Medium 9781475815931

IJER Vol 2-N3

Views: 1221
Ratings: (0)
The mission of the International Journal of Educational Reform (IJER) is to keep readers up-to-date with worldwide developments in education reform by providing scholarly information and practical analysis from recognized international authorities. As the only peer-reviewed scholarly publication that combines authors’ voices without regard for the political affiliations perspectives, or research methodologies, IJER provides readers with a balanced view of all sides of the political and educational mainstream. To this end, IJER includes, but is not limited to, inquiry based and opinion pieces on developments in such areas as policy, administration, curriculum, instruction, law, and research.
IJER should thus be of interest to professional educators with decision-making roles and policymakers at all levels turn since it provides a broad-based conversation between and among policymakers, practitioners, and academicians about reform goals, objectives, and methods for success throughout the world.
Readers can call on IJER to learn from an international group of reform implementers by discovering what they can do that has actually worked. IJER can also help readers to understand the pitfalls of current reforms in order to avoid making similar mistakes. Finally, it is the mission of IJER to help readers to learn about key issues in school reform from movers and shakers who help to study and shape the power base directing educational reform in the U.S. and the world.

List price: $46.99

Remix
Remove
Annual Subscriptions (4/year) Subscribe Discounts for Institutions
 

15 Articles

Format Buy Remix

Educational Reform in Louisiana

ePub

SPENCER J. MAXCY and DOREEN O. MAXCY

College of Education
Louisiana State University
III Peabody
Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4721

Education has appealed to southern governors as a catapult to a place in history. The practice of adopting school reform as a focus of popular support began in North Carolina at the turn of the century and has continued to this day (Maxcy, 1981). In his inaugural address of January 15, 1901, North Carolina Governor Charles B. Aycock launched the first full-scale reform of public education in a southern state, and thus impacted the course of events for future political reformist governors:

Our statesmen have always favored the education of the masses, but heretofore interest in the matter has not approached universality; henceforth in every home there will be knowledge that no child can attain the true dignity of citizenship without learning at least to read and write. (Connor and Poe, 1912, 235)

Aycock’s educational reform package centered on the consolidation of schools into large units to improve the breadth of curricula offerings and the centrality of control over a polyglot system of public institutions. Implicit in his program was the belief that the South was becoming industrialized and that these new factories would require educated workers. Better schools would also mean increased commerce, a decided benefit to the railroads running through the region. Finally, the schools were to be a breeding ground for better government officials (Connor and Poe, 1912). The mechanisms used to promote his educational plan entailed the governor calling a conference of key leaders in North Carolina, making public speeches, and holding grassroots rallies to pump up support (Orr, 1961).

See All Chapters

Great Expectations: A Critical Analysis of the Lessons of a Grassroots Movement to Reform an Urban School Board

ePub

LOUIS F. MIRON* and CORMELL BROOKS

Department of Educational Leadership and Foundations
University of New Orleans
College of Education
New Orleans, LA 70148

Although issues of governance have not received much attention during the last decade of educational reform, the focus on school boards as facilitators of clarion calls for reforms such as teacher empowerment and school-based management or, alternatively, as barriers to these proposals has come into sharp focus. To wit:

There are those . . . who believe that the crisis in school governance in many parts of the country is so serious that school board reform and redefinition will not do the job; they believe that totally new and radically different approaches are required in those areas. . . . The question that needs to be asked is, what has made many school boards an obstacle to–rather than a force for–fundamental education reform? (Report of the Task Force on School Governance, Rand Corp., 1992, pp. 1–2)

See All Chapters

A Paradigm by Any Other Name

ePub

MILDRED L. BURNS

Associate Professor
Administration and Policy Studies
McGill University
3724 McTavish St.
Montreal, PQ, Canada H3A 1Y2

My theory on the word paradigm is that it is like an old dog. It drools on you, and it is ugly, but you remember it.

–James Pinkerton 1

The term paradigm has been used in the literature of organizations to identify patterns of thinking about organizations. Burrell and Morgan (1979) have proposed that the boundaries of our paradigms are established by two polar dimensions. The horizontal axis, Subjective < — >Objective, arises from our view of the nature of knowledge. The vertical axis, Change < — > Regulation, arises from our view of the nature of social life. Burrell and Morgan identify the four paradigms shaped by these dimensions with the philosophical systems of thought from which they arise. The four quadrants are labeled Functionalist (Objective/Regulatory quadrant), Interpretive (Subjective/Regulatory quadrant), Radical Humanist (Subjective/Change quadrant), and Radical Structuralist (Objective/Change quadrant).

