Medium 9781475816488

IJER Vol 16-N1

Views: 996
Ratings: (0)
The mission of the International Journal of Educational Reform (IJER) is to keep readers up-to-date with worldwide developments in education reform by providing scholarly information and practical analysis from recognized international authorities. As the only peer-reviewed scholarly publication that combines authors’ voices without regard for the political affiliations perspectives, or research methodologies, IJER provides readers with a balanced view of all sides of the political and educational mainstream. To this end, IJER includes, but is not limited to, inquiry based and opinion pieces on developments in such areas as policy, administration, curriculum, instruction, law, and research.
IJER should thus be of interest to professional educators with decision-making roles and policymakers at all levels turn since it provides a broad-based conversation between and among policymakers, practitioners, and academicians about reform goals, objectives, and methods for success throughout the world.
Readers can call on IJER to learn from an international group of reform implementers by discovering what they can do that has actually worked. IJER can also help readers to understand the pitfalls of current reforms in order to avoid making similar mistakes. Finally, it is the mission of IJER to help readers to learn about key issues in school reform from movers and shakers who help to study and shape the power base directing educational reform in the U.S. and the world.

List price: $46.99

Remix
Remove
Annual Subscriptions (4/year) Subscribe Discounts for Institutions
 

9 Articles

Format Buy Remix

Reflections of Communal Understanding and Patterns of Modern Social Life in Traditional School Education in Turkey

ePub

Kemal Duruhan

Contemporary traditional education understanding and applications have always been criticized in Turkey (Açıkgöz, 2002; Akyüz, 1993; Bilhan, 1991; Kaya, 1981; Sönmez, 2002). The characteristics of traditional education are the following: class-centered teaching and crowded classrooms, teacher-oriented education, intensive curriculum, traditional teaching methods, and verbal evaluation of student success. Criticism on such educational understandings and applications brought forth a desire to modify them. Modifications were successfully done in the written form of educational aims (Başaran, 1994). However, it was not possible to make the same ideal changes in the application process (Sönmez, 2002). Positive changes in the understanding and application of education have not been at desired levels, nor have they been common yet. The reasons for this can vary from economic and political to social and psychological. Each of the reasons has a role in the retardation of the changes. Yet the most important factor in the retardation process is, mostly, communal relations and the communal relationship style of Turkish society. Geographically, from the western part toward the eastern part and from the city toward the country, communal understanding of Turkish society has the following main indicators: group life (more than individual), social truth life (more than material truth life), verbal life (more than actional life), and hierarchical relations (more than horizontal relations).

See All Chapters

Caught Between Fantasy and Reality: Confucian Values and Dilemmas of Education Reform Confronting Hong Kong’s Secondary Teachers

ePub

Frank Wai-Ming Tam, Manhong Lai, and Ka-Ka Lam

In Chinese society, there are two Confucian teachings that have become guiding values for many teachers and have had profound influence on their educational practices for nearly 2,500 years. These values are yin cai shi jiao and you jiao wu lei. The direct translation of yin cai shi jiao is “to carry out teaching based on the material,” and there may be two meanings to this, according to common understanding. One of them is “to teach students in accordance with their aptitudes,” and the other is “to group students into similar abilities so that teachers can teach according to their levels.” The direct translation of you jiao wu lei is “to teach without classification,” and there may also be two meanings to this. One of them is “to treat students indiscriminately, regardless of their racial, ethnic, or social background,” and the other is “to make education available to all.” In the past, because of scarcity of resources and educational opportunities in Hong Kong, the provision of compulsory education to all children and the tracking of students into different categories of schools within the system are seen as being sufficient for the educational needs of the society. Recently, however, there has been increasing pressure from various stakeholders to demand a more rigorous interpretation of the Confucian values. Academics and policymakers tend to perceive equal educational opportunities for all children, as well as catering to individual differences within the classroom, as more appropriate interpretations of yin cai shi jiao and you jiao wu lei for the schooling system of the future.

