Medium 9781442229044

Pro Ecclesia

By: Ecclesia, Pro
Pro Ecclesia is a quarterly journal of theology published by the Center for Catholic and Evangelical Theology. It seeks to give contemporary expression to the one apostolic faith and its classic traditions, working for and manifesting the church's unity by research, theological construction, and free exchange of opinion. Members of its advisory council represent communities committed to the authority of Holy Scripture, ecumenical dogmatic teaching and the structural continuity of the church, and are themselves dedicated to maintaining and invigorating these commitments. The journal publishes biblical, liturgical, historical and doctrinal articles that promote or illumine its purposes.

Ways to subscribe:
Call toll-free: 800-273-2223
Email: journals@rowman.com

For back-issues, please contact journals@rowman.com

Editorial inquiries:
Joseph Mangina, joseph.mangina@utoronto.ca
Submissions should be sent by email attachment in Microsoft Word, double-spaced, with identifying marks removed for the purposes of blind peer review.

Book review inquiries:
Chad Pecknold, pecknold@cua.edu

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ISSN: 1063-8512
Published by:   Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
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9 Issues

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Pro Ecclesia Vol 25-N4 6
Pro Ecclesia is a quarterly journal of theology published by the Center for Catholic and Evangelical Theology. It seeks to give contemporary expression to the one apostolic faith and its classic traditions, working for and manifesting the church's unity by research, theological construction, and free exchange of opinion. Members of its advisory council represent communities committed to the authority of Holy Scripture, ecumenical dogmatic teaching and the structural continuity of the church, and are themselves dedicated to maintaining and invigorating these commitments. The journal publishes biblical, liturgical, historical and doctrinal articles that promote or illumine its purposes.

Ways to subscribe:
Call toll-free: 800-273-2223
Email: journals@rowman.com

For back-issues, please contact journals@rowman.com

Editorial inquiries:
Joseph Mangina, joseph.mangina@utoronto.ca
Submissions should be sent by email attachment to the editor (joseph.mangina@wycliffe.utoronto.ca) in MS Word or PDF format. For all citations please employ Turabian footnote style. Identifying marks should be removed for the purposes of blind peer review. It is not necessary to provide an abstract or a bibliography for your article. While there is no strict limit on length of articles, we have a preference for submissions of 7500 words or fewer.

Book review inquiries:
Brett Salkeld, bretzky@hotmail.com

Advertising inquiries:
Carli Hansen, chansen@rowman.com

Subscription inquiries:
journals@rowman.com
ISSN: 1063-8512
Pro Ecclesia Vol 26-N1 10
Pro Ecclesia is a quarterly journal of theology published by the Center for Catholic and Evangelical Theology. It seeks to give contemporary expression to the one apostolic faith and its classic traditions, working for and manifesting the church's unity by research, theological construction, and free exchange of opinion. Members of its advisory council represent communities committed to the authority of Holy Scripture, ecumenical dogmatic teaching and the structural continuity of the church, and are themselves dedicated to maintaining and invigorating these commitments. The journal publishes biblical, liturgical, historical and doctrinal articles that promote or illumine its purposes.

Ways to subscribe:
Call toll-free: 800-273-2223
Email: journals@rowman.com

For back-issues, please contact journals@rowman.com

Editorial inquiries:
Joseph Mangina, joseph.mangina@utoronto.ca
Submissions should be sent by email attachment to the editor (joseph.mangina@wycliffe.utoronto.ca) in MS Word or PDF format. For all citations please employ Turabian footnote style. Identifying marks should be removed for the purposes of blind peer review. It is not necessary to provide an abstract or a bibliography for your article. While there is no strict limit on length of articles, we have a preference for submissions of 7500 words or fewer.

Book review inquiries:
Brett Salkeld, bretzky@hotmail.com

Advertising inquiries:
Carli Hansen, chansen@rowman.com

Subscription inquiries:
journals@rowman.com
ISSN: 1063-8512
Pro Ecclesia Vol 26-N2 10
Pro Ecclesia is a quarterly journal of theology published by the Center for Catholic and Evangelical Theology. It seeks to give contemporary expression to the one apostolic faith and its classic traditions, working for and manifesting the church's unity by research, theological construction, and free exchange of opinion. Members of its advisory council represent communities committed to the authority of Holy Scripture, ecumenical dogmatic teaching and the structural continuity of the church, and are themselves dedicated to maintaining and invigorating these commitments. The journal publishes biblical, liturgical, historical and doctrinal articles that promote or illumine its purposes.

