Medium 9781475819472

Tep Vol 24-N4

Views: 878
Ratings: (0)

Teacher Education and Practice, a peer-refereed journal, is dedicated to the encouragement and the dissemination of research and scholarship related to professional education. The journal is concerned, in the broadest sense, with teacher preparation, practice and policy issues related to the teaching profession, as well as being concerned with learning in the school setting. The journal also serves as a forum for the exchange of diverse ideas and points of view within these purposes. As a forum, the journal offers a public space in which to critically examine current discourse and practice as well as engage in generative dialogue. Alternative forms of inquiry and representation are invited, and authors from a variety of backgrounds and diverse perspectives are encouraged to contribute. Teacher Education & Practice is published by Rowman & Littlefield.

List price: $41.99

Remix
Remove
Annual Subscriptions (4/year) Subscribe Discounts for Institutions
 

24 Articles

Format Buy Remix

Editorial: Scholarship as Pedagogy, Pedagogy as Reflexive Praxis

ePub

PATRICK M. JENLINK

Learning involves making oneself vulnerable and taking risks, and this is not how teachers often see their roles. . . . Teachers generally are accustomed to feeling efficacious—to knowing that they can affect students’ learning.

—Bransford, Brown, and Cocking (1999, p. 183)

A scholarship of teaching is not synonymous with excellent teaching. It requires a kind of “going meta” in which faculty frame and systematically investigate questions related to student learning . . . and to do so with an eye not only to improving their own classroom but to advancing practice beyond it.

—Hutchings and Schulman (1999, p. 13)

It is in our investigations, as academic scholars as well as practitioners, into the relational issue of the what of teaching and how it relates to learning as a teaching outcome that the enhancement of teaching and learning will take new and necessary direction. The nature of the relationship between teaching and learning is a point of nexus—not just student learning but teacher learning and not just teaching and learning in the academy but teaching and learning in all educational settings. And this investigation will require that we redefine the meaning of scholarship as it relates to both teaching and learning. We must examine the bridge between teacher understanding and student learning and at the same time take seriously Freire’s (1998) belief that there is no teaching without learning and no learning without teaching. Similarly, we must further examine the manifold nature of scholarship, which has a long history in the academy, and undertake the work necessary to moving beyond the academy. Writing in Scholarship Reconsidered, Boyer (1990) understood the importance of this when he stated “a new vision of scholarship is required, one dedicated not only to the renewal of the academy but, ultimately, to the renewal of society itself” (p. 81). The renewal of society depends on a common causeway that connects one generation to next: education. And education depends on a common relational action: teaching and learning. Therein lies the import of situating scholarship beyond the academy in other educational settings where teachers live and work, carrying out the daily rhythmic patterns in concert with students of teaching and learning.

See All Chapters

The Power of Practitioner Research and Development of an Inquiry Stance in Teacher Education Programs

ePub

RACHEL WOLKENHAUER

SYLVIA BOYNTON

NANCY FICHTMAN DANA

ABSTRACT: This article presents a framework for establishing inquiry as a foundation of a teacher education program to help prospective and practicing teachers view inquiry not as a project but as a stance. Cochran-Smith and Lytle (2009) assert that “working from an inquiry stance involves a continual process of making current arrangements problematic, questioning the ways knowledge and practice are constructed, evaluated, and used; and assuming that part of the work of practitioners individually and collectively is to participate in educational and social change” (p. 121). Development of stance in this article is exemplified by the work of one teacher researcher who came to inquiry through a graduate-level teacher education program. Since engagement in inquiry was woven throughout the program, this teacher engaged in multiple cycles of inquiry. She shares her research and the ways that her engagement in practitioner research led to the development of her inquiry stance.

