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001 – Whither Teacher Education in an Era of the Neoliberal Social Imaginary?
Patrick M. Jenlink

002 – Accountability as a Technology of Governmentality: Policy and Disruption on Teaching Practice
Denise LaVoie La France

003 – The Master’s Tools: Revealing Doxic Foundations and (Re)Imagining Complexity to Position Future Teachers as Agentic Selves
Mary Catherine Breen

004 – Neoliberalism, Critical Pedagogy and Forging the Next Revolution in Teacher Education
Peter McLaren

005 – DIALOGUES OF TEACHER EDUCATION SECTION

005a – Jenlink.doc

005b – The Neoliberal Social Imaginary and Teacher Education
Rebecca A. Goldstein

05c – Neoliberalism in Teacher Education: The Contradiction and the Dilemma
Wayne Au

005d – The Trump Administration and Teacher Education: Thoughts From the First Days
Lois Weiner

005e – The Guise of Neoliberal Ideology in Teacher Education
Stephen Vassallo

005f – Teacher education and the reductions and restrictions of the neoliberal turn
David Hall

005g – Eulogy for Democratic Teacher Education
P. Taylor Webb

005h – Dismantling Public Schools: Reflections Against Neoliberal Education Policy
Nathalia Jaramillo

005i – Neoliberalism and the Preparation of Bilingual Education Teachers
Michael D. Guerrero

005j – Neoliberalism, Democracy, and the Question of Whose Knowledge to Teach
Christine Sleeter

005k – Challenges and Possibilities of Teacher Education in Portugal in Neoliberal Times
Maria Alfredo Moreira

005l – Making the Inherently Inefficient (More) Efficient: Neoliberalism as “Aim” in Teacher Education
Zachary A. Casey

005m– Globalisation, Neoliberalism and Teacher Education
Susan L. Robertson

005n – The Impact of Neoliberalism on Teacher Education: Some Reflections from Russia
Ilghiz M. Sinagatillin

005o – Teaching Beyond Training: Breaking Paths Toward Justice
Julie Gorlewski

005p – The MEMORANDUM
Neill F. Armstrong

005q – Classroom Ready Teachers? Some Reflections on Teacher Education in Australia in an Age of Compliance
Nicole Mockler

005r – Neoliberalism, Teacher Education, and Restricted Teacher Professionalism
Lawrence Angus

005s – Teacher Education and the Renewal of Our Common World
Anne Hales

005t – Troubled, Tired, but Fighting Back: Neoliberalism in Teacher Education
Steve Grineski
006 – BOOK REVIEW: College (Un)Bound: The Future of Higher Education and What It Means for Students
Jeffrey Chua

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Editorial: Whither Teacher Education in an Era of the Neoliberal Social Imaginary?

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Editorial

Whither Teacher Education in an Era of the Neoliberal Social Imaginary?

PATRICK M. JENLINK

As a society we have entered unprecedented times, politically, economically, and academically. Teacher education in particular is faced with ever-greater challenges generated by a neoliberal agenda to commodify education and distance the public even further from its right to a free public education. This marketization of education threatens to further erode the role of education as foundation of our democratic society.1

In Globalizing Education Policy, Rizvi and Lingard (2010) asserted that neoliberal ideology—a driving force behind the processes of globalization—produces and reproduces social inequalities, limiting the transformative potential of education. They argued against the historical inevitability of what they call the “neoliberal social imaginary” (p. 34).2 A social imaginary is a way of thinking shared in a society by ordinary people, the common understandings that make everyday practices possible, giving them sense and legitimacy. It is largely implicit, embedded in ideas and practices, carrying within it deeper normative notions and images, constitutive of a society. It involves, as Taylor (2004) explained,

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Accountability as a Technology of Governmentality: Policy and Disruption on Teaching Practice

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Accountability as a Technology of Governmentality

Policy and Disruption on Teaching Practice

Denise LaVoie LaFrance

ABSTRACT: Neoliberal ideology frames the discourse of the current political rhetoric of education as an economic investment in the preparation of students to compete in a global economy. These discourses that emanate from policy makers shape the construct of schooling and control the trajectory of education in the United States. Recent educational reforms implemented accountability systems that are assumed to be the drivers of positive educational outcomes and higher student achievement; however, the impact of these systems of accountability shapes teaching practice and forces teachers to be accountable to a system. This study examined the outcomes of current educational policy on daily teaching practices. In addition, it examined teachers’ self-regulation as a means to adapt and remain in a regulated environment. The perspectives of beginning and experienced teachers from an urban and a rural area were analyzed through semi-structured interviews, classroom observations, and document analysis.

