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IJER Vol 18-N1

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The mission of the International Journal of Educational Reform (IJER) is to keep readers up-to-date with worldwide developments in education reform by providing scholarly information and practical analysis from recognized international authorities. As the only peer-reviewed scholarly publication that combines authors’ voices without regard for the political affiliations perspectives, or research methodologies, IJER provides readers with a balanced view of all sides of the political and educational mainstream. To this end, IJER includes, but is not limited to, inquiry based and opinion pieces on developments in such areas as policy, administration, curriculum, instruction, law, and research.
IJER should thus be of interest to professional educators with decision-making roles and policymakers at all levels turn since it provides a broad-based conversation between and among policymakers, practitioners, and academicians about reform goals, objectives, and methods for success throughout the world.
Readers can call on IJER to learn from an international group of reform implementers by discovering what they can do that has actually worked. IJER can also help readers to understand the pitfalls of current reforms in order to avoid making similar mistakes. Finally, it is the mission of IJER to help readers to learn about key issues in school reform from movers and shakers who help to study and shape the power base directing educational reform in the U.S. and the world.

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Education for All and National Legislation

ePub

Kishore Singh

ABSTRACT: Right to education, which is an integral part of UNESCO’s constitutional mission of ensuring “full and equal opportunities for education for all,” is at the core of the Education for All process. While reforming education polices as part of this process, many countries have modernized and developed national legislation, often with technical assistance provided by UNESCO. As a strategic objective of Education for All, doing so strengthens foundations of the right to education in national legal systems. It brings to light the fundamental principle of the equality of educational opportunities, enshrined in UNESCO’s Convention Against Discrimination in Education, a key pillar of Education for All.

The right to education is well established in a number of instruments adopted by UNESCO and the United Nations. As an internationally recognized right, education is a “human right in itself and an indispensable means of realizing other human rights.”1 Education plays an important role in empowering individuals and transforming societies because it is essential to the socioeconomic development process and a powerful instrument in poverty reduction strategies. At the World Education Forum in 2000, governments, international organizations, and agencies made a collective commitment to the Education for All (EFA)2 and to the realization of the right to basic education as a fundamental human right. Owing to increasing recognition of the centrality of education in people’s lives, the realization of the right to education for all has assumed added significance.

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Approaches to Teacher Development in China: Hong Kong and Shanghai

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Manhong K. Lai

ABSTRACT: In the late 1990s, Hong Kong and Shanghai began placed increasing emphasis on teacher development to raise the overall quality of education. As such, this research is guided by three questions: First, what approaches to teacher development have Hong Kong and Shanghai used? Second, in the views of teachers in the two cities, how have the different approaches to teacher development contributed to their professional growth? Third, how have reflection and collegiality helped teachers’ professional development in the two cities? This study used a qualitative approach based on in-depth interviews, with a sample of four schools in Hong Kong and Shanghai. Among the four schools studied, only the renowned Shanghai school had a strong teacher development system in place. The other three schools lacked systematic approaches to teacher development. Teacher reflection differed among the two cities: Hong Kong teachers tended to exhibit individual reflection, whereas Shanghai teachers tended to show imposed reflection, a method that had been set into place by the school’s teaching research unit. Collegiality in the Hong Kong ordinary school could be identified as sharing, whereas collegiality in the Shanghai renowned school could be categorized as contrived collegiality. Teacher development in the Hong Kong’s renowned school and Shanghai’s ordinary school mainly relied on individualism.

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Teachers Tattling on Teachers: Policy Attitude and Tenure’s Influence on Peer Reporting of Unethical Behavior

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Brian Richardson Lawrence

R. Wheeless

ABSTRACT: Teachers’ cheating on high-stakes standardized tests is a serious problem for public schools. This study examined the influence of school tenure and policy attitudes about standardized testing on teachers’ decisions to report a peer for violating testing protocol. In sum, 330 Texas school teachers responded to a survey that included a scenario depicting a teacher violating standardized testing protocol. Analysis of variance revealed that teachers with negative and moderate attitudes about standardized testing were less likely to report their peers than were those with positive attitudes about standardized testing. Implications of these findings include the important role that attitudes play in one’s decision to report a peer for violating policy. The article concludes with limitations—which include the nonuse of random sampling and the reliance on a vignette rather than an actual situation—as well as directions for future research.

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Designing the Internship in Educational Leadership as a Transformative Tool for Improved Practice

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Whitney H. Sherman

Karen S. Crum

ABSTRACT: The internship is a crucial part of leadership preparation programs for bridging the gap between theory and practice. As such, the purpose of this article is to explore what the literature says about the internship and to extend thinking by conceiving of how the internship experience might be transformational for prospective leaders. This article offers a guide for the design of the internship experience that bridges the divide between theory and practice and that aims toward developing transformational leaders. It also provides an internship model based on best practice, but it adds a new dimension to traditional ideas of the internship experience that may facilitate transformational leadership.

In recent years, there has been much debate over the existence of a universally accepted reality in regard to the construct of leadership and leadership practice (English, 2006; Murphy, 2005). Scholars with postmodern views have identified leadership knowledge as a social construct (M. Smith, Miller-Kahn, Heinecke, & Jarvis, 2004) and have questioned recent politically motivated attempts to define a knowledge base at all (Crow & Grogan, 2005). Rather than attempt to define fixed leadership standards, Murphy (2005) pushed thinking further, encouraging those involved in leadership preparation to operate from the notion that leadership is a multifarious and context-dependent activity. According to English (2006),

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The Use of Organizational Language of Turkish School Principals Toward Teachers as a Means of Motivation and Control

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M. Bahaddin Acat

Seyfettin Demiral

ABSTRACT: This study aimed to obtain perceptions of teachers employed in state and private schools in Eskisehir, Turkey, about the language use of principals toward teachers as a means of motivation and control. The data for the study were collected from 170 teachers working in 13 schools. To analyze the data, frequency and percentage analysis techniques were used, as were q square and t test. The study results suggest that the school principals were attentive, conscious, and sensitive with their language use toward teachers and that the controlling and demotivating functions of language were used more in elementary schools. Regarding private schools, such language was generally used as a motivator.

When we look at the relationships that we have with those around us in various environments, we realize that we are in a position to either influence others or be influenced by them. Influencing others or being influenced by them—that is, social interaction—seems to alter people’s attitudes toward one another. Social influence can be defined as the change that is brought about in people’s beliefs, attitudes, behavior, and feelings by others around them. A person who causes this social influence can be called an influencing agent, and the person who is affected by him or her can be called an influenced agent, or target. The ability and potential that people use to influence one another is called social power, which appears in the interrelationships among people and groups, in someone’s making others accept or perceive his or her power, and, finally, in someone’s making others act as he or she wants. Control is an integral part of organization (Tannenbaum, 1962). Because the term organization evokes controlling and being controlled, a member of an organization has to try to adapt to the organization to which she or he belongs. In other words, an organization requires its members to comply with the rules, and only in this way is it possible for the organization to attain its targets (Sungurlu, 1997). Organizations are composed of cycles of relationships based on interactions. If such a cycle is broken at any point, then the organization in question does not have control (Tannenbaum, 1962). When forming new relationships, people are sometimes in the position of affecting others and sometimes in the position of being affected. This interaction depends on social power and the position into which this power places them. In this context, power is defined as the capacity or ability to achieve targets despite the resistance of others, whereas control is to act with the purpose of achieving a target (Tompkins & Cheney, 1982). Thus, organizational power can be defined as the ability or capacity to control what others have to contribute to achieve a certain target.

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