Ways to subscribe:
Call toll-free: 800-273-2223
Email: journals@rowman.com

For back-issues, please contact journals@rowman.com

Editorial inquiries:
Joseph Mangina, joseph.mangina@utoronto.ca
Submissions should be sent by email attachment to the editor (joseph.mangina@wycliffe.utoronto.ca) in MS Word or PDF format. For all citations please employ Turabian footnote style. Identifying marks should be removed for the purposes of blind peer review. It is not necessary to provide an abstract or a bibliography for your article. While there is no strict limit on length of articles, we have a preference for submissions of 7500 words or fewer.

Book review inquiries:
Brett Salkeld, bretzky@hotmail.com

Advertising inquiries:
Carli Hansen, chansen@rowman.com

Subscription inquiries:
journals@rowman.com
ISSN: 1063-8512
Pro Ecclesia Vol 26-N3 5
Pro Ecclesia is a quarterly journal of theology published by the Center for Catholic and Evangelical Theology. It seeks to give contemporary expression to the one apostolic faith and its classic traditions, working for and manifesting the church's unity by research, theological construction, and free exchange of opinion. Members of its advisory council represent communities committed to the authority of Holy Scripture, ecumenical dogmatic teaching and the structural continuity of the church, and are themselves dedicated to maintaining and invigorating these commitments. The journal publishes biblical, liturgical, historical and doctrinal articles that promote or illumine its purposes.

Ways to subscribe:
Call toll-free: 800-273-2223
Email: journals@rowman.com

For back-issues, please contact journals@rowman.com

Editorial inquiries:
Joseph Mangina, joseph.mangina@utoronto.ca
Submissions should be sent by email attachment to the editor (joseph.mangina@wycliffe.utoronto.ca) in MS Word or PDF format. For all citations please employ Turabian footnote style. Identifying marks should be removed for the purposes of blind peer review. It is not necessary to provide an abstract or a bibliography for your article. While there is no strict limit on length of articles, we have a preference for submissions of 7500 words or fewer.

Book review inquiries:
Brett Salkeld, bretzky@hotmail.com

Advertising inquiries:
Carli Hansen, chansen@rowman.com

Subscription inquiries:
journals@rowman.com
ISSN: 1063-8512
Pro Ecclesia Vol 26-N4 5
Pro Ecclesia is a quarterly journal of theology published by the Center for Catholic and Evangelical Theology. It seeks to give contemporary expression to the one apostolic faith and its classic traditions, working for and manifesting the church's unity by research, theological construction, and free exchange of opinion. Members of its advisory council represent communities committed to the authority of Holy Scripture, ecumenical dogmatic teaching and the structural continuity of the church, and are themselves dedicated to maintaining and invigorating these commitments. The journal publishes biblical, liturgical, historical and doctrinal articles that promote or illumine its purposes.

Ways to subscribe:
Call toll-free: 800-273-2223
Email: journals@rowman.com

For back-issues, please contact journals@rowman.com

Editorial inquiries:
Joseph Mangina, joseph.mangina@utoronto.ca
Submissions should be sent by email attachment to the editor (joseph.mangina@wycliffe.utoronto.ca) in MS Word or PDF format. For all citations please employ Turabian footnote style. Identifying marks should be removed for the purposes of blind peer review. It is not necessary to provide an abstract or a bibliography for your article. While there is no strict limit on length of articles, we have a preference for submissions of 7500 words or fewer.

Book review inquiries:
Brett Salkeld, bretzky@hotmail.com

Advertising inquiries:
Carli Hansen, chansen@rowman.com

Subscription inquiries:
journals@rowman.com
ISSN: 1063-8512
Pro Ecclesia Vol 27-N1 10
Pro Ecclesia is a quarterly journal of theology published by the Center for Catholic and Evangelical Theology. It seeks to give contemporary expression to the one apostolic faith and its classic traditions, working for and manifesting the church's unity by research, theological construction, and free exchange of opinion. Members of its advisory council represent communities committed to the authority of Holy Scripture, ecumenical dogmatic teaching and the structural continuity of the church, and are themselves dedicated to maintaining and invigorating these commitments. The journal publishes biblical, liturgical, historical and doctrinal articles that promote or illumine its purposes.