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The Master’s Tools: Revealing Doxic Foundations and (Re)Imagining Complexity to Position Future Teachers as Agentic Selves

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The Master’s Tools

Revealing Doxic Foundations and (Re)Imagining Complexity to Position Future Teachers as Agentic Selves

MARY CATHERINE BREEN

ABSTRACT:This article examines the possibility of working within neoliberal mind-sets to dismantle educational ideologies founded upon norms of the market. Using Audre Lorde’s (1984/2007) notion that “the master’s tools will never dismantle the master’s house” (p. 112) the author examines the complexity of examination and potential for change within neoliberal paradigms to conclude that reductionist and market-driven discourses can be revealed, reimagined, and reconstructed when educators position themselves from a perspective of utopic thinking.

Audre Lorde’s (1984/2007) assertion that “the master’s tools will never dismantle the master’s house” (p. 112) was a call for Western feminists to examine their own racism and homophobia and interrogate the “terror and loathing of any difference that lives” inside each of us (p. 113). Lorde asks, “What does it mean when the tools of a racist patriarchy are used to examine the fruits of that same patriarchy? It means that only the most narrow parameters of change are possible and allowable” (pp. 110–11). While Lorde’s critique of the narrow potential for change when participants do not account for the tools and measures of change and the identities and differences of individuals were meant for the feminist movement, this critique of mindset is applicable in other contexts. In Lorde’s critique, some feminists did not recognize the doxa of racism and patriarchy at deep, paradigmatic levels and formed actions that appropriated the master’s tools; rather than deconstructing the master’s house, it was reinforced. This reinforcement is accepted because it is not always perceived when viewed through a cloud of apparent or narrow change.

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Neoliberalism, Critical Pedagogy, and Forging the Next Revolution in Teacher Education

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Neoliberalism, Critical Pedagogy, and Forging the Next Revolution in Teacher Education

PETER MCLAREN

Neoliberalism is a major dimension of contemporary capitalist social life and impacts every facet of contemporary world, not least of which is the education system which has, undeniably, and over recent years, become fully insinuated into the world ecology of human capital (Brown, 2015). The field of education has an inherent instability that has allowed it to be usurped fairly easily by the logic of neoliberal economics administered by means of a market metric macrophysics of power and set of governing tactics. Neoliberalism submits everything in its path to a process of monetization and simultaneously transforms everything and everyone within our social universe to a commodity form (Brown, 2015). Neoliberal capitalism has fertilized the ground upon which the law of instrumentality has taken root.

Many teachers have conscripted the term “neoliberal capitalism” into their vocabulary of critique but in doing so there has been, in my estimation, too much emphasis on the term “neoliberal” and insufficient emphasis on the term “capitalism.” This lack of amplification is not because teachers tend to forget that it is capitalism itself which is at the root of the problem, it is more the case that teachers in the United States have little, if any, exposure to a Marxist critique of critical economy and thus have very little to say about capitalism, how it works, and why it has fallen into crisis. While they may have read some selections from the works of Paulo Freire, and perhaps even some articles or chapters on critical pedagogy, it is very likely that the discussions of capitalism by teachers in the traditionally administered classroom would be denuded, deracinated, or domesticated such that a critical approach to capitalism as a structure of dehumanization would be glossed over or be completely absent from discussion. The challenge therefore becomes: How can we reach beneath the skin of capitalism and give it a conceptual autopsy, uncover its bone and gristle, and bring into focus its inner workings in order to understand—and resist—how it makes us feel and think? And how it is connected to other contemporary social antagonisms such as institutionalized racism, patriarchy, sexism, and so on. But there is another reason why the concept of capitalism is not dealt with in teacher education programs. No doubt this is because many progressive as well as radical left teachers have a difficult time envisioning what a viable alternative to capitalism might look like. The left is just as much at fault as the right in this regard. Compounding this difficulty is the fact that outside of earnest and well-meaning moral exhortations to treat all human beings fairly and justly, and clarion calls to redistribute the wealth along the lines of, say, policies articulated by a Bernie Sanders or Robert Reich, there is not much that teachers feel they can do to save public education and American society from collapsing into another Gilded Age. At the same time there persists a painful recognition that teachers must persist in exposing political interventions into school reform by the state as productive processes which are designed not in the interests of those whose labor power will be enhanced but in the interests of those who will make use of the labor power of the many in order to augment that labor power for the production of private profits for the few.

