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School Administration and the Changing Face of Masculinity

ePub

ABE FEUERSTEIN

ABSTRACT: In the first part of this article, I examine new concepts of masculinity and the implications of these concepts for the practice of school administration. I also discuss the “gender subtext” of school organizations as one of the mechanisms through which masculinity is enacted and masculine stereotypes are reinforced within the school setting. In the second half of the article, I offer a vision of gender in schools that seeks to make the full range of gender expression available to all organizational members. I also describe several strategies that could be used by educational leaders committed to gender equity and the cause of social justice. Finally, I assert that there is a need to alter the socialization and preparation of school administrators for these changes to occur.

The purpose of this article is to serve as both a primer on the topic of masculinity in school administration and as a blueprint for those interested in bringing about greater gender equity in the field. With regard to the first purpose, it seems clear that while the field of masculine studies has developed a strong theoretical base, much of that knowledge remains ensconced within academic dialogues inaccessible to most school leaders. This article seeks to address this issue by attempting to provide a more accessible narrative that may better resonate with practitioners. Simply exploring masculinity within the school context, however, is not enough. Educational leaders must make a conscious effort to recognize and address gender discrimination within our schools. As such, this article also seeks to strengthen calls for gender equity, and provides a set of strategies to be employed toward that end.

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Mentoring Within Internships: Socializing New School Leaders

ePub

ERNESTINE K. ENOMOTO
MARY E. GARDINER

ABSTRACT: Framed by organizational socialization, this qualitative study examines the use of a formal arrangement of mentoring to socialize prospective school administrators. Participants were eight interns paired with eight principals from three school districts. Our ethnographic approach solicited an insider's view of mentoring based upon participants’ own narratives. Four types of relationships emerged from the data: (1) mentor-protégé dyad, (2) administrator-intern dyad, (3) peer dyad, and (4) mentoring team. Distinguishing organizational socialization from quality mentoring, we describe how some interns received mentoring, how other interns enabled their successful completion of internships even without mentoring, and how one intern failed. We offer four recommendations for the school organization to improve mentoring within internships and suggest avenues for further research.

Research on the mentoring of prospective school administrators highlights the advantages in terms of socialization into leadership and career advancement for those who have mentors (Browne-Ferringo, 2003; Browne-Ferringo & Muth, 2004; Crow & Matthews, 1998; Daresh, 1995, 2004; Ehrich, Hansford, & Tennent, 2004; Hart, 1993; Pence, 1995). Individuals with mentors are socialized into their roles and responsibilities in school leadership. They are more confident about the profession and their place within the school setting. They are able to advance more readily and have access to channels provided by their mentors as compared with those without mentors. The practice of mentoring draws from various professional development literature in adult education (Merriam, 1983), law (Kaufman, 2000), management and business administration (Chao, 1997; Kram, 1985; McManus & Russell, 1997; Noe, 1988; Russell & Adams, 1997), and higher education (Jacobi, 1991; Kochan, 2002; Stalker, 1994).

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Superintendents’ Perceptions About Social Distance, Succession, and “Sunset” Provisions for Asian, Latino, and Native American Candidates Seeking Building-Level Administrator Positions

ePub

I. PHILLIP YOUNG
GUADALUPE XAVIER DE LA TORRE

ABSTRACT: Research addressing the attraction and selection of individuals for administrator positions is encapsulated in a structural model that depicts different phases of the employee procurement process. Within the present study, attention is devoted to the prescreening stage of the selection process, and screening decisions of superintendents are examined for applicants varying in national origin (Asian, Latino, or Native American), chronological age (29 years old, 49 years old, or control condition), and level of administrator position sought (assistant high school principals or high school principal). Screening decisions of superintendents are cast into a 3 × 3 × 2 factorial design and a MANOVA indicates a significant interaction effect for national origin by focal positional. This finding is interpreted from a social distance perspective and alternative explanations are provided. Results suggest that only certain groups should follow the succession pattern and that a sunset provision fails to exist for these particular groups of job candidates.

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A 17-Year Case Study of an Elementary School's Journey: From Traditional School to Learning Community to Democratic School Community

ePub

JEAN MCGREGOR CATE
COURTNEY ANN VAUGHN
MARY JOHN O'HAIR

ABSTRACT: This case study explores one elementary school's 17-year evolution from a traditional Title I elementary school into a learning community and, eventually, a high-achieving democratic school community. The investigation adds specificity and context to the existing theoretical framework outlining this change process. The school's journey is reflected and described through shared learning, leadership, and practices across four thematic findings.

Not all students have been successful in their educational endeavors, largely because school responses to the needs of poor, minority, and disadvantaged students have been inadequate to level the playing field for these students. This uneven playing field has resulted in the achievement gap, that is, disproportionately lower scores for high-challenge students. Good-lad (1984) concludes from his study of 38 high schools and 17,163 students that a great difference exists in students’ access to knowledge and that those differences seem to be a related to the student's economics and race. Even though progress was made in the 1970s and 1980s, the achievement gap remained steady over the past decade, except in a few isolated states, notably Texas and North Carolina (North Central Regional Educational Laboratory, 2003; Viadero, 2000). Based on data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), Haycock, Jerald, and Huang (2001) report that by fourth grade, poor students of all races are 2 years behind other students and that they slip to 3 years behind by eighth grade. No Child Left Behind (NCLB) [U.S. Department of Education (USDE), 2002] has required adequate yearly progress for all students and advanced the need to narrow the gap for poorly performing students. It has elevated concern for needing to know how equitable and just high-achieving schools evolve.

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A Response to Glickman's “Preparing Thoughtful Educational Leaders”

ePub

MARY JOHN O'HAIR
ULRICH C. REITZUG

ABSTRACT: This is a response to an article by Carl Glickman entitled “Across the Void: Preparing Thoughtful Educational Leaders for Today's Schools” that appeared in the September 2005 issue of the Journal of School Leadership. In his article, Glickman argues that the preparation of educational leaders must shake the assumptions that are generally held about education and schools, and presents three cases that purportedly do so. We have reservations about the cases Glickman selects to illustrate his arguments and detail our reservations in this response.

In the September 2005 issue of the Journal of School Leadership, Carl Glickman, in the article entitled “Across the Void: Preparing Thoughtful Educational Leaders for Today's Schools,” argues that to be truly educated, one must learn in a democratic environment where, presumably, multiple perspectives on an issue are considered and discussed. Glickman argues that the preparation of educational leaders must “shake some of the basic assumptions that are generally held about education and schools” (p. 494) and presents three cases that purportedly do so.

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