See All Chapters

A State by State Snapshot of School-Based Management Practices

ePub

JANICE L. HERMAN

Associate Professor, Department of Educational Leadership
The University of Alabama at Birmingham, 232G Education Building, UAB Station, Birmingham, AL 35294

JERRY J. HERMAN

Area Head and Professor, Administration and Educational Leadership
The University of Alabama, Box 870302, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487

The education reform movement of the 1980s instigated a wave of reforms, many of them originating at the state level. Twenty-three states have increased high school graduation since 1980, nearly every state has strengthened teacher certification requirements, forty-nine states have instituted some form of student assessment, and forty-seven states have underwritten new curriculum guides. State policymakers have begun to look for additional avenues to spur achievement, and efforts are beginning to focus on strengthening schools as organizations. A shift from regulation to incentives and mobilization of “institutional capacity” is beginning to occur in many states; strategies to empower are replacing program mandates (Education Commission of the States, 1989). Recommended policy options for restructuring at a state level were also the focus of the Education Commission of the States in 1991. Regarding leadership policies, the Commission proposed that “The state ensures that business leaders, teachers, principals, parents, state and local school board members, state department of education officials and others participate in creating a shared vision and becoming advocates for the future of education” (p. 22). Further state policy recommendations in the document are concerned with establishing a waiver system and with parent and community involvement. Regarding inclusion of stakeholders, the Commission recommends that states endorse shared decision making for districts and schools. Lewis (1988) also reported on restructuring state control, and quoted Michael Cohen’s (a National Governors Association policy expert) suggested steps for state leadership. The states should support restructuring by:

See All Chapters

School Restructuring in Practice: Reckoning with the Culture of School

ePub

PAUL E. HECKMAN

Assistant Professor, Educational and Community Change Project
College of Education
The University of Arizona
Tucson, AZ 85721

The realization that existing educational institutions do not adequately promote the full educational development of children-especially children who are poor, of color, and have a first language other than English-has existed for several decades. Although strategies have been developed to address these issues, to further new ways of thinking about education, and to create alternative structures, the outcomes of these strategies appear less than effective. This failure is at least partly due to an underestimation of how the culture of school (Goodlad, 1975; Sarason, 1982, 1990; Purkey and Smith, 1985; Deal, 1987) constrains school change. If the culture of school is a concept that helps explain the difficulty of altering norms and behavioral regularities in schools, then finding ways to alter a school culture should provide a foundation for restructuring schooling and education.

See All Chapters

When the Best Must Become Better: Educational Reform in North Dakota

ePub

JOHN S. BACKES

Assistant Professor of Educational Administration, Center for Teaching and Learning University of North Dakota, Box 8158,
University Station, Grand Forks, ND 58202

CLARENCE BINA

Director of Special Projects, North Dakota Department of Public Instruction
600 E. Boulevard Ave., Bismarck, ND 58505–0440

North Dakota boasts the highest graduation rate in the nation at 95.7% (Kaufman, McMillen and Bradby, 1991). In the 1990 National Assessment of Education (NAEP), North Dakotan eighth graders scored first in mathematics (Mullis, Dossey, Owen and Phillips, 1991). The state’s general citizenry express satisfaction with these educational indicators in survey polls. While the rest of the country struggles with the “rising tide of mediocrity,” North Dakota has not seen these issues in the same light. The call for “educational restructuring” has therefore been inherently problematic. Despite the evidence of solid educational achievement, state education leaders believe the state must shift its perspective from a system of inputs and methodologies to a system emphasizing student-centered learning and performance.

See All Chapters

Technical Education in Cyprus

ePub

LARRY L. BRADSHAW

Assistant Professor
Department of Industrial Education and Technology
College of Education
Iowa State University
Ames, IA 50011

The author arrived on the Island of Cyprus January 2, 1991. The entire Royal Jordanian Airline had just flown its planes to Larnaca International Airport and parked them for safety. By January 7th, all international airline travel was due to cease. The weather was clear and cold and the island was dry due to drought the two previous years. The winds of war were blowing nearby as the United Nations and Iraq were unable to see eye-to-eye on the occupation of Kuwait by Iraqi armed forces. Refugees from Lebanon were waiting in Cyprus to return home to a country devastated by civil war. Refugees from throughout the Middle East were arriving in Cyprus daily with fear of war touching their homelands. Cyprus was still living an uneasy peace, partitioned since 1974, with United Nation troops separating the Turkish Cypriots and the Turkish army in the North from the Greek Cypriots in the South. North Cyprus had declared independence in 1983, fanning emotions in the South about previously owned property, family burial sites, and the loss of famous historical sites.