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Examining the Neoliberal Social Imaginary in Teacher Education

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Examining the Neoliberal Social Imaginary in Teacher Education

PATRICK M. JENLINK

Editor’s Note: With the Dialogues of Teacher Education section in Teacher Education & Practice, we invite our readers to join us in a venture to create a venue for giving voice to difficult problems of the day. Specifically, our purpose is to bring individuals together and engage in a meaningful, critical examination of selected topics that concern teacher educators and practitioners. We hope the reader enjoys the dialogue on Examining the Neoliberal Social Imaginary in Teacher Education in this issue, and that our contributing authors stimulate important and needed conversations among teacher educators, practitioners, policy makers, and other cultural workers concerned with improving teacher education and practice.

The theme of this dialogue, “Examining the Neoliberal Social Imaginary in Teacher Education,” draws into specific relief current perspectives of how teacher education and the work of preparing teachers for their role in a democratic society is being influenced by a neoliberal agenda. Along this line, the theme is concerned with substantive treatment of identifying and exploring the priorities that recognized individuals such as you believe to be of critical importance. These will be priorities that are perceived as important to defining the work of teacher education in preparing teachers to enter schools and at the same time working to counter the impact of neoliberalism. In particular, these priorities identified would reflect, in part, the political, economic, pedagogical, and moral demands that neoliberalism has placed on teacher education in a democratic society. Herein the emphasis might be further delineated to that of preparing teachers to enter schools and teach students who will both inherit the effects of neoliberalism and at the same time be expected to take on the responsibilities of citizens in a democratic society. This dialogue takes direction from the article by Peter McLaren (this issue) that examines, critically, the neoliberalism and the need for a new revolution in teacher education.

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The Neoliberal Social Imaginary and Teacher Education

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The Neoliberal Social Imaginary and Teacher Education

REBECCA A. GOLDSTEIN

Broadly speaking, I envision a “neoliberal social imaginary” to be a set of social, political, cultural, and—above all—economic relations that have evolved over the past four decades to shape how groups and individuals come to understand their roles, place, rights, and responsibilities in relation to the global market. To be clear, there is no singular neoliberal social imaginary. Rather, many such imaginaries exist, and they are neither stable nor enacted and experienced uniformly by those who encounter their material and corporeal effects. Neoliberal social imaginaries are dependent upon the people who envision, live under, and challenge them because their relational power operates hegemonically. That is, even as they are contested neoliberal social imaginaries interpenetrate culture and society to root themselves in common sense narratives about the “way the world works.” While social imaginaries can serve to uncover and interrogate that which oppresses and marginalizes with the goal of effecting positive social action, in the case of the neoliberal they serve to normalize, silence, and dehumanize because all moral and ethical obligations are secondary to market ideologies.

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Neoliberalism in Teacher Education: The Contradiction and the Dilemma

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Neoliberalism in Teacher Education

The Contradiction and the Dilemma

WAYNE AU

There is a central contradiction that lies at the heart of neoliberal attempts to restructure teacher education: On the one hand, neoliberals seek the deregulation of teacher education, while on the other hand, they also seek to hyper-regulate the actual labor of teachers. The deregulation takes place through the development of private, often nonprofit teacher preparation programs—such as the Relay Graduate School of Education or Teach for America—who are given the power to grant teacher licensure while meeting fewer certification requirements than traditional, university-based programs. The neoliberal theory of action here is that less regulation leads to more innovation in teacher education and more competition with university-based programs, thereby improving teacher preparation for all—a theory of action that is not supported by the evidence (Zeichner, 2016; Zeichner & Pena-Sandoval, 2015).