See All Chapters

Shaping Action Researchers Through a Master’s Capstone Experience

ePub

ALINA SLAPAC

VIRGINIA NAVARRO

ABSTRACT: As two teacher educators teaching two sections of a master’s action research capstone course, we analyze (1) course content and pedagogy, (2) evolving beliefs about research, and (3) transformations in question posing as students assume the role of researchers. Our theoretical frame draws on teacher research, social justice advocacy, and the contextual nature of learning. The inherent tension between being a capital R researcher and being a small r reflective practitioner (Schön, 1983, 1987) became apparent in student comments and texts. This qualitative analysis draws on student work, instructors’ reflections, and online forums in Blackboard. We learned the following: First, reframing research questions often involves reinterpreting K–12 students’ motives and behaviors; second, questioning one’s own identity means turning one’s gaze from “other” to within oneself; third, careful study and reflection on a focused area of practice usually results in changes in that practice; and, finally, traditional research methods courses in education may alienate teachers from practicing action research effectively.

See All Chapters

Dialogues of Teacher Education: Whither Scholarship in the Work of Enhancing the Quality of Teaching and Learning?

ePub

PATRICK M. JENLINK

Editor’s Note: With the Dialogues of Teacher Education section in Teacher Education and Practice, we invite our readers to join us in a venture to create a venue for giving voice to difficult problems of the day. Specifically, our purpose is to bring individuals together and engage in a meaningful, critical examination of selected topics that concern teacher educators and practitioners. We hope the readership enjoys the dialogue in this issue—“Whither Scholarship in the Work of Enhancing the Quality of Teaching and Learning?”—and that our contributing authors stimulate important and needed conversations among teacher educators, practitioners, policymakers, and other cultural workers concerned with improving teacher education and practice.

Entering a conversation where the framing question begins with the term whither draws into specific relief the importance of examining how that term is used—that is, its meaning or connotation. One might interpret whither interrogatively or relatively, with either interpretation being correct in the syntax of a question, such as “Whither scholarship in the work of enhancing the quality of teaching and learning?” When the question is approached interrogatively, it could pragmatically, critically interpret as a query of whether there is a role for scholarship or what is the role of scholarship, whereas if the question is approached relatively, there is an inference that scholarship has a role or relationship; therein, the question focuses one on examining the nature of the relationship. To extend this point, in the case of enhancing the quality of teaching and learning, the question prompted by whither could be construed either interrogatively or relatively. That is, “whither scholarship . . . ” could be approached as interrogating the role of scholarship in enhancing the quality, or it could be approached relatively, with a purpose of understanding the relationship presumed to exist between scholarship and quality of teaching and learning.

See All Chapters

Understanding Scholarship in Teaching and Teacher Education

ePub

JOHN LOUGHRAN

Let me state from the outset that I consider scholarship to be pivotal in enhancing the quality of teaching and learning. However, what scholarship is could well be contested, so I will offer my understanding of scholarship, how it might be developed, and why I think it is so crucial to quality practice. In so doing, I hope that my view about the place of scholarship in teaching and learning (particularly, in teacher education) is then self-evident.

There is often confusion (driven by the diversity of opinions) about what it means to do teaching and how to do it well. Adding to this confusion is the common generalization by which teachers are positioned as practitioners who do teaching and academics are observers of teaching who theorize about it. Through that stereotype, the notion of a theory–practice divide is perpetuated. As a consequence, misunderstandings inherent in what Schön (1983) alluded through his characterization of the swampy lowlands and the ivory tower tend to prevail, seemingly unquestioned. However, it is embracing a union of both places that (for me) scholarship resides.

See All Chapters

Inquiry for Engagement in Teaching and Learning

ePub

GLENDA MOSS

“Whither scholarship in the work of enhancing the quality of teaching and learning?” The question reminds me of one Shakespeare asked, “To be or not to be?” I cannot imagine teaching and learning taking place in any classroom without inquiry. Scholarship in the practice of teaching and learning is teaching and learning.