See All Chapters

Strategic Planning for Literacy Education in Afghanistan

ePub

HARRISON J. MEANS and DORIS A. HENRY

College of Education
University of Nebraska at Omaha
60th and Dodge Streets, Kayser Hall
Omaha, NE 68182-0163

A little over a year ago we were invited to Pakistan to conduct several staff development seminars for Afghan educators living in Peshawar, Pakistan as refugees. We conducted seminars in strategic planning, assessment/testing and program evaluation, as well as a seminar in teacher preparation. We acquired information and insights while we were there, which we believe will be useful to all educators, especially those with an interest in global education, education in Third World settings, and education or staff development in Muslim contexts. Also, we enabled Afghan educators to plan for the reformation of their educational system, which had been destroyed by over a decade of Soviet occupation and by the civil strife in the aftermath of the Soviet withdrawal.

A few years before the Soviet occupation, which began over a decade ago and ended just a few years ago, Afghanistan was endeavoring to increase the literacy level and general education level of its people. In the mid-1960s, the literacy rate was 8% (Unesco, 1971). Afghan educators who are now refugees in Pakistan have told us that it may be less than that now, especially in the rural areas of the country. Because Afghanistan is largely rural and lacks most of the features of a developed nation outside of its few cities, the goals for educational improvements were far from being achieved when the Soviet occupation occurred in the late 1970s.

See All Chapters

A Proposal for a Comprehensive National Assessment Plan

ePub

JAMES K. ZAHARIS, JAMES S. DEGRACIE and JOSEPH M. O’REILLY

Mesa Public Schools
549 North Stapley Drive
Mesa, AZ 85203

Not since Emperor Shun in 2357 B.C. began testing military officers every three years in order to determine whether or not they should be promoted, or more recently, the revolutionary invention by Reynold Johnson in 1935 of the first scoring machine, has the discussion of testing been as emotional and all-encompassing. Today, many educators and significant others are pushing for prodigious changes in student-assessment methods, moving away from a norm-referenced multiple choice framework to authentic assessment or assessment which they believe more closely maps to what is being taught in the classroom. At the same time, American political leadership is calling for nationwide American achievement tests. Obviously, great change is in store in the area of assessment.

Both issues need to be addressed–that of the call for national testing and the demise of multiple choice tests and the infatuation for authentic assessments; these issues are not necessarily mutually exclusive. We recommend a procedure that would encompass regional and local concerns and slow down the classic swing of the pendulum (or at least restrict its arc).

See All Chapters

Professionalizing the Principalship

ePub

SCOTT D. THOMSON

Executive Director
National Policy Board of Educational Administration
4400 University Drive
George Mason University
Fairfax, VA 22030-4444

The question of whether or not educational administration is a profession occurs periodically and is now again on the table. Issues fueling the current discussion include new expectations for the principal, including site-based management, initiatives from some states-including New Jersey-to eliminate teaching as a licensure requirement for the principalship, and several proposals for alternative credentialling based on generic management training or successful private sector business experience. Once again, assumptions by principals about their own professionalism are being challenged.

An ironic feature of this current erosion of professional status is the demand by the public for new competencies from principals and for higher levels of student outcomes. Evidently the public views the professional preparation of principals as unrelated to job performance or irrelevant to outcomes. Or, to state it starkly, the public must not be convinced that principals are professionals if they view the preparation of principals as insignificant or discretionary. Professions are not insignificant nor discretionary; they require substantial preparation in a cohesive body of knowledge and lead to the application of definable professional skills in the workplace. There exists no alternative curricula for preparing architects or attorneys or accountants or nurses. Why should the principalship, if a profession, be different?

See All Chapters

Counterpoint

ePub

Henry A. Giroux

Introduction

Lech Witkowski is an internationally renowned scholar who holds the Chair of Contemporary Philosophy at Nicolas Copernicus University in Torun, Poland. He is a prolific writer, actually a border intellectual, who writes as fluently about literary theory and philosophy as he does about education. Professor Witkowski and I have been collaborating since 1986. We share a common concern about the dynamics of educational reform as it works itself out in the vastly different postmodern world of the 1990s. In collaboration with his colleague, Professor Kwiecinski, the editor of the Polish journal, Absent Discourses, Professor Witkowski has written cogently about the need for a new educational discourse. For him, the legacy of Marxism and the increasingly vocationalized language of the free market offer little hope in addressing and transforming the educational system in Poland. Passionately concerned about inventing a discourse that promotes rather than closes down schooling for critical and responsible citizenship in Poland, Professor Witkowski and his associates invited me and Peter McLaren to Poland in March of 1992 to discuss the legacy of critical educational discourse in the United States. In our far-ranging discussions with him, Professor Zbigniew Kwiecinski, and the Minister of Education, we talked about pedagogy, postmodernism, multiculturalism and a host of other concerns often missing from the debates in the United States. In what follows, I present an interview that Professor Witkowski conducted with me and later published in Poland. The interview is important less for what I say than for the sharpness of the questions and concerns that Witkowski expresses in his inquiries and comments. I present the interview as an example of collaborative work and a tribute to the Polish educators I met during my short time in Warsaw and Torun.

