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Tep Vol 30-N3

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001 – Our Concern as Teachers Educators: The Hegemonic Forces of Dominant Ideology
Patrick M. Jenlink

002 – The Challenges of Differentiating Instruction for ELLs: An Analysis of Content-Area Lesson Plans Produced by Preservice Language Arts and Social Studies Teachers
Clara Lee Brown and Rachel Endo

003 – Prospective Teachers’ Beliefs in Factors Negatively Influencing African American, Low-income Anglo, and Hispanic Students’ Academic Achievement
Maximo Plata, Alaric A. Williams, and Tracy B. Henley

004 – Teachers Matter: The Teacher’s Role in Increasing Working-Class Latina/o Youth’s College Access and Empowerment
Leticia Rojas

005 – From “Blissfully Unaware” to “Another Perspective on Hope”: An Indigenous Knowledge Study Abroad Program’s Impacts on the Ways of Knowing of Pre-service Transnational English Learner Teachers
G. Sue Kasun and HyeKyoung Lee

006 – Pre-service Teachers’ Confidence and Attitudes toward Teaching English Learners
Stephanie Wessels, Guy Trainin, Jenelle Reeves, Theresa Catalano, and Qizhen Deng

007 – Common-Sense and Scientific Interpretation of Cultural Relevance
Charles L. Lowery

008 – A Pre-service Teacher’s Use of a culturally Relevant Text with Interracial Themes
K. Dara Hill

009 – Teacher Learning through Culturally Relevant Literature: A Cross-Context Study of Teacher Education for English Learners
Megan Hopkins and Amy J. Heineke

010 – Examining Entry-level Mandarin Chinese Teacher Candidates: Experiences, Motivation and Development
Ping Liu

011 – BOOK REVIEW: Preparing Classroom Teachers to Succeed with Second Language Learners: Lessons from A Faculty Learning Community
Wenli Zhang

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RL_002 - Brown et al. FINAL

ePub

The Challenges of Differentiating Instruction for ELLs

An Analysis of Content-Area Lesson Plans Produced by Pre-service Language Arts and Social Studies Teachers

Clara Lee Brown and Rachel Endo

Abstract: This study addressed the challenges of differentiating instruction for ELLs at the pre-service level through an analysis of non-ESL teacher candidates’ work samples. Randomly selected lesson plans in K-12 Language Arts/English and Social Studies were content-analyzed to investigate the types and characteristics of accommodation, differentiation, and provisions provided for ELLs. The findings revealed the following trends: (1) the candidates often conflated ELL characteristics with learning disabilities, (2) stated differentiation strategies were generic without carefully scaffolded and sequenced strategies; and (3) when provided, differentiations for ELLs only provided surface-level accommodations that did not address building academic language or connecting content with prior knowledge. Implications are offered for practice and theory.

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RL_003 - Plata et al. FINAL

ePub

Prospective Teachers’ Beliefs in Factors Negatively Influencing African American, Low-Income Anglo, and Hispanic Students’ Academic Achievement

Maximino Plata, Alaric A. Williams, and Tracy B. Henley

Abstract: Four hundred and five preservice teachers enrolled at two Southwestern universities identified three factors that were believed to negatively influence the academic achievement of African American, Hispanic, and low-income Anglo elementary students. Chi-square Test for k Independent Samples indicated no significant differences in frequency of factor selection by prospective teachers for students grouped across college classification. However, analyses of factor selection by classification status showed that some factors were selected at a significantly higher frequency for one group over the others. Overall, data suggest that teachers in training are holding to preconceptions and not always evolving on matters of diversity. Implications for teacher preparation programs are extensively discussed.