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The Trump Administration and Teacher Education: Thoughts from the First Days

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The Trump Administration and Teacher Education

Thoughts from the First Days

LOIS WEINER

I think the question we have been asked to address has been eclipsed by another: How has Donald Trump’s victory changed the political, economic, social, and ideological landscape in the United States? And what are the implications of these changes for teacher education? In my contribution I will offer preliminary thoughts about this big picture, acknowledging that no one has a crystal ball for predictions, least of all for a president who has never held elective office. These developments are clearly too new and too complex for me to fully analyze here.

Still, I think Trump’s nominees for cabinet positions and the majority status of the Republican Party reveal the agenda: intensification of privatization and “free market” policies that impose “choice” and “competition,” primarily through vouchers. At the same time, Trump’s election signals ideological shifts that are important to teacher education.

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The Guise of Neoliberal Ideology in Teacher Education

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The Guise of Neoliberal Ideology in Teacher Education

STEPHEN VASSALLO

A major concern for teacher educators is that pedagogical imperatives, learning concepts, and categories of subjectivity that are part of education discourse may seem to align with a democratic vision of schooling but may in fact endorse neoliberal ideology. If this contradiction goes unnoticed, neoliberal ideology can be propagated under the guise of democratic commitments. The concern is illustrated in an analysis of educational psychology discourse with a particular focus on the whole child and higher-order thinking.

The Whole Child

There is an imperative in teacher education discourse to teach to the whole child. This imperative is appealing because it is a response to the overemphasis on fragmenting students by reducing them to cognitive ability as measured and represented by standardized assessments. This type of fragmentation can be viewed as ignoring students’ emotional and social skills, as well as morality, character, social consciousness, and happiness, which can be viewed as essential for democratic citizenship. Thus, teaching the whole child can be rationalized as serving a democratic vision of schooling.

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Teacher Education and the Reductions and Restrictions of the Neoliberal Turn

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Teacher Education and the Reductions and Restrictions of the Neoliberal Turn

DAVID HALL

The neoliberal turn in education as part of a wider set of reforms that have been rolled out in various contexts throughout the globe has had dramatic implications for teacher education. Given that the pace and extent of these reforms have varied between different national contexts, it is teacher educators in countries such as Australia, Chile, England, and the United States, where legislators have been most committed to a neoliberally inspired educational vision, who have found themselves most exposed to the winds of this particular version of educational change. It is these less-sheltered contexts to which this article seeks to speak, those places where education is no longer viewed as a space in need of protection from marketization.

While there are dangers of reducing neoliberalism to a single phenomenon given the manner in which it is shaped by localized and national circumstances, and therefore more accurate to think in terms of neoliberalisms (Peck & Tickell, 2002), it is nevertheless possible to isolate some key characteristics and their associated manifestations within those education systems where this phenomenon has been most zealously pursued by legislators. At the heart of the neoliberal imaginary are attempts to introduce reforms that seek to marketize and liberalize. The marketization of educational provision seeks to enable consumer (parental and student) choice and the liberalization of the educational sector seeks to ensure that new producers (schools, colleges, universities, and teacher education/training institutes) are created for and attracted to the education sector. It is within the attempts to enable the above process that the most immediate and direct consequences of the neoliberal turn are experienced.

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Eulogy for Democratic Teacher Education

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Eulogy for Democratic Teacher Education

P. TAYLOR WEBB

The posed question is an astute alarm for those of us working in teacher preparation programs. Unfortunately, I fear that the question has arrived too late. Given the 2016 presidential results in the United States, I am not optimistic about the future of democratic teacher education. The election signals a broader conversion of the United States into a “post-liberal” (Douthat, 2016; Hall, Massey, & Rustin, 2015) or, what I have discussed elsewhere, into a “proto-fascist” political environment. Below, I examine the posed question to illustrate four implications for teacher educators working in these times.