Scholarship played a key role in my ongoing development when I taught middle school students from 1985 to 1998. When attention deficit disorder (ADD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) became a growing phenomenon among students, I sought out research to understand my students and learn how to meet their needs. Scholarship provided ideas to inform my practice. I also gained information from texts, workshops, and conference presentations. This was not enough. I had to inquire into the experiences of my students and their families. I called each family to learn its perceptions on ADD and ADHD. With the permission of parents, I engaged the rest of my middle school students in a process of learning about the phenomenon so that we could all work together as a class for the success of all my students. My students who were ADD or ADHD shared their experiences with peers. I shared information I learned at workshops. We all explored how we could provide a supportive learning environment. We made classroom decisions about who would sit next to students with ADD or ADHD and how we could support one another to stay focused. We worked as a community of learners.

See All Chapters

Do No Harm

ePub

DAVID F. LABAREE

Education is a field of dreams, and so is educational research. As educators, we dream of schools that can improve the lives of students, solve social problems, and enrich the quality of life; as educational researchers, we dream that our studies will enhance the effectiveness of schools in achieving these worthy goals. Both fields draw recruits who see the possibilities of education as a force for doing good, and that turns out to be a problem because the history of both fields shows that the chances for doing real harm are substantial. Over the years, research on teaching and teacher education—the topic of the discussion in this special issue—has caused a lot of damage to teaching/learning and learning to teach in schools. So I suggest that a good principle to adopt when considering the role of research in teacher education is a version of the Hippocratic oath: First do no harm.

The history of educational research in the United States in the 20th century supports a pessimistic assessment of the field’s impact on American school and society. There was Edward L. Thorndike, whose work emphasized the importance of differentiating the curriculum to provide the skills and knowledge that students would later need in playing sharply different roles in a stratified workforce. There was David Snedden, who labored tirelessly to promote narrowly vocational training for that large group of students who would end up serving in what he called “the rank and file.” There were the kingpins of educational testing such as Lewis Terman, who developed instruments that allowed educators to measure student ability and student learning, which in turn helped determine which track students should occupy and what role they should play in later life. Put together, these kinds of enormously productive educational researchers helped build a system of schooling that emphasized sorting over learning and promoted a vision of teaching that emphasized the delivery of curriculum over the engagement of students. They laid the foundation for the current machinery of curriculum standards and high-stakes testing that has turned American teaching into a machinery for raising test scores.

See All Chapters

Does Practical Knowledge Trump Research?

ePub

MARI KOERNER

To me, the question of “Whither scholarship in the work of enhancing the quality of teaching and learning?” means “To what degree and in what place does scholarship have in teaching and learning and specifically in teacher education?” We at Arizona State University’s Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College think not only about the role of scholarship to enhance the teaching and learning of our preservice teachers but also about the role of experience and demonstrated skills in teaching. As a professional school in a Research I university, we believe we have to use and create knowledge, which not only informs what we do but also takes into account how this knowledge can be integrated with and implemented in our partnerships schools and our own programs. To provide context for the work we do, it is important to know that we are perhaps the largest college of education in the country, with over 3,400 undergraduates (all in teacher certification programs), 700 students in master’s and certificate programs, and 1,300 in other master’s and doctoral programs. We think about the role of scholarship of teaching and learning for our undergraduate teacher education students as they study in partnership schools as interns with clinical faculty; we think about our master’s degree students as basically consumers of research, as they also apply what they learn to more advanced scholarship or their own classrooms; we have to think about what is the core knowledge that needs to be delineated and expanded through the systematic inquiry of our EdD and PhD candidates and faculty, which is then disseminated through publications or implemented through their work.

See All Chapters

Multiple Perspectives: Whither Scholarship in the Work of Enhancing the Quality of Teaching and Learning?

ePub

JULIE RAINER DANGEL

This is an important query because it acknowledges, embraces, questions, and challenges the role of scholarship in enhancing teaching and learning. Interestingly, these four verbs help me categorize my perspectives on the use of scholarship. How can one question elicit so many perspectives? It is because of the many persons who walk with me. Each is a scholar with points of view that enrich conversations about scholarship. These scholars are similar in that they all are early childhood teacher educators who work at a large urban Research I university. Each has a leading role in my mindscape, and they see the role of scholarship differently. I appreciate my critical friends; they remind me of the complexity inherent in simple questions. Allow me to introduce you to them. You will hear a variety of voices that adjoin the other dialogues in this issue. They suggest that a primary role of scholarship is to bring scholars and knowledge together in a community of shared perspectives.