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RL_004 - Rojas FINAL

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Teachers Matter

The Teacher’s Role in Increasing Working-Class Latina/o Youth’s College Access and Empowerment

Leticia Rojas

Abstract: Despite the social reproduction that takes place in schools and that contributes to the low college attainment rates for working-class Latina/o youth, adults at the school site have been found to have a positive impact on students’ college access and to work with students to counter negative conditions in schools. This qualitative study explores the practices and experiences of 14 classroom teachers actively working with Latina/o youth for college access, as well as those simultaneously extending their efforts to empower youth of color through a social justice framework. While findings point to seven common teaching practices, those educators committed to social justice reported to provide additional resources and support structures to Latina/o students .

Introduction

cIn today’s world, where “positions of power and privilege become increasingly dictated by the possession of diplomas and certificates” (Marina & Holmes, 2009, p. 29), a college education is a prerequisite for economic and social success. However, while the promise of education as a vehicle for economic and social mobility is embedded in the hopes of working-class Latina/o students, their college attainment rate remains one of the lowest for all ethnic groups in the United States (Gándara, 2010; Gándara & Contreras, 2009; Nuñez & Kim, 2012).

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RL_005 - Kasun et al. FINAL

ePub

From “Blissfully Unaware” to “Another Perspective on Hope”

An Indigenous Knowledge Study Abroad Program’s Impacts on the Ways of Knowing of Pre-service Transnational English Learner Teachers

G. Sue Kasun and HyeKyoung Lee

Abstract: This study addresses the question, “How are the ways of knowing of students who participated in a study abroad program oriented to pre-service teachers of transnational English learners transformed through their participation?” Eight pre-service teachers of transnational English language learners from a public U.S. university participated in a four-week study abroad program in Cuernavaca, Mexico. The university partnered with a Freirian social justice language school and two indigenously oriented schools. Data demonstrated that the pre-service teachers’ ways of knowing were heavily influenced through: a loss of ignorance of “the other,” an openness to the unknown while being in the present, and an agentic sense of hope as future teachers.

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RL_006 - Wessels et al. FINAL

ePub

Pre-service Teachers’ Confidence and Attitudes toward Teaching English Learners

Stephanie Wessels, Guy Trainin, Jenelle Reeves, Theresa Catalano, and Qizhen Deng

Abstract: Research has shown that many pre-service teachers do not feel confident in their abilities to work with English learners (ELs), and that attitudes toward ELs can have an effect on their confidence in working with these students. The purpose of this quantitative study is to find out what factors affect the confidence and attitudes of pre-service teachers in regard to teaching ELs. Data consisted of a four-part survey of 244 pre-service teachers entering an elementary teacher education program. Findings revealed that attitudes toward ELs’ use of L1 correlated with reported second language proficiency and diversity experience, and indirectly with international travel experience. In contrast, confidence levels did not correlate with these variables. The authors conclude with suggestions for ways that teacher education programs can change attitudes toward L1 use, develop confidence, and foster greater understanding of ELs in pre-service teachers.

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RL_007 - Lowery FINAL

ePub

Common Sense and Scientific Interpretation of Cultural Relevance

Charles L. Lowery

Abstract: This article endeavors to view culturally relevant pedagogies from a fundamental view of the relationship between such practices and a model of scholar–practitioner educational leadership. Specifically, this work, framed as an extension of a larger phenomenological study, attempts to address the understanding of cultural relevance from two finite provinces of meaning and distinct ways of knowing a given phenomenon. These ways of knowing—drawn from the phenomenological and social work of Alfred Schutz (1967)—are the scientific interpretations of human interactions and the commonsense understanding of an object as it occurs in the everyday experiences of the life-world. Specifically, this article attempts to consider both the scientific understanding of cultural relevance and the ways in which that understanding informs or fails to inform culturally relevant practices in American schools.

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RL_008 - Hill FINAL

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A Pre-service Teacher’s Use of a Culturally Relevant Text with Interracial Themes

K. Dara Hill

Abstract: This study examined a pre-service teacher’s use of a culturally relevant text with interracial themes for a first grade student. This exploration occurred in an urban primary school that did not otherwise recognize the student’s dual heritage. Journal documentation and field notes reveal the pre-service teacher’s selection of the text, her use of reading strategies and comprehension questions to engage the student and support her racial identity. Results suggest a need for pre- and in-service teacher development to understand and support the identity development of biracial children.

