Jonathan Kozol (2005) may keep alive for some of the better-off Americans the shame at the nation’s near-total exclusion of these students from the reality of contemporary public school reform efforts (see also Anyon, 1997). Most Americans, like most politicians and educators, may also need suggestions toward meaningful action so that their awakened recognition persists long enough to foster real educational reforms to affect the lives of these all-but-forgotten pupils in our midst. To aid in that important effort, this article draws on the history of African American school reform on which to base three modest suggestions to reform the schooling experienced by poor children.

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Motivation of Academics: An Empirical Assessment of Herzberg’s Theory

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Aycan Cicek Saglam

The reason why an employee takes part in an organization and works is to meet the requirements for a living. Why an employee wishes to work, how he or she can be made willing to work, and how he or she will be aware of the necessity of working has been a subject for many studies. Motive, motivation, and desire have become the keywords that explain why an employee works (Basaran, 1982). There are many definitions of motivation—for example, “motivation is influence, a force that gives rise to behavior” (p. 176). The main task lies in trying to find what impressions form behaviors (Tannehill, 1970). Basaran (2000) defines motivation as impressing upon the employee the need to fulfill his or her duty in the required quality. Lumsden (1994) defines it as a power that awakes, perpetuates, and orientates a behavior that aims to reach a goal.

According to Ambrose and Kulik (1999), motivation is one of the important posts that lie in the focal point of modern organizational studies, and the authors add that one of the duties of a director is to motivate the employees to enable them to bring out their capabilities. Mitchell (1997) says that motivated people are focused on their jobs and that they make a great effort to continue this focus and work. Mitchell (as cited by Quick, 1985) says that motivation is the key for an effective performance.

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Education Policies of Turkish Political Parties and Their Possible Effects on Economic Development

ePub

Şenay S. Nartgün and Altay Eren

The role of education in development has long been recognized: purportedly, beginning with Plato (Tilak, 1989). However, a number of economists have proposed a long list of policies designed to foster development opportunities. Included in these policies are those that promote the expansion of educational resources to enhance human capital, which is often seen as a necessary rung in the ladder of economic growth (Weber, 2005). A great deal of research has been devoted to understanding the relationship between education and economic growth. This relationship has been investigated in a number of countries (Godoy, Karlan, Rabindran, & Huanca, 2005; Harberger, 1965; Heckman, 2005; Park, 2006; Walter, 2002; Wheeler, 1980; World Bank, 1981, 1995) and at different educational levels (Lin, 2004; Matton, 2006; Self & Grabowski, 2004). For example, World Bank (1981), reported that there is a strong relationship (r = .89) between gross national product per capita and composite indexes of human resource development. Similarly, it was found that rapid product increase in productivity industries of Latin America resulted from increases in the quality of labor (World Bank, 1981). Jolliffe (2004), studying productivity in the agricultural sector, investigated continuing education in farm and off-farm workers and the role of education in determining the allocation of labor in rural Ghana. He found that education has positive effects for workers in the agricultural and nonagricultural sectors regarding productivity. More recently, a study by Dauangngeune, Hayami, and Godo (2005), which compared the level of worker education and economic development in Thailand, Korea, and Japan, found that quality and level of education have a positive effect on agricultural intensification and industrialization in general.

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Self-Esteem and Hopelessness Levels of Grade-Passing and Class-Repeating Students

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Özcan Sezer

Educational institutions have distinctive rules of and expectations for individuals who want to benefit from such institutions. The activities in schools are conducted according to plans and schedules to achieve predetermined objectives. At the end of a designated period, students are supposed to be evaluated as being successful or unsuccessful with respect to these activities (Erşanlı, 1996). Whereas those successful students are qualified for the next grade, those who could not achieve the required success have to repeat class or be subject to other procedures prescribed in relevant legislations issued by the Ministry of Education (Article 36 of Legislation No. 25664).

In general, each year a number of students have to repeat the first class of high school because of either failure in their lessons or some other reasons. In some cases, this can be highly remarkable, as in one of the eastern districts where 700 students out of 825 (80%) had to repeat the same class (Öğretmenler Sitesi, n.d.).

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