See All Chapters

Scholarly Research Makes Education Dynamic

ePub

MEGAN BLUMENREICH

Scholarly research is crucial to teaching and learning because it keeps the work of teacher educators and the teaching and learning in schools of education dynamic. Research fosters habits of critical reflection, encourages teacher educators to learn throughout their careers, and ensures that concepts in teacher education adapt to current understandings, politics, and policies. For many of the same reasons that research is valuable for the work of teacher educators, it is valuable to teachers, particularly teachers in urban areas.

To understand the value of research to teaching and learning, consider what teacher education looks like without it. Recent turns of events have made it easy to consider such a situation. New York State, often a trendsetter for educational reform, has awarded stand-alone “clinically rich” nonacademic teacher education programs with the ability to offer master’s degrees in education (Otterman, 2011). Relay Graduate School of Education is one such institution, and as the school’s future provost explains, the training it offers is focused “on stuff that will help you be a better teacher on Monday” (Otterman, 2011). In fact, the book Teach Like a Champion: The 49 Techniques That Put Students on the Path to College, has been described as the backbone of the school’s instruction (cited in Green, 2010).

See All Chapters

Evidentiary Standards for Consensus Standards in Teacher Education

ePub

FRANK B. MURRAY

The standards that currently define a quality teacher or teacher education program derive their authority from the consensus of experts, who negotiate and craft statements that codify their views of best practice. In education, these consensus statements are rarely rooted in the field’s established scholarship (as is the case for many standards in medicine and engineering) but are simply well-intentioned expert opinion and preference. When the scholarship in a field is contested and uncertain (Meier, 2000; Ohanian, 1999, 2000; Raths, 1999) as it is in teacher education, prevailing standards are only the profession’s best guess about what will make things better, each awaiting systematic scholarly investigation and verification.

The standard and well-meaning school practice of forcibly converting left-handers (10% of the population) to right-handers, for example, eventually gave way to evidence that showed that the conversion was implicated in subsequent differential brain development, learning disorders, dyslexia, and stuttering (Snook, Paulson, Roy, Phillips, & Beaulieu, 2002). In the face of decades of biomedical research, to take another example, the claims in 1940s and 1950s from polls of 113,597 physicians—who named the cigarette brand they smoked and claimed that smoking aides digestion, promotes relaxation, and protects the throat against irritation and cough—are now seen as markedly substandard and sad (http://saveourbones.com/smoking/).

See All Chapters

A Vision for Teaching Practice

ePub

ETTA R. HOLLINS

Among the most salient factors influencing the quality of a preservice teacher preparation program is whether or not there exists a shared vision of teaching practice held by the faculty that forms the basis for the design of the program, is presented to prospective teacher candidates, and is made readily visible to candidates in the teacher preparation program through the experiences of learning teaching practice. Teaching practice refers to the professional discourse, knowledge, skills, tools, and habits of mind underlying the interpretive processes that characterize expert teaching practice. Such expert practice is located within and responsive to micro- and macrocontexts and situations. In a well-articulated vision, learning teaching practice is situated within a particular view of professional expertise, a particular theoretical perspective on learning teaching practice, a particular understanding of the relationship between teaching practice and learning outcomes, and a particular understanding of the position of teaching practice within the local community and the larger society.

See All Chapters

The Role of Scholarship in the Quality of Teaching and Learning

ePub

REBECCA K. FOX

In response to the question “Whither scholarship in the work of enhancing the quality of teaching and learning?” we must begin by thinking about the importance of understanding the teaching and learning process because this is at the core of what we do as educators. I believe that it is through the research we conduct on teaching and learning that teacher educators can make visible important aspects and dimensions of teachers’ learning and ultimately come to consider the results of our work as “researcher educators.”