See All Chapters

The Need for Organizational Innovation in Public Elementary Schools

ePub

Kadir Beycioglu and Mahire Aslan

Our world is changing rapidly. Societies and their subsystems are continuously changing. Generally, concepts such as information and technology, global communication, economic conditions, collisions between religious rules and modern thinking, transformations seen in societies’ traditions and cultures, and so on, force individuals and societies to change.

As Hargreaves (2002) states, “we live in a world of endless and relentless change” (p. 189). Change is not a new concept for human beings, and it has been argued for ages. Indeed, it may be said that it is as old as human history. For instance, Heracleitus, a pre-Socratic who lived around 500 BCE, thought that panta rhei (everything is in flux; Alıç, 1990). According to Heracleitus, the only thing that does not change is change itself (Martí-Ibáñez, 1996). Everything seen as unchanging is, ipso facto, in the mood for giving birth to a new change situation.

“What is new about change is that we have much more depth of meaning of the term” (Fullan, 1993, p. viii). Louis, Toole, and Hargreaves (1999) state that “the terms ‘change,’ ‘improvement,’ ‘implementation,’ and ‘reform’ are, along with others, often used interchangeably” and that “there are significant differences among these terms” (p. 251). In this study, change is used as a word not different from the word innovation, which has the general drift of controlled and planned change. Although there is a slight difference between these two words, this study does not aim to analyze the connotations of them in a semantic manner, and it uses the terms interchangeably. Briefly, we may say that both change and innovation are processes tending toward a positive and effective direction (Altrichter, 2000; Coriat, 2001; Eren, 1998; Fullan, 1991; Özdemir, 2000).

See All Chapters

The Benefits and Problems of Multiple-Intelligence-Based Instruction: A Case Study in Turkey

ePub

Nilay T. Bümen

There has been a high level of interest in multiple-intelligence (MI) theory in Turkey in recent years. The Turkish education system is centralized, and the Ministry of National Education published a manual in the periodical directives in 2003 that includes activities that use MI theory in elementary school classrooms; this manual allows teachers to use these activities in their daily lesson plans. In this way, school systems were informed about MI theory. Consequently, in-service training activities in various subjects commenced quickly. The schools are mostly acquainted with the theory in professional development seminars, but it is clear that the individual teachers should get more support in their efforts in applying the theory.

MI theory was developed by Dr. Howard Gardner (1993), and it defines intelligence through a spectrum of content areas, including verbal–linguistic, mathematical–logical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, visual–spatial, bodily– kinesthetic, musical–rhythmic, and naturalistic. Since the publication of the theory, some educators have embraced his theory, interpreting it in a variety of ways. Educators first used Gardner’s theory with young children, but more recently, they have adopted it with special populations (Gardner, 1995). It has been used at all grade levels across many disciplines to identify gifted students, to provide subjects with equal time and emphasis in the school curriculum, to explore teaching styles, to broaden assessment, to meet individual learning needs, to develop integrated curriculum, and to enhance student metacognition (Goodnough, 2001).

See All Chapters

The Cooperative Learning Method in Teacher Training

ePub

Mehmet Taşpınar

The modern education system aims at promoting the life quality of individuals, and it requires a philosophical perception and curriculum development approach in line with this aim. In this context, the basic philosophy is to teach people how to learn, have democratic attitudes, convene for teamwork, be able to use information, and think in a critical way. To achieve this goal, education programs should be developed on the basis of student-centered approaches. These programs require appropriate educational methods and techniques. The cooperative learning method is one of these methods.

In this research, the cooperative learning method was implemented within the teacher education system and compared with the traditional method. The research gives an opportunity for the implementation of the method in teacher training, and it helps teacher candidates to learn how to implement this method.

Instruction methods preferred and implemented by teachers in education processes are of paramount importance in terms of learning quality. The main feature of contemporary instruction methods is that they include student-centered practices.