Ways to subscribe:
Call toll-free: 800-273-2223
Email: journals@rowman.com

For back-issues, please contact journals@rowman.com

Editorial inquiries:
Phillip Cary, pcary@eastern.edu
Submissions should be sent by email attachment to the editor in MS Word or PDF format. For all citations please employ Turabian footnote style. Identifying marks should be removed for the purposes of blind peer review. It is not necessary to provide an abstract or a bibliography for your article. While there is no strict limit on length of articles, we have a preference for submissions of 7500 words or fewer.

Book review inquiries:
Brett Salkeld, bretzky@hotmail.com

Advertising inquiries:
Carli Hansen, chansen@rowman.com

Subscription inquiries:
journals@rowman.com
ISSN: 1063-8512
Pro Ecclesia Vol 27-N2 4
Pro Ecclesia is a quarterly journal of theology published by the Center for Catholic and Evangelical Theology. It seeks to give contemporary expression to the one apostolic faith and its classic traditions, working for and manifesting the church's unity by research, theological construction, and free exchange of opinion. Members of its advisory council represent communities committed to the authority of Holy Scripture, ecumenical dogmatic teaching and the structural continuity of the church, and are themselves dedicated to maintaining and invigorating these commitments. The journal publishes biblical, liturgical, historical and doctrinal articles that promote or illumine its purposes.

Ways to subscribe:
Call toll-free: 800-273-2223
Email: journals@rowman.com

For back-issues, please contact journals@rowman.com

Editorial inquiries:
Phillip Cary, pcary@eastern.edu
Submissions should be sent by email attachment to the editor in MS Word or PDF format. For all citations please employ Turabian footnote style. Identifying marks should be removed for the purposes of blind peer review. It is not necessary to provide an abstract or a bibliography for your article. While there is no strict limit on length of articles, we have a preference for submissions of 7500 words or fewer.

Book review inquiries:
Brett Salkeld, bretzky@hotmail.com

Advertising inquiries:
Courtney Packard, cpackard@rowman.com

Subscription inquiries:
journals@rowman.com
ISSN: 1063-8512
Pro Ecclesia Vol 27-N3 11
Pro Ecclesia is a quarterly journal of theology published by the Center for Catholic and Evangelical Theology. It seeks to give contemporary expression to the one apostolic faith and its classic traditions, working for and manifesting the church's unity by research, theological construction, and free exchange of opinion. Members of its advisory council represent communities committed to the authority of Holy Scripture, ecumenical dogmatic teaching and the structural continuity of the church, and are themselves dedicated to maintaining and invigorating these commitments. The journal publishes biblical, liturgical, historical and doctrinal articles that promote or illumine its purposes.

Ways to subscribe:
Call toll-free: 800-273-2223
Email: journals@rowman.com

For back-issues, please contact journals@rowman.com

Editorial inquiries:
Phillip Cary, pcary@eastern.edu
Submissions should be sent by email attachment to the editor in MS Word or PDF format. For all citations please employ Turabian footnote style. Identifying marks should be removed for the purposes of blind peer review. It is not necessary to provide an abstract or a bibliography for your article. While there is no strict limit on length of articles, we have a preference for submissions of 7500 words or fewer.

Book review inquiries:
Brett Salkeld, bretzky@hotmail.com

Advertising inquiries:
Courtney Packard, cpackard@rowman.com

Subscription inquiries:
journals@rowman.com
ISSN: 1063-8512
Pro Ecclesia Vol 27-N4 10
Pro Ecclesia is a quarterly journal of theology published by the Center for Catholic and Evangelical Theology. It seeks to give contemporary expression to the one apostolic faith and its classic traditions, working for and manifesting the church's unity by research, theological construction, and free exchange of opinion. Members of its advisory council represent communities committed to the authority of Holy Scripture, ecumenical dogmatic teaching and the structural continuity of the church, and are themselves dedicated to maintaining and invigorating these commitments. The journal publishes biblical, liturgical, historical and doctrinal articles that promote or illumine its purposes.