To enhance the quality of teaching, we need to understand teacher learning at its deepest level and continue to build a culture of inquiry about knowledge development in teachers. To drive our research as teacher educators, we should ask ourselves the hard questions: How do we know that our work with teachers is effective? In what ways are teachers applying their new knowledge in their classrooms? Are their new practices having a positive impact on preK–12 learners?

See All Chapters

Touching Down: Grounding Scholarship of Teaching in Learning in Lived Experience

ePub

JENNIFER HAUVER JAMES

Like many educational researchers, I was propelled into higher education with a bone to pick. I had entered the teaching profession at the onset of the standardization and accountability movement in Virginia. Very soon, I experienced a shift away from inquiry and creativity and toward remediation and tracking. My students—mainly immigrant children—fell further and further behind. Teachers slowly lost inspiration for their work; students disengaged from learning; and the local community became cynical about the promise of public education. I had always thought of teaching as advocacy work, but my commitment to equity sharpened as a result of this experience. I returned to graduate school hoping to unpack the prevailing discourses of teaching that I believed undermined equity and justice in classrooms and to prepare teachers to resist and alter them.

Although work like mine is often lauded for being “cutting-edge” in the world of academia, it is typically dismissed by our partners in the schools. Teachers may share our concerns, but our inability to offer sound alternatives to the status quo can leave them feeling frustrated. When this scholarship is the basis for teacher education, aspiring and practicing teachers tell us that we are out of touch. Rather than creating change agents, we may inadvertently foster cynicism among teachers about the usefulness of research at all. Our scholarship, intended to interrupt troubling patterns in schools, falls short of achieving its goal.

See All Chapters

Keys to Scholarship

ePub

TERRI HEBERT

Up ahead, a foreboding wooden door showing wear from passage of earlier travelers is spotted. As the old porch light emits a pale yellow glow, a key ring emerges from deep inside the coat pocket. Searching for just the right key, the voyager settles on one that also shows age. As the key enters its receptacle and begins to turn, a clicking noise is heard. We wonder curiously, what will happen next? In the world of teaching and learning, many are wondering the same thing. According to Sir Ken Robinson (2011), a key can be turned in two directions: One way can activate the locking mechanism keeping potential resources secure yet removed from the learner. Turned in the opposite direction, the door graciously opens presenting a wealth of reserves available to all who enter.

Within this analogy to expand on the challenges currently facing scholarship of teaching and learning within the environment of higher education, the traveler equates to the learner. Human beings possess deeply rooted, deeply personal questions of which we desire answers. Answers come through periods of reflection of and interaction with knowledge. The door is the formalized educational setting, whether public or private, small or large, rural or urban. The key represents the teacher. Large numbers of students step onto the front porch of learning institutions having been given only one key, one approach to learning, and its very shape is one of standardization. However, in direct opposition to this notion and with continuing ramifications to how educators teach, a revolution is occurring. It is a revolution of the mind. No longer are the learners waiting for the content to be delivered in a standardized fashion, while instructors rely on static, even archaic, methods. Learners are searching for the knowledge, the answers, on their own and in their own preferred manner of learning: visually, aurally, or textually. This knowledge explosion is changing not only the manner and speed with which the learner gathers answers but also the very conversation of learning. No longer do educators discuss “how much” is being learned; instead, they ask “how well.” McKinney (2007) shares that while the mastery of content remains valuable in the learning process, the overall product of education must be one that encourages the continuation of knowledge building long after the student has left the formalized structure of school. In other words, it will be the lifelong learner that will flourish in this future world. Dewey communicated this very truth years ago when he pronounced, “The aim of education should be to teach us rather how to think, than what to think—rather to improve our minds, so as to enable us to think for ourselves, than to load the memory with the thoughts of other men” (http://www.randomterrain.com/favoritequotes-teaching-and-learning.html, retrieved July 26, 2011).

