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IJER Vol 25-N3

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The mission of the International Journal of Educational Reform (IJER) is to keep readers up-to-date with worldwide developments in education reform by providing scholarly information and practical analysis from recognized international authorities. As the only peer-reviewed scholarly publication that combines authors’ voices without regard for the political affiliations perspectives, or research methodologies, IJER provides readers with a balanced view of all sides of the political and educational mainstream. To this end, IJER includes, but is not limited to, inquiry based and opinion pieces on developments in such areas as policy, administration, curriculum, instruction, law, and research.
IJER should thus be of interest to professional educators with decision-making roles and policymakers at all levels turn since it provides a broad-based conversation between and among policymakers, practitioners, and academicians about reform goals, objectives, and methods for success throughout the world.
Readers can call on IJER to learn from an international group of reform implementers by discovering what they can do that has actually worked. IJER can also help readers to understand the pitfalls of current reforms in order to avoid making similar mistakes. Finally, it is the mission of IJER to help readers to learn about key issues in school reform from movers and shakers who help to study and shape the power base directing educational reform in the U.S. and the world.

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6 Articles

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The Educational–Industrial Complex in Comparative Perspective . . . Robert Maranto, Dirk Van Raemdonck, and Alexandra Vasile

ePub

The Educational–Industrial Complex in Comparative Perspective

Robert Maranto

Dirk C. van Raemdonck

Alexandra Vasile

ABSTRACT: Prior work has defined the Educational–Industrial Complex (EIC) as an interlocking set of public and private institutions which operate mainly to serve children and taxpayers, but also in part as budget maximizers. We test hypotheses about EIC growth using (mainly) cross-sectional data from Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) nations. Findings indicate that, as per capita wealth and unionization grow, nations spend relatively more on education and schools have a higher staff to student ratio (lower class size). Time series data indicate that cross-nationally, class size falls over time.

KEYWORDS: budget maximizing bureaucracy, class size, comparative education policy, comparative educational expenditure, teachers unions

Introduction: Education’s Political–Institutional Settings

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Investigating the Impact of International General Certificateof Secondary Education Scores and Gender on the Diploma Program Scores in Mathematics and Science . . . Burcu Yagiz and Bilgin Navruz

ePub

Investigating the Impact of International General Certificate of Secondary Education Scores and Gender on the Diploma Program Scores in Mathematics and Science *

Burcu Yagiz

Bilgin Navruz

M. Sencer Çorlu

ABSTRACT: Inspired by their goal for a well-rounded education in a world that has become more globalized, an increasing number of schools in the United States, Europe, and other parts of the world have been adapting the philosophy and curricula of international schools. While there have been several studies to support Diploma Program as an established curriculum at the senior high school level, there has been little evidence that would support any particular curriculum at the junior high school level. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between external examination scores of International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) and those of Diploma Program. A purposive sample was drawn from high school students who attended an international school in a major metropolitan city in Turkey. Data were analyzed with multiple regression approach. Statistically significant and relatively strong relationships were found between external examination scores, both in mathematics and science.

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The added value of improvisation to effectiveness-oriented transformational leadership . . . Adam Nir and Peer-li Piro

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The Added Value of Improvisation to Effectiveness-Oriented Transformational Leadership

Adam Nir

Peer-Li Piro

ABSTRACT: Purpose: The power of improvisation to promote organizational behavior and outcomes has gained recognition in the last couple of decades. The point of departure for the current study is that improvisation is likely to mediate leaders’ impact on school effectiveness. Methodology: The study is based on the responses of 60 school principals and 696 teachers. Findings: The multilevel analysis provides evidence of the mediation effect apparent in the indirect effects of transformational leadership through principals’ improvisation discernible in their creativity in the two school effectiveness factors: perceived productivity and perceived adaptability. Implications: Our findings suggest that creativity may be considered an efficient coping mechanism for school leaders coping with variance and heterogeneity.

Keywords: improvisation, effectiveness, transformational leadership, creativity

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A theoretical framework to enhance constructivist learningreforms in Confucian Heritage Culture Classrooms . . . Pham Thi Hong Thanh (Thanh Pham)

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A Theoretical Framework to Enhance Constructivist Learning Reforms in Confucian Heritage Culture Classrooms

Pham Thi Hong Thanh (Thanh Pham)

ABSTRACT: Constructivist learning practices have recently been chosen as an alternative instruction to the conventional teacher-centered approaches to teaching and learning in Confucian Heritage Culture (CHC) classrooms. However, the top–down management procedures of implementing this instruction has led to various innovation failures. This paper proposes a theoretical framework that is central to Activity Theory to assist reformers to achieve better success. This framework emphasizes that learning should be seen as a factor that has connections with many other factors in a complexity. Therefore, reformers need to address various factors at different implementation levels. It is crucially important that the teachers’ and students’ voices need to be taken into careful consideration because they play a key role in determining the reformative success.

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Three Decades of the Board of Higher Education of Turkey:Conflicts, Continuities, and Changes . . . Bekir S. Gür and Zafer Çelik

ePub

Three Decades of the Board of Higher Education of Turkey

Conflicts, Continuities, and Changes

Bekir S. Gür

Zafer Çelik

ABSTRACT: This article aims to assess the evolution of the Board of Higher Education of Turkey in relation to these power struggles and domestic political contestations. The evolution of the Board will be examined in five distinct periods: Post-1980 Authoritarian Period (1981–1988), the Period of Fluctuation (1989–1996), the post-February 28th Repressive Period (1997–2002), the Period of Conflict (2003–2007), and the Period of Regularization (2008–present). In the article, the authors argue that any increase in pressure the Board exercised over universities often coincided with an implicit presidential endorsement of the Board as well as weak coalition governments. Universities often adopted to increasingly repressive policies immediately and failed to defend academic freedoms.

KEYWORDS: higher education, politics of education, the Board of Higher Education, Turkey

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Outcomes-Based Education: A Subjectivist Critique . . . Fu-Lai Tony Yu

ePub

Outcomes-Based Education

A Subjectivist Critique

Fu-Lai Tony Yu

ABSTRACT: There are growing concerns among educators that the traditional teaching and learning method which is teacher-centered and places an emphasis on students’ inputs cannot adequately reflect what students actually learn. Outcomes-Based Education (OBE), with an attempt to measure the effectiveness of learning outcomes, has emerged as a response to the weaknesses of traditional teaching method. Since then, OBE has been adopted worldwide. Admittedly, OBE represents a significant advance in education reform. However, this paper argues that OBE should not be taken too far. Room should be made for non-measureable learning outcomes. This paper provides a subjectivist critique and identifies the limitations of OBE. Unlike positivist approach in OBE, this paper proposes “subjective understanding” as an alternative teaching and learning method. This subjectivist approach sheds new light on specific teaching and learning methods, such as assessment method, apprentice system, and school life. This paper concludes that educators should not neglect non-observable elements which can be tackled by the subjectivist approach.

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