Ways to subscribe:
Call toll-free: 800-273-2223
Email: journals@rowman.com

For back-issues, please contact journals@rowman.com

Editorial inquiries:
Phillip Cary, pcary@eastern.edu
Submissions should be sent by email attachment to the editor in MS Word or PDF format. For all citations please employ Turabian footnote style. Identifying marks should be removed for the purposes of blind peer review. It is not necessary to provide an abstract or a bibliography for your article. While there is no strict limit on length of articles, we have a preference for submissions of 7500 words or fewer.

Book review inquiries:
Brett Salkeld, bretzky@hotmail.com

Advertising inquiries:
Courtney Packard, cpackard@rowman.com

Subscription inquiries:
journals@rowman.com
ISSN: 1063-8512
 

71 Articles

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REVIEW ESSAY

ePub

BUT WILL IT PREACH? ENGAGING FLEMING RUTLEDGE’S THE CRUCIFIXION

David Widdicombe

Fleming Rutledge

The Crucifixion: Understanding the Death of Jesus Christ (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2015)1

Yes! Doctrine preaches. Anyone who has heard Fleming Rutledge expound a biblical text knows that this is true. But which doctrine exactly and how exactly does it preach? Here is the answer in a work of wide-ranging scholarship and staggering authorial stamina. As Luther said, the preacher must know his doctrine and should teach it systematically. This book is a gold mine for preachers who take Luther’s advice seriously. Everywhere in this text we see the discipline involved in setting out an argument that intends to summarize, systematically arrange, and even point beyond everything the church has so far taught about the death of Christ. The argument is objective, intensely biblical and, nothing if not thorough, the prose cool and clear. The detail necessitates slow reading, yet it reads like the hardening lava flow from a volcano of Christian imagination that never sleeps. The doctrine preaches with power because, in Fleming Rutledge’s opinion, it is the preaching. The Christian doctrine of the atonement, or better, the narrative of the crucifixion in all its horror, is the truth about the world’s salvation, and truth matters because the fate of humanity matters—the truth speaks for itself.

What’s to Celebrate?

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What’s to Celebrate?

Robert W. Jenson

Since it is commonly supposed that the Reformation began in 1517 with Luther’s debate theses on penance and the fuss they occasioned, people are looking to celebrate its five hundredth anniversary in 2017. And there you have it, the inevitable word, celebrate. For it is also commonly supposed that what happened back there rightly occasions celebration: large gatherings, encomiums, cheerleading, processions/parades, that sort of thing. Like the Fourth of July used to be in the United States.

But celebrate what, exactly? And how are we to do that? (The “we” here are the Protestants, including those reluctant to be so labeled.)

We can hardly now celebrate the eventual separation itself, since Protestant churches in the ecumenical movement spent decades lamenting and working to overcome it. Protestants could praise God for the supposed gift of churches liberated from papacy, so long as we thought that the papacy was an aspect of Satan’s tyranny, doomed to destruction with Islam and the like. For many good reasons, most of us have given up that doctrine. And getting along simply without a universal magisterium has in the meantime proven easier said than done.

Beggars All

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Beggars All

A Lutheran View of the 2017 Reformation Anniversary

Sarah Hinlicky Wilson1

One of the newest products from Playmobil, a toy company based in Nuremberg, Germany, is a little figurine of Martin Luther. Playmobil has issued historical figurines before—a series of Dutch painters was a hit, and so was Charlie Chaplin. The Luther toy was developed in conjunction with the German National Tourist Board and the Luther-Decade program of the Protestant Church in Germany (Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland), another fun trinket to advertise the gala events leading up to October 31, 2017.