See All Chapters

Why Joint Inquiry Partnerships Between Practitioners and Teacher Educators Support Effective Education Reform

ePub

PATRICIA C. PAUGH

MARY KIM FRIES

Despite years of controversy about what counts as rigorous educational research and significant amounts of taxpayers’ support for related reform of U.S. public schools, serious inequities in U.S. K–12 education remain (Morrell & Noguera, 2011). As the authors of this essay, we bring the perspectives of two tenured university teacher educators who share a background of over 40 years as K–12 teachers, to consider the role of joint collaborative inquiry between university teacher educators and practitioner researchers as a vital component for informing school change. Over the past decade, our career moves from teaching to higher education coincided with two major questions that are driving school reform. The first is “What counts as quality in educational research?” As we progressed from dissertation to tenure, we witnessed a shift in the dominant research paradigm toward large-scale, “scientifically based” research, with a resulting imbalance between these and context-focused studies that theorize the local. More recently, a second question, “What is a high-quality teacher?” shifts public attention and educational policy toward teaching. We are personally witnessing the power of these critiques as they drive the removal of teachers from failing schools, replace public schools with less regulated charters, and relocate teacher education programs out of the university and into the districts. This public attention to the teaching profession portends a drastic alteration of the role of public school teachers along with our own university teacher education programs.

See All Chapters

Whither Scholarship?

ePub

FAY PATEL

Teacher education has been engrossed in an eternal quest of seeking appropriate, relevant, and effective strategies to enhance teaching and learning quality over many decades. Teacher educators, teacher trainees, and teachers (including early and midcareer to late career professionals) continue to this day to focus their energies, passion, and commitment to finding the most effective, creative, and innovative teaching and learning solutions.

The search for enhancing teaching and learning quality crosses geographic, demographic, and cultural contexts and boundaries. However, the gaps in these endeavors are conspicuous by their absences. This contribution presents a brief general overview of the trends in enhancing teaching and learning quality and identifies the gaps in teacher education discourse. Recommendations are put forward to inspire future dialogue so that a new peoples’ scholarship embraces a holistic, inclusive, critical, collaborative, and just framework for teacher education. Teachers and learners and those engaged in teaching and learning have an important and equal responsibility and accountability for their actions and nonactions in enhancing the quality of teaching and learning.

See All Chapters

Addressing Humanness in Education: Truth-Seeking Scholarship for Excelled Pedagogy

ePub

KENNETH R. AUSTIN

That we as human beings wrestle with the problems of pain and suffering, rejoice in joy and happiness, and struggle with that which defines success and failure—as apparent by the word and the work of the participants within the world of education (students, teachers, coaches, administrators, parents, business managers, and on and on)—reveals to us that a cold methodical educational system emphasizing mechanical knowhow only is far from sufficient to satisfy our human longing to understand and make sense of the world in which we live (Polkinghorne, 1998). Furthermore, typical questions of content meaning and issues of social justice by teenagers cannot be removed from our curricular educational agenda. Their thoughts, indeed all our thoughts, far exceed an impersonal evaluation of objective superficial skills developed merely to make a nice drawing, solve algebraic formulas without relevance, or memorize historical facts out of context. As we traverse through an era of increased and perhaps intrusive accountability ideologies monitored by technological innovations, educators should engage more in the scholarly activity of examining further the human resources within the educational settings in they teach, including themselves (Noddings, in press).

See All Chapters

Load more


Details

Print Book
E-Books
Articles

Format name
ePub
Encrypted
No
Sku
I000000047670
Isbn
9781475819472
File size
486 KB
Printing
Allowed
Copying
Allowed
Read aloud
Allowed
Format name
ePub
Encrypted
No
Printing
Allowed
Copying
Allowed
Read aloud
Allowed
Sku
In metadata
Isbn
In metadata
File size
In metadata