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Tep Vol 18-N4

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Teacher Education and Practice, a peer-refereed journal, is dedicated to the encouragement and the dissemination of research and scholarship related to professional education. The journal is concerned, in the broadest sense, with teacher preparation, practice and policy issues related to the teaching profession, as well as being concerned with learning in the school setting. The journal also serves as a forum for the exchange of diverse ideas and points of view within these purposes. As a forum, the journal offers a public space in which to critically examine current discourse and practice as well as engage in generative dialogue. Alternative forms of inquiry and representation are invited, and authors from a variety of backgrounds and diverse perspectives are encouraged to contribute. Teacher Education & Practice is published by Rowman & Littlefield

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9 Articles

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Editorial: Public Space, Freedom, and the Work of Teacher Educators

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PATRICK M. JENLINK

Social conditions interact with the preferences of an individual—in a way favorable to actualizing freedom only when they develop intelligence, not abstract knowledge and abstract thought, but power of vision and reflection. For these take effect in making preference, desire, and purpose more flexible, alert, and resolute.

—Dewey (1928, pp. 270–271)

Culture is the public space where common matters, shared solidarities, and public engagements provide the fundamental elements of democracy. Culture is also the pedagogical and political ground in which shared solidarities and a global public sphere can be imagined as a condition of democratic possibilities.

—Giroux (2004, p. 78)

We live in a world today defined and redefined daily by political, economic, legal, and militaristic tensions. September 11, war in Iraq, drug cartels, and terrorism juxtaposed to domestic and international policy decisions have defined the global history of the 21st century thus far. However, it is also a world defined by transcendent democracy and a concern for the future of humankind, a world defined by an ever-present concern for freedom. Such concern is connected inseparably to education and, by extension, teacher education. The challenge before education at large, nationally and globally, is not to allow itself to become balanced on a single point in time, overshadowed by a single defining event. The pursuit of freedom as a pedagogical responsibility raises to the foreground questions of what schools and, concomitantly, teacher education programs should provide for students—that is, what knowledges, skills, and dispositions are necessary to achieve a shared future and shared freedom.

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Understanding the Power, Promise, and Peril of the Experiential Learning Process

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PETE ALLISON AND SCOTT WURDINGER

ABSTRACT: Much of the literature on experiential education tends to focus on adventure-based education, which is of limited use to school teachers. This article examines the dichotomy of traditional and experiential education as a launching point to discuss the roles of trust and risk in educational processes. We examine perspectives of student, educator, and curriculum and conclude that if experiential approaches are to be meaningfully integrated in schools, trust will be a crucial component of school culture.

[Kurt Hahn] understood, as few educators have so well, the tender fears of young people, their alienation before the rigours and rituals of adult power.

—James (1990, p. 8)

All education systems operate from philosophies that make assumptions about knowledge, and as a result this influences decisions at all levels from policy to practice. We want to briefly examine two of these philosophies and their assumptions to begin with, because they are central to the ideas that we want to discuss in this article. Throughout the article, we offer suggestions for educators and raise some key questions to consider.

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Global Education: Instructional Strategies Used and Challenges Faced by In-Service Teachers

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ZOHREH R. ESLAMI

ABSTRACT: This article examines the result of a study on teachers’ reported use of instructional strategies in dealing with the U.S.–Iraq war, the resources that they use, the challenges that they face in implementing a globally oriented curriculum, and the sources of influence on their commitment to global education. A questionnaire was developed and used as the main method of data collection in this study. Analysis of the data showed that teachers did not promote awareness of other perspectives in their classrooms. Only one dominant perspective on war, reflecting strong patriotism, was being promoted in the classrooms. Teachers faced several challenges in implementing globally oriented curriculum. The results strongly suggest that to be able to critically examine various perspectives on different issues and foster understanding among people, global dimensions should be included in teacher education programs.

Everyday, teachers make instructional decisions that affect how students perceive their own culture, their nation, the lives of people around the world, and the issues and conflicts facing the planet (Merryfield, 2002). The terrorist attack of September 11 and the U.S.–Iraq war make the global education approach in schools more critical than before. There is increasing concern that schools today are not adequately preparing students for the challenges of working in an increasingly diverse society and the changing world (Merryfield, 1998). Educational programs should promote awareness of other cultures and other perspectives and appreciation of other peoples’ points of view. Open-mindedness, resistance to stereotypes, empathy, and nonchauvinism are emphasized as important goals of globally oriented curriculum.

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Learning to Teach Failing Pupils in Europe: The Experience of a Group of American Students

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LESLIE CAUL

ABSTRACT: Shared global concerns in education have recently focused on underachievement and the difficulties associated with the education of the children of migrant labor. These priorities unite the communities of Europe and the United States in a growing unease that a large number of young people are not realizing their academic potential through failing at school and, in consequence, are becoming excluded from mainstream society. The CARE (Children at Risk in Education) project was focused on the professional development of 53 student teachers who worked in Europe and the United States as an integral part of their undergraduate programs in an attempt to learn how to address underachievement in a global context. This article analyzes the professional development of 27 of those students, the American student teachers who studied in Europe for a period of 1 semester. The article considers the professional development of the student teachers in the context of 3 theoretical frameworks—namely, globalization, culture shock, and teacher development. It analyzes student discourse and explores how the student teachers made sense of their experience of new and challenging social contexts. The article argues that the demands of a period of school experience while working in a different culture provided students with challenges in both social and professional contexts that rigorously tested their capacity to make sense of their professional worlds.