See All Chapters

The Internationalist

ePub

Peter McLaren

Marcia Moraes is an Assistant Professor of Education at Rio de Janeiro State University in Brazil. She is currently a doctoral candidate in the Department of Educational Leadership at Miami University of Ohio.

Peter: Brazil-the very name embodies contradictions through Western eyes. Ethnocentric Americans conjure up images of rainforests, samba, Carnival, lambada, and beaches, or else images of poverty, street children, and paramilitary death squads. What do you think about the popular U.S. portrait of Brazil?

Marcia: This is really a very good beginning for our conversation because it is exactly this U.S. portrait about Brazil that surprised me when I first came to the United States in 1991. I was invited to deliver a paper about my research at the American Educational Research Association annual conference in Chicago. I was wearing a name badge advertising the name of my university, and the name of my city Rio de Janeiro. I was dismayed at how many people described to me the same stereotypical images about my country and my city. I heard statements such as: “Brazil? Oh, I know, you have samba, Carnival, bikinis, girls from Ipanema”; or “I know Brazil very well, you have a wonderful life, spending the whole time on the beaches, but you also have much poverty, right?”; or “Are you from Brazil? I know children are being killed there by plainclothes military officers.” Some months ago, I heard the following statement: “I went to Brazil and I especially liked that city, you know, Buenos Aires.” All these statements surprised me because I could perceive that these people did not recognize the complexity and contradictions of Brazil. All countries have poverty, wealth and political problems. If American professors hold these absurd stereotypical ideas, can you imagine what their students know about Brazil?

See All Chapters

Instruction

ePub

John M. Jenkins

Unlike the school day, the world is not divided into discrete disciplines.

— Scott Willis

The demand for curriculum change appears to operate in cycles. Historically, education has vascillated between a focus on subject matter disciplines and a focus on student outcomes that cut across subject matter lines. Philosophically, one remembers or has read about the battles waged between the essentialists on one hand and the pragmatists on the other. The essentialists argued the position that the best preparation for life was learning for its own sake. The pragmatists favored an examination of societal trends and a curriculum that would adjust to the needs of a changing world.

On a practical level, schools that emphasized the authority of the subject disciplines supported the essentialists’ position, and schools that reorganized the curriculum into themes or broad fields supported the pragmatist position. When the purpose of a public education was the preparation of students for college and only college, the need for variety in curriculum offerings was unnecessary. As the populations of students attending schools became more diverse, there was a greater need to offer variety in the curriculum. This push and pull has continued throughout the 20th century in American education.

See All Chapters

Legal

ePub

Todd A. DeMitchell

Richard Fossey*

Don’t think that, by itself, [school-based management] will produce anything.

— Albert Shanker

president of AFT, 19881

The school-based management that has been heralded in this town is bogus.

— High school headmaster

Boston Public Schools, 1991

We shall never learn to . . . respect our real calling . . . unless we have taught ourselves to consider everything as moonshine, compared with the education of the heart.

— Sir Walter Scott

Site-based management, with its promise of teacher empowerment, shared decision making, and collegial relations between teachers and administrators, has become a popular school reform strategy.2 Indeed, several state legislatures now require school districts to implement sitebased management based on the belief that this is a promising means of improving the quality of the schools.3

See All Chapters

College

ePub

Richard P. Manatt

When I first agreed to write this column, my editor, Fenwick English, suggested a short list of topics to get me started. One that he suggested, the story of the School Improvement Model that I have directed for many years, seemed too personal and perhaps a little too mundane for a major piece. As I kept pushing the topic forward, I continued talking with other professors and writing about our threefold obligation of teaching, service, and research. Research seemed to be the area that most have questions about.

What’s it like to be a principal investigator? How do you survive on soft money? Is overhead really as bad as they say? How in the world can you keep one research thrust going for over twenty years—don’t you eventually run out of questions to ask? After thirty years on one topic, what do you know now that you didn’t know then?

Finally, I became convinced there is a story to be told and perhaps some useful ideas for professors starting their long and, it is hoped, exciting career in research. Although this column is about the School Improvement Model and what it has accomplished, it is also about how a professor grows and develops as a researcher. Ethnographers would call this approach “I-witnessing” (Geertz, 1989) or a “confessional tale” (Van Maanen, 1988).

See All Chapters

Details

Print Book
E-Books
Articles

Format name
ePub
Encrypted
No
Sku
I000000047645
Isbn
9781475815931
File size
3.58 MB
Printing
Allowed
Copying
Allowed
Read aloud
Allowed
Format name
ePub
Encrypted
No
Printing
Allowed
Copying
Allowed
Read aloud
Allowed
Sku
In metadata
Isbn
In metadata
File size
In metadata