Introduction

Biracial children are among the fastest growing population in the United States (Baxley, 2008). As schools are enrolling a precipitous influx of biracial children, most teachers have had little or no training for teaching them (Morrison & Bordere, 2001). Biracial children traditionally have not fit into established societal race classifications (Boyd, 2011) and are slowly acknowledged among monoracial groups and in academia (Baxley, 2008, Root, 1996, Wardle, 2007). As a response to growing concerns about effectively teaching biracial children, many scholars have provided background that necessitates teacher preparation and conceptualized classroom strategies that promote racial and ethnic development. While preparing teachers for diversity and multiracial schools is very well documented (Sleeter, 2001), little is reported about revising teacher preparation to incorporate biracial children.

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RL_009 - Hopkins & Heineke FINAL

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Teacher Learning through Culturally Relevant Literature

A Cross-Context Study of Teacher Education for English Learners

Megan Hopkins and Amy J. Heineke

Abstract: This study examined the potential for using culturally relevant literature circles as a part of university-based teacher education praxis focused on English learners (ELs) in U.S. schools. Based on a qualitative, comparative case study that drew upon data from 48 teachers and teacher candidates across urban, suburban, and rural locales, we explored the ways in which the text Return to Sender , when used in collaborative learning communities, mediated understandings of ELs’ lives and realities in relation to classroom practice. While our overall findings indicated that culturally relevant literature for children and youth afforded possibilities for learning that may not have emerged with the use of traditional textbooks, they also revealed differences between contexts that have implications for the use of such texts in the preparation of EL teachers.

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RL_010 - Liu FINAL

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Examining Entry-Level Mandarin Chinese Teacher Candidates

Experiences, Motivation, and Development

Ping Liu

Abstract: Experiences, attitudes, and beliefs of teacher candidates can have a significant impact on their professional development and future teaching practice. This study examined entry-level candidates of a Mandarin Chinese teacher credential program. The participants were 27 candidates who took a bilingual methods course required in a K-8 credential program. Results indicated that the participants came from diverse backgrounds, and the majority of them possessed high proficiency in Mandarin and English. However, they needed to improve usage of academic languages in an educational and teaching context. With pre-program teaching experiences in a variety of settings, the participants were yet to develop teaching ability to help children learn languages and other subjects simultaneously. For professional development, the candidates’ self-identification of some main needs was not identical to the actual challenges they encountered in taking the course. Implications were also discussed in teacher preparation.

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RL_011 - Zhang FINAl

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Book Review

Preparing Classroom Teachers to Succeed with Second Language Learners: Lessons from A Faculty Learning Community

Thomas H. Levine, Elizabeth R. Howard,
and David M. Moss

(New York, NY: Routledge, 2014)

252 pages, $160.00 (Hardback). ISBN13: 978-0-415-84116-0.

Wenli Zhang

cContemporary studies in teacher education draw upon the tendency to focus more on the development of highly qualified pre-service teachers, with assumptions held by many teacher education programs that knowledge can be transferred to practitioners’ minds and subsequently enacted to practice. Problematizing traditional and commonly adopted professional development approaches, Webster-Wright (2009) notes that recent research on professional development calls for continuous professional learning (CPL, Webster-Wright, 2009, p. 704). The edited volume, Preparing Classroom Teachers to Succeed with Second Language Learners: Lessons from a Faculty Learning Community, specifically focuses on faculty learning and development, arguing for the equal importance of developing faculty capacity and raising awareness of the urgency to put efforts on faculty learning as well. Realizing and responding to the call for CPL (Webster-Wright, 2009), the faculty learning community described in this journal sets up to provide sustained and collaborative support for faculty members’ professional development, with a particular focus on the education of emergent bilinguals. This volume emphasizes the mutual benefits that both faculty members and pre-service teachers can garner from such experiences, indicating that faculty learning and pre-service teacher learning can occur concurrently.

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