See All Chapters

Teacher Teams, Teamwork, and Empowerment: Exploring Associations and the Nexus to Change

ePub

Alan B. Henkin, Sungmin Park, and Carole A. Singleton

Research on team-based schools suggests the importance of teacher empowerment as a factor in the school revitalization and reform equation and as a critical element in redefining schools as collaborative work-places (Rinehart & Short, 1994; Short & Greer, 1997). Teams may serve as venues for collective involvement in the professional work of schools and as places where empowered teachers can develop positive and productive working relationships, devise adaptable configurations capable of directly addressing unique problems, assume collective responsibility and come to collective decisions, and achieve common goals consonant with reform agendas (Dee & Henkin, 2001; Mostert, 1998; Newman, 1993). Related research has asserted the case for improving student learning through collective action and teacher empowerment that enhances individual and collective authority to sensitively respond to the unpredictable needs of students (Darling-Hammond, 1988; Louis, Marks, & Kruse, 1996; Newman, 1993).

See All Chapters

Transformational Leadership in Turkish Schools

ePub

İbrahim Kocabaş

Leadership is a subject that is as old as the history of humans, and it still continues its currency. Throughout history, various leaders came into existence, and those leaders in some ways influenced people all over the world. Parallel to the changes and improvements in the world, some new approaches for understanding the leadership concept have been made. There are some different theories related to this subject, from different points of view and including many disciplines.

Rapid changes in social structure have affected educational systems and the roles and behaviors of those who are managing these systems. School administrators need to have international supervision in today’s global system. The intensive use of information technologies will increase the importance of intellectual capital in the future (Çelik, 2000).

To cope with the changing environmental and organizational conditions and problems, leaders have to orient business administrators by having a role as an entrepreneur, source distributor, policymaker, guide, and chief supporter. They must also deliberate, motivate, inspire, and concern themselves with strategic and general problems (Eren, 1998).

See All Chapters

Effects of Teachers’ Attitudes and Behavior on Students’ Attitudes, Behavior, and Academic Success in Turkey

ePub

Yucel Gelişli

One of the conditions in teaching–learning processes requires transforming students’ behaviors on the basis of set goals by managing the teaching and classroom in an appropriate way. Classroom management includes the following activities: preparing lesson plans, determining teaching– learning processes, selecting the contents to achieve teaching goals, putting the appropriate method and techniques into practice, and selecting teaching aids to support the set goals (Gelişli, Duman, & Çetin, 2002; Tournaki & Podell, 2005).

It does not mean that the expected behavior changes of students will be realized by performing the aforementioned activities and that the conditions prepared by the teacher are certain to bring absolute success. Thus, although many teachers complain of not being able to perform the desired teaching activities in class because of undisciplined student behaviors, students say that the teachers’ conception and handling of discipline greatly influence their academic success.

See All Chapters

An Investigation of Alcohol Use Among Turkish High School Adolescents

ePub

Figen Gürsoy, Mudriye Yildiz Bıçaçkı, and Neriman Aral

The onset of adolescence is marked by many physiological changes as well as new behavior patterns, attitudes, and reactions. To cope with these tremendous changes, adolescents need the support of understanding parents; otherwise, their social and emotional development may be hampered by poor familial communication, a deep yearning for independence, and a great effort for self-assertion (Kulaksızoğlu, 2001; Terrell-Deutsch, 1999). During this difficult period, adolescents usually value their peers more than they do their own families (Alonzo, 1989), and they let their behavior be shaped by their peers as well (Gürsoy & Yıldız Bıçakçı, 2003; Sing Lau, Dennis, & Patrick, 1999). Adolescents may resort to cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, or drug use (1) when faced with negative feelings such as loneliness, anxiety, and depression; (2) in an effort to prove themselves, cope with problems, relax, or forget about their worries; or (3) when confronted with peer pressure. Although substance use is initially seen as a tool to eliminate tension and worries, alleviate loneliness, and prove oneself, it is later perceived as a source of pleasure and happiness (Eccless et al., 1993; Yeşilyaprak, 1986).

See All Chapters

Details

Print Book
E-Books
Articles

Format name
ePub
Encrypted
No
Sku
I000000047698
Isbn
9781475816488
File size
1.52 MB
Printing
Allowed
Copying
Allowed
Read aloud
Allowed
Format name
ePub
Encrypted
No
Printing
Allowed
Copying
Allowed
Read aloud
Allowed
Sku
In metadata
Isbn
In metadata
File size
In metadata