One reading of the prompt suggests that democracy and teacher education lie outside neoliberal rationalities. This interpretation maintains that democracy, neoliberalism, and teacher education are relatively distinct figures, whereas neoliberalism negatively intercedes upon the other two. Fair enough. However, given the election, I situate teacher education in a neoliberalism that has already destroyed much of what is referred to as “democracy.” Neoliberalism has economized life through market metrics in order to govern people more effectively. It accomplished this by withdrawing state support and expecting people to be responsible for their own care through entrepreneurial practices, enunciated as an ethos of “responsibilization.” Neoliberalism interpolates people as human capital, and education is the principal means to differentiate “employment potential” in order to more effectively govern. But now, individuals and organizations are responsible for (or “free to choose” to use the common neoliberal vernacular) their governance.

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Dismantling Public Schools: Reflections against Neoliberal Education Policy

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Dismantling Public Schools

Reflections against Neoliberal Education Policy

NATHALIA JARAMILLO

At the time of this writing, the U.S. senate has confirmed Betsy DeVos as secretary of education. Her confirmation was one of the most controversial to date in the Trump administration, requiring a tiebreaking vote by Vice President Mike Pence. Of all the 2017 Trump cabinet nominees, DeVos has been among the most contested, and within some activist and political circles, despised. To many, DeVos is the epitome of neoliberalism in education. Her platform espouses school choice as equality of opportunity, vis-à-vis the dismantling of public schooling and the redirection of public monies toward an aggressive voucher, charter, and virtual school system. Put simply, public schools are being privatized.

The general public outcry and denouncement of DeVos as secretary of education signals a deep discomfort with the steady encroachment of neoliberal policy in education. Neoliberalism, in its most rudimentary form, promotes an agenda of economic and social transformation under the sign of the free market. Such a position strikes deep at a society’s need to consider the aims and objectives of education. The free market determinism espoused by so-called education leaders such as DeVos suggests that teaching and learning should be cast in terms of profitability alone. Profitability is partly monetary, in that corporate entities will be given the opportunity to bid for educational contracts at will, but there is also a human dimension that needs to be considered. At stake is the very subjectivity of our youth and the ability of our society to challenge the corporate encroachment in our social institutions and to have a voice at the table about what kind of education should be in place to attend to our society’s needs.

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Neoliberalism and the Preparation of Bilingual Education Teachers

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Neoliberalism and the Preparation of Bilingual Education Teachers

MICHAEL D. GUERRERO

The context for this article is the preparation of bilingual education teachers aimed at meeting the growing population of emergent bilingual learners across the United States. The growth of this population is present in virtually every state of the union and bilingual education and/or English as a second language teacher preparation efforts as well. The projected growth of these learners ensures for the continuation of associated teacher preparation activities in colleges and schools of education across the country. Moreover, the dire academic condition of this segment of our school-aged population, particularly the low level of college readiness and completion, has long posed a challenge for teacher preparation entities and society as a whole. The issue is not only about how to keep up with the demand for bilingual education teachers, but more importantly one of how to better prepare them to meet the academic needs of emergent bilingual learners in a society where schooling is primarily designed for cultural, linguistic, and ideological assimilation. In this profession we routinely swim upstream, and the work that teacher educators do to prepare bilingual education teachers is critical if we have any hope of creating a more democratic society. However, when political and business entities collude to “starve the beast,” swimming upstream becomes more difficult yet more essential.

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Neoliberalism, Democracy, and the Question of Whose Knowledge to Teach

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Neoliberalism, Democracy, and the Question of Whose Knowledge to Teach

CHRISTINE SLEETER

I moved to California from Wisconsin in 1995, envisioning preparing teachers to cocreate with their students a curriculum that substantially draws on the intellectual work of multiple historically marginalized groups, and that is directed toward youth empowerment and social justice. I brought a strong belief that education is a valued public resource in a diverse democracy. I embraced John Dewey’s (1944) contention that a democratic society “must have a type of education which gives individuals a personal interest in social relationships and control, and the habits of mind which secure social changes without introducing disorder” (p. 99). As the major public institution that brings together people from diverse communities, schools should engage young people with others who are both similar to and different from themselves so they can learn to dialog and collaborate across differences. I also realized, following Paulo Freire (1998), that all curriculum is political; there is no ideologically neutral curriculum. Whose interests does any given curriculum serve? How can curriculum serve as a tool to examine and address social issues as experienced by those with relatively little political power?