What nobody anticipated, however, was the immense popularity of these little Luthers. Within three days of their release in February 2015, all thirty-four thousand Luthers had sold out. The factory couldn’t keep up with the demand, and new Luthers didn’t hit the market until late April.2

That’s remarkable in itself, and proof that not only the pious and the scholarly have their eyes on the 2017 anniversary. But what is even more remarkable is what this commercial Luther toy is holding. It’s not the 95 Theses—though of course the Theses are why the anniversary date is in 2017. Instead he’s holding a Bible. The left-hand page says, in German, “the end of the books of the Old Testament” (Bücher des Alten Testaments ende), and the right-hand one says, “The New Testament translated by Dr. Martin Luther” (Das Neue Testament übersetzt von Doktor Martin Luther). Our Luther, smiling blandly like nearly all Playmobil figurines, is no polemical figure, no wrecker of an intact church, no angry young man naming abuses. He’s a translator, giving the Word of God to Germans in their own language.3

Theology and Moral Reflection and Practice

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Theology and Moral Reflection and Practice

Karl Barth, David Haddorff, and Christian Ethics

Arne Rasmusson1

In recent years we have seen an abundance of books and articles (some very impressive) on Karl Barth’s understanding of ethics. But the role of Barth’s theology in understanding Christian ethics is puzzling. On the one hand, his account of a distinctly theological ethics has been broadly influential far outside strictly Barthian circles. But this has been a selective reception, in which Barth’s thinking has been integrated with broader Christian traditions and theological approaches in quite different ways. Furthermore, some central parts of his thinking have often been left out, because people either don’t understand them, don’t agree with them, or don’t know what to do with them. What many find most problematic is Barth’s actualistic account of God’s command. This is, of course, not a peripheral issue. So, on the other hand, we find among Barthian scholars different, often ingenious, attempts to explain what he means and to develop a “complete” account of ethics on Barthian grounds, often together with attacks on approaches to theological ethics sympathetic to Barth for failing to account for, say, the priority and freedom of God’s Word. I belong to the former group. After having read many impressive defenses of, for example, Barth’s understanding of God’s command, I am still puzzled. For one thing, the specialists don’t agree with each other. Moreover, it is not clear to me that they have shown the fruitfulness of Barth’s account, when understood in the latter exclusivist way, for understanding Christian life. Mostly they don’t even try. Most seem preoccupied with describing the right way of understanding ethics; only a few (in contrast to Barth himself) consider the content of Christian practice itself. Barth’s account cannot, by definition, be formulated as a theory, but should it not help us, at least in retrospect, to describe Christian practice? Most of this more narrow Barthian scholarship simply does not help us much to think about actual Christian practice.

The Catholic Spirit of Protestantism

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The Catholic Spirit of Protestantism

A Very Methodist Take on the Third Article, Visible Unity, and Ecumenism

Tom Greggs

Protestants have a reputation for being schismatic. Were it not enough that they broke with Rome in the sixteenth century, Protestants, from the very off, have been divided among themselves: Luther and Zwingli could not find agreement over the nature of Holy Communion at the Marburg Colloquy; more profoundly, Radical and Magisterial Reform divided; and ever since the Reformation, there has been division upon division of churches who have all protested against their parent church that it has not proclaimed Scripture or performed church practice or celebrated the sacraments or ordered itself or articulated its doctrine correctly. Moving to Scotland in recent years, I have been particularly aware of this propensity to divide. Reading Scottish church history can feel a little similar to reading a script from an episode of Dallas: unending fall outs, divisions, and divorces, followed by the odd makeup and ostentatiously glamorous wedding. Diagrams of Protestant church history can bear an unhealthy similarity to complex plumbing maps, with lines dividing off and coming back together in almost inscrutable ways. It is rumoured indeed that one particularly narrow and exclusive Protestant sect even has a hymn that goes:

Martin Luther after 500 Years

ePub

Martin Luther after 500 Years

Bruce D. Marshall

Five hundred years ago this past October, on the eve of All Saints—what we call Halloween—a young theology professor at a provincial German university posted a set of theses for academic debate.1 The university was in the northeast German town of Wittenberg, and the professor was Martin Luther, a monk and priest two weeks shy of his thirty-fourth birthday. His aim was a standard academic exercise, a public disputation on a series of contested points, so his theses were written in Latin, the universal academic language of Europe at the time. The subject of his theses was the theology and practice of indulgences. Indulgences had been a standard part of Western medieval religious life for several centuries, one part of a much larger picture about sin, forgiveness, and reconciliation with God and one’s community. Luther was moved to post his “Disputation to Clarify the Power of Indulgences,” to recall its formal title, by his lively irritation over the way a particular indulgence tied to the building of the new St. Peter’s basilica in Rome was, with papal approval, being preached and sold in north Germany at the time. But the proper understanding of indulgences, of what they could and could not do, was already a topic of running controversy, and a good deal of what Luther had to say in his ninety-five theses had already been said by others.