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Understanding Filipino Preservice and In-Service Teachers' Motivations to Teach: A Convergence of Transcendental Views

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ALLAN B. DE GUZMAN AND EDITHA A. FERNANDEZ

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this qualitative study was to capture how a select group of 26 preservice and in-service teachers recruited from 7 teacher education institutions in the capital of the Philippines viewed their teaching motivations. With the use of individual in-depth interview as a qualitative tool, findings of the study yielded 3 significant themes that describe how Filipino teachers got attracted to the teaching profession despite perennial issues and concerns. These included the centrality of the students as end users of education, the uniqueness of the profession as teaching for and with the students, and the vitality of and serendipity in the teaching–learning process.

Teaching might not be the most popular profession in the world, but it is undoubtedly the most populated. Forty-six out of every one hundred teachers in the world today live in Asia. Of the 57 million teachers in the world, about two thirds work in developing countries. In the Philippines, about 600,000, or a third of the total registered professionals, are professional teachers (Number of Registered Professionals 1998–2003, n.d.). In 2006, the National Statistics Office reported that among the fields of study, education and teacher training posted the second-highest enrollment (402,781), next to business administration and related fields (557,859). Despite perennial issues that confront teacher education in the country, such as proliferation of low-quality teacher education institutions, low-quality intakes, low passing rates in licensure examinations, poor pedagogical content knowledge among the graduates, deficient in-service program, mismatch between subject-matter preparation and teaching assignments, and teacher allocation and management (Acedo, n.d.), it is interesting to note that with 533 colleges of education in 1995, the number significantly increased by 52.91%, with 815 in 2006. The increase in the number of colleges of education in the Philippines points to the fact that teaching as a profession continues to attract prospective teachers.

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Preservice Teacher Efficacy: Effects of a Secondary Education Methods Course and Student Teaching

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RON WAGLER AND CHRISTINE MOSELEY

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a secondary content-specific methods course and student teaching on preservice teacher efficacy. The study employed a single-group pretest–posttest 1–posttest 2 design. The repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated no significant change in overall teacher efficacy from the beginning of the secondary methods course until the end of student teaching; however, overall efficacy did increase significantly after the secondary methods course but by the end of student teaching had returned to its original pre–secondary methods course level. Classroom management efficacy over all three test times—before and after methods course and after student teaching—was unchanged. Instructional strategies efficacy was shown to be statistically significant and positively affected by the secondary methods course, but no significant change in instructional strategies efficacy was detected after student teaching. No significant change in student engagement efficacy was found immediately following the methods course, but student engagement efficacy significantly decreased after student teaching. Implications of the research on preservice teacher efficacy for teacher preparation and suggestions of strategies for improving efficacy are examined.

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Early Field Experiences Offered to and Valued by Preservice Teachers at Sites of Excellence in Reading Teacher Education Programs

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MISTY SAILORS, SUSAN KEEHN, MIRIAM MARTINEZ, JANIS HARMON

ABSTRACT: The importance of a highly qualified teacher for student learning is undeniably the most important factor in political and research circles today. The question is not “do we need quality teachers?” but “how do we prepare quality teachers?” In this article, we report on the early field experiences offered to preservice teachers at 8 universities and the valuing that graduates of these programs held about their early field experiences. We then use these findings to rethink the features of strong field-based teacher preparation programs.

Conversations around quality teacher preparation have been around for a long time—they began at the turn of the 20th century (Roth & Tobin, 2001) and continue today, most recently with the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 and the call for a qualified teacher in every classroom. There is no doubt as to the need for quality teachers, especially in the area of reading. Research has demonstrated the role of quality teachers and their impact on student learning with the findings of the first-grade studies of the 1960s (Bond & Dykstra, 1997) through the findings of the most recent reports of the National Reading Panel (2000) and the National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future (1996). What has been brought to question most recently is how to best prepare quality teachers before they enter the classroom, especially in the area of reading.

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Kaleidoscope Feature

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Kaleidoscope Feature

CHRISTY FOLSOM

ABSTRACT: A complex and changing society requires education that prepares its citizens with complex skills. Yet, successful implementation of the complex pedagogies needed for our rapidly changing world involve teaching strategies and knowledge not yet commonplace in classrooms. To effectively teach K–12 students today and in the future, teacher candidates need to understand intellectual and socioemotional elements that form the foundation of complex teaching and learning. This article introduces a pedagogical framework—teaching for intellectual and emotional learning—that supports teacher educators, teacher candidates, and teachers in preparing for complex teaching and learning. Examples of implementation of the model are included.

The Grand Canyon presents a fitting metaphor for discussing the processes of teaching and learning that are needed in today’s rapidly changing world. The approach to the North Rim of the Grand Canyon is an ordinary mountain drive through flat meadows lined by pine forests. Yet, upon reaching the viewpoint, ordinariness disappears. Layers of spectacularly colored underground rock formations become visible below the canyon’s rim. Pictures, labels, and graphics posted at the viewpoint make the complex geologic processes that formed the canyon accessible and understandable to those who visit.

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Book Review

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Book Review

(Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Education, 2006) 192 pages, $27.95

DAVID R. HOLLIER

Extreme Students: Challenging All Students and Energizing Learning (2006) is third in a series of “extreme” titles. Keen Babbage continues the development of his extreme instructional practice in teaching and learning, building on previous ideas and concepts discussed in earlier works, Extreme Teaching (2002) and Extreme Learning (2004). This latest Babbage text—and, essentially, the two previous extreme texts—is written on the premise that success in school (for both teachers and students) depends on four key ideas: teachers challenge students; teachers are enthusiastic about teaching, learning, and students; teachers use a variety of teaching methods and activities; and teachers connect learning with students’ real lives. This review briefly summarizes the contents of each of the chapters and then concludes with a few comments and recommendations for consideration.

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