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Challenges and Possibilities of Teacher Education in Portugal in Neoliberal Times

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Challenges and Possibilities of Teacher Education in Portugal in Neoliberal Times

MARIA ALFREDO MOREIRA1

The most serious neoliberal threats to teacher education programs in Portugal started in the 1980s, when an unruly explosion in the private offer in Higher Education (HE2), a process legitimized by the hegemonic neoliberal discourse at the time, took place (Moreira & Silva, 2016). Three consecutive right-wing majority governments used the legitimizing principles of a neoliberal ideology to open up the market: freedom of teaching and learning, downsizing the role of the State, and fostering the participation of what some would call the civil society in affairs regarded as being under the monopoly of the State (Moreira & Silva, 2016). While the public sector remained under control and regulation of the State, with tight assessment and accreditation systems, the private offer bloomed without any form of serious regulation. Only recently, under the auspices of the national Agency for Assessment and Accreditation of Higher Education (A3ES), has this situation been changed.3

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Making the Inherently Inefficient (More) Efficient: Neoliberalism as “Aim” in Teacher Education

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Making the Inherently Inefficient (More) Efficient

Neoliberalism as “Aim” in Teacher Education

ZACHARY A. CASEY

There is an old teacher story that was passed down to me early in my career in education. It goes something like this:

A CEO of a juice company is speaking to a room full of teachers. She’s going on and on about how their juice is the highest quality, how they make sure each and every berry is at the peak of ripeness, all their various quality and spot checks, and about their constant focus on improving their productivity: at getting better at what they are already “great” at. Toward the end of the talk, a teacher raises her hand and asks “What about the berries that are bruised, or broken? What do you do with those berries?” The CEO replies, “Oh, we would never put any bruised or broken berries into our juice! We throw them away.” The teacher looks around at her colleagues and then explained to the CEO, “Every parent sends the best kids they have to school, and even if they are bruised and broken, we cannot and will not throw them away. So we really can’t run our school the same way you run your juice company.”

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Globalization, Neoliberalism, and Teacher Education

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Globalization, Neoliberalism, and Teacher Education

SUSAN L. ROBERTSON

It has always struck me there is a profound set of paradoxes at play in the contemporary education world, found, for instance in the doublespeak in the policy landscape regarding teachers and their role in shaping the minds and futures of the next generation. The doublespeak, of course is that it is pointed out by academics (MacBeath, 2012), governments, as well as the OECD (2005), consultancy firms like McKinsey & Co. (cf. Mourshed, Chijioke, & Barber, 2010), and philanthropic organizations promoting teacher policy (Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, 2011), that it is teachers and their professional learning and development, as well as conditions of work, who are presented as making the difference to being a top performing education system and nation, and able to generate step changes in learner attainment.

Yet listen hard enough and there is another message that trills out when it comes to teacher policies, whether it be teacher education, teacher’s employment conditions, teacher promotion, or teacher professional development. The ideational underpinnings of all of these different aspects of teachers’ education and work conditions all tend in the same direction, such as eschewing the value of any kind of pedagogical knowledge and claim to expertise, viewing teachers as opportunistic whose professional judgments need to be questioned, valuing (military) experience in disciplining others is a desirable criterion as a basis for being an effective teacher, and constructing teachers as inclined toward laziness, which in turn is best managed through the proper calibration of incentives, such as short-term contracts.

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The Impact of Neoliberalism on Teacher Education: Some Reflections from Russia

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The Impact of Neoliberalism on Teacher Education

Some Reflections from Russia

ILGHIZ M. SINAGATILLIN

In my view, the very idea of neoliberalism means different things to different people. I myself is of the opinion that neoliberalism shares many attributes with political, social, economic, philosophic, and educational categories in the prisms of beneficial effects of free market, individual success, and wealth on human lives and their work, and in the movement from the national and local to the international and global. To an extent, neoliberalism is closely intertwined with globalization and with its outgrowth—global education. In contemporary era, the world is becoming more globalized through the canons and concepts of neoliberalism; in other cases, the omnipresent globalization gives birth and regulates novel neoliberal ideas and breakthroughs.

Historical and contemporary evidences indicate that one and the same earthly event, activity, law, or decision may influence human lives, occupations, and undertakings both positively and negatively. Moreover, an effect that a thing has on people’s decisions and behavior may differ from country to country. Neoliberalism is no exception.

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