Transfiguring Doubt: A Retrieval from Augustine’s Meta-Apologetic in De Trinitate

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Transfiguring Doubt: A Retrieval from Augustine’s Meta-Apologetic in De Trinitate

Clifton Stringer

Part I. Apologetic Contexts

1.1. Necessary Uncertainty?

In 2011, the late journalist Christopher Hitchens (1949–2011) debated John Haldane at Oxford on questions related to God, faith, and public policy. Hitchens began his opening statement by describing a curious fact about the death of American President Abraham Lincoln, as Lincoln expired in a room in Petersen House not far from Pennsylvania Avenue. Hitchens:

We still don’t know, when his cabinet gathered around him and saw him die . . . either [his cabinet member Stanton or Herndon] said, “Now he’s with the angels” or “Now he’s with the ages.” We still don’t know [which was said]. And there’s no reason why we shouldn’t. There were eyewitnesses, literate men, practically contemporaries of ours. They were in the age of print, in the age of photography, and yet nobody knows which thing Stanton or Herndon said.

You Shall Love the Lord with All Your Mind

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You Shall Love the Lord with All Your Mind

Blanche Jenson

1953

We sat in Solomon, his 1939 Packard, engaged in serious debate. Should the Lutherans join the World Council of Churches? I chose the affirmative. He firmly argued the negative. He became an ecumenical theologian.

We sat eating lunch in Dinky Town talking theology. He said, “You know only the froth on the beer.” How right he was.

1954

We sat on the bank of the Mississippi River eating pizza. A decision was made. We would spend the rest of our lives doing theology together. And so we have.

2017

It is Advent. I sit at my grandparents’ table opposite an empty chair. Our conversation has been interrupted. But I am blessed with his words: books, essays, lectures, sermons, verses, and all the memories attached to them.

Above the mantel in his study hangs an embroidered command (a gift from a student): YOU SHALL THE LOVE THE LORD YOUR GOD WITH ALL YOUR MIND. Although Jens chose to follow his father into the ministry, he knew his gift was not his father’s: the common touch. His gift was thinking and, he soon learned, also teaching. The seminary assigned him not to a parish but to campus ministry at the University of Minnesota for internship. That is where our life together began.

Mr. Lindbeck’s Surprisingly Effective Pedagogy and Its Consequences for Theology Today

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Mr. Lindbeck’s Surprisingly Effective Pedagogy and Its Consequences for Theology Today

Peter Casarella

“Everyone should remain in the state in which she was called.”1 St. Paul’s advice is sometimes paraphrased as “Grow where you are planted!” It comes in the midst of complicated counsels regarding marriage, virginity, and slavery, and an “originalist” reading of Paul here would not necessarily be advisable. But these are the words that come to mind when I think of what my teacher George Lindbeck (“Mr. Lindbeck” in the now-antiquated parlance of those days) imparted to me and to others. The Catholic became a better Catholic. The Buddhist a better Buddhist. And, of course, the Barthian and Thomist a better Barthian and a better Thomist (sometimes at the same time). This insight is surprising for two reasons. First, Lindbeck’s legacy has been saddled with the charge of fideism, proselytism, and the like from almost the beginning. This charge was simply astonishing to those of us who knew the man. No teacher ever matched his ability at self-effacement or respect for the dignity of the other. The brash and fearless divinity student and the shy undergraduate who made the trek with his bicycle, sometimes even in the snow, up the hill to the divinity school were placed on equal footing. Protestants, Catholics, and non-Christians wanted to learn from him because he was so nonjudgmental and hard to pin down. He was not particularly effusive, but one-on-one he could be amazingly open and transparent. The many testimonies of his students regarding life-transforming reading courses of one, two, or three people in his crowded office tells us something about his remarkable witness.

