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JEBPS Vol 16-N2

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INTRO: Improving the Pathway to Employment in STEM Fields: The Role of Education James D. Stocker Jr.

ePub

INTRO

Improving the Pathway to Employment in Stem Fields: The Role of Education

James D. Stocker Jr.

Over the past 70 years, the U.S. economy has prospered from advances in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). As leaders in scientific innovation, the United States possesses an abundant population to supply a STEM workforce and STEM-related occupations (National Research Council, NRC, 2011, 2012). Yet, the United States struggles to produce enough workers for jobs that demand STEM skillsets raising concerns that the country is losing its competitive advantage in the global marketplace (Fayer, Lacey, & Watson, 2017; NRC, 2012).

The latest projection indicates slower growth for new STEM jobs at 8.9% versus a 24.4% gain over previous 10-year previous projections between 2005 and 2015 (Noonan, 2017). STEM jobs will occur in computer systems design and related services sector yielding over one million jobs to fill positions in government, university, and the private sector. Nearly 25% of STEM jobs will only require a high school degree, some college or associate degree (Noonan, 2017). Sample high demand jobs in this cross section include Web developers, computer user support, and network support specialists (Fayer, et al., 2017). Health-care occupations, considered a secondary STEM-related domain by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Services, are predicted to drive the most growth in jobs due to an aging population, longer life expectancies, and an increase in chronic conditions. Projections indicate healthcare will contribute 18% of all new jobs from 2016 to 2026 (Fayer et al., 2017; Lacey, Toosi, and Dubina, 2017).

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Effects of Explicit Instruction on Fidelity of Teacher Candidates’ Creation of Trigger-Based Video Models Sarah K. Howorth, David F. Cihak, and Don McMahon

ePub

Effects of Explicit Instruction on Fidelity of Teacher Candidates’ Creation of Trigger-Based Video Models

Sarah K. Howorth

David F. Cihak

Don McMahon

 

ABSTRACT: Video Modeling has been established as an evidence-based practice for teaching students with disabilities. The purpose of this study was to (a) examine the fidelity of use of the augmented reality (AR) application Aurasma by special education teacher candidates as a platform for video-based instructional support for students with high incidence learning disabilities in their clinical placements, and (b) to survey the teacher candidates’ impressions of the AR application Aurasma as a tool to provide video-based instructional supports to elementary school students with high incidence disabilities. Students in a teaching-methods undergraduate class were taught how to create basic trigger-based videos using the Aurasma application. Fidelity of their video models was measured using a repeated-measures within-subjects design. Results indicate that special education teacher candidates can rapidly improve their fidelity of trigger-based video model implementation as an instructional support. Preservice teacher survey results indicated that participants would encourage classroom teachers to use AR video models to help students reach deeper understanding of a concept and supports universal design for learning concepts of multiple means of content representation and student engagement.

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Talk Aloud Problem Solving and Frequency Building to a Performance Criterion Improves Science Reasoning Ginny A. Dembek and Richard M. Kubina Jr.

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Talk Aloud Problem Solving and Frequency Building to a Performance Criterion Improves Science Reasoning

Ginny A. Dembek

Richard M. Kubina Jr.

ABSTRACT: The present study examined the effects of a combined intervention: Talk Aloud Problem Solving (TAPS) and Frequency Building to a Performance Criterion (FBPC). The experimenter introduced TAPS/FBPC to five students diagnosed with a disability and receiving specialized reading instruction. The intervention presented TAPS formatted lessons and FBPC strengthened the student’s verbal repertoire making the problem-solving process a durable behavior. A multiple baseline design showed improvements in problem-solving performance when compared to baseline. All students became more accurate in the problem-solving task, as shown in immediate changes upon the implementation of the intervention and sustained growth over time. Maintenance in learning was also demonstrated. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

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Using Concrete-Representational-Abstract Sequence to Teach Fractions to Middle School Students with Mathematics Difficulties Elizabeth M. Hughes, Paul J. Riccomini, and Bradley Witzel

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Using Concrete-Representational-Abstract Sequence to Teach Fractions to Middle School Students with Mathematics Difficulties

Elizabeth M. Hughes

Paul J. Riccomini

Bradley Witzel

ABSTRACT: Many students have challenges learning and retaining important mathematics concepts, such as fractions. Concrete-representational-abstract (CRA) sequence of instruction has a growing body of research that supports use with students who struggle with mathematical concepts. This article shares results from an experimental study comparing the effects of a CRA-sequenced fractions instruction to traditional fractions instruction on the mathematics achievement and knowledge retention of students with learning disabilities and those who struggle to learn mathematics. Findings indicate students who received CRA-sequenced instruction outperformed peers who received traditional fractions instruction on measures of retention. Implications for the field and instructional examples are provided.

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Evaluating Engagement in Inclusive Science Classrooms for Students with Disabilities Using a Guided Science Inquiry Approach Jonte C. Taylor, James D. Stocker, William Therrien, and Brian Hand

ePub

Evaluating Engagement in Inclusive Science Classrooms for Students with Disabilities Using a Guided Science Inquiry Approach

Jonte C. Taylor

James D. Stocker

William Therrien

Brian Hand

ABSTRACT: Academic engagement is an essential behavior that students must demonstrate as the foundation of learning. This is especially important in inquiry-based science classrooms where instructional progress can happen at a rapid pace. For students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms, on-task engagement can be difficult and contribute to poor academic performance in science. Research on the effectiveness of inquiry-based science instructional practices for students with disabilities has been limited. Equally limited has been research examining academic engagement in science classrooms. The current study examines the effect of an inquiry-based instructional approach for science (Science Writing Heuristic, SWH) on classroom engagement for students with disabilities in inclusive science classrooms. Results suggest that the SWH approach is effective in keeping students engaged during science instruction.

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Comparing the Effects of Different Timings to Build Computational and Procedural Fluency with Complex Computations James D. Stocker Jr., Richard M. Kubina Jr., Paul J. Riccomini, and Amanda Mason

ePub

Comparing the Effects of Different Timings to Build Computational and Procedural Fluency with Complex Computations

James D. Stocker Jr.

Richard M. Kubina Jr.

Paul J. Riccomini

Amanda Mason

ABSTRACT: An alternating treatments design was used to compare (a) three, one-minute timings plus feedback after each timing, (b) one, three-minute timing plus feedback, and (c) one, one-minute timing without feedback (no treatment) on the calculation rates of four seventh graders practicing three distinct mathematics complex computations. Complex computations included order of operations, adding and subtracting fractions with uncommon denominators, and long division with and without a remainder. Components of the intervention comprised of cue cards, practice sheets, and answer keys to self-manage feedback. Despite gains in correct problems per minute, performance differences could not be attributed to the number and length of timed trials. Student responding increased in relation to the most stable and predictable procedures. Future directions for research are shared.

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