AQUINAS AND SUPERSESSIONISM ONE MORE TIME: A RESPONSE TO MATTHEW A. TAPIE’S AQUINAS ON ISRAEL AND THE CHURCH

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AQUINAS AND SUPERSESSIONISM ONE MORE TIME: A RESPONSE TO MATTHEW A. TAPIE’S AQUINAS ON ISRAEL AND THE CHURCH

Matthew Levering

In his Aquinas on Israel and the Church: The Question of Supersessionism in the Theology of Thomas Aquinas, Matthew Tapie examines my work first in a section on pages 30–38, then in an excursus on pages 41–47, and finally in a section on 158–163.1 Indeed, his book functions in large part as a critique of my writings on the topic of Thomas Aquinas and supersessionism. Among other things, he suggests that I “only . . . pay lip service to the call for the renunciation of harsh Christian supersessionism.”2 Given the significance of the topic, it seems appropriate for me to engage his criticisms, especially since this engagement provides a chance to clarify, rectify, and extend my long-standing interest in Aquinas and supersessionism. In addition to underscoring my firm “renunciation of harsh Christian supersessionism,” the present essay argues for the importance of Aquinas’s commentary on Gal. 5:3 for understanding the full contours of Aquinas’s theology of the Jewish people. Although in the body of the essay I focus upon Tapie’s concerns, and therefore do not discuss Messianic Judaism (which was in the foreground of my earlier engagements with Aquinas and supersessionism), I clarify and further develop my position on Messianic Judaism in the footnotes of the essay. Thanks in significant part to the efforts of Mark S. Kinzer, with whom I have been in dialogue for a number of years and who kindly read and criticized a draft of the present essay, Messianic Judaism has become an increasingly important topic in recent years within the Catholic Church.3

An Agenda for Evangelicals and Catholics

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An Agenda for Evangelicals and Catholics

William M. Shea

Conflicting horizons of meaning have been the central interest of my professional and personal life: Jews and Christians; naturalists and the supernaturalists; Fundamentalists, Evangelicals, and Catholics; right-wing (Ultramontane and Integralist) and left-wing (liberal and modernist) Catholics; America’s constitutional tolerance and its unofficial and historical anti-Catholicism; the nation’s unusually religious nature and its recent disturbingly antireligious culture; and the tug-of-war among Catholics as to the nature of authority and Catholic identity. This interest in cultural and theological dialectic began in 1951 in college, where I wrote a senior thesis on Franco’s rebellion against the Spanish Republic in 1936. To me the murderous republican anticlericalism and equally murderous fascism of the Catholic right was each a mysterium tremendum et fascinans.1

I’ve tried to understand differences, looking for a way of coping with them intellectually and practically, and looking for common ground. I’ve occasionally found ways of speaking constructively about differences and even some ways of living with the differences and getting beyond them, and that in spite of the fact that temperamentally I’m a divider rather than a healer. David Tracy thirty years ago said of me that I have a Catholic mind and a Protestant psyche, and so an inner dialectic was noted. My brother once remarked that I am emotional man trying to be reasonable.I think they are making the same point: my own struggle for personal unification makes me alert to the tug of opposites, especially in religion and culture. For me the personal tension has always been to understand the “others” and at the same time remain faithful to my own people. How to achieve unification and how to cope with difference are the ordering questions for me. Perhaps practical unification is the outcome of a plethora of copings rather than a Hegelian third position that subsumes the two “others.”

A Transfiguring God

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A Transfiguring God

Jason Byassee

I scarcely preach a sermon in which Flannery O’Connor is not part of the vision. She was a pre–Vatican II Roman Catholic, “13th century” style she liked to say, and her work is unfailingly violent and occasionally redemptive.1 I’m puzzling after a few things about O’Connor. One, she’s a southerner like me. She also went elsewhere for a while—to Iowa and New York, before coming down with lupus at age twenty-five that would kill her at age thirty-nine in 1964; me to Vancouver to teach preaching. She liked to say that there would be no biography of her because lives lived between the house and the chicken coop don’t make for good copy. Yet somehow her life exudes mystery and radiance, as Brad Gooch’s recent biography makes clear.2 She liked to say that southerners write about freaks so often because we can still recognize one.3 And she was one. And we all are. And Christ is the greatest freak of all. Her work is blessedly free of sentimentality—not a cliché in sight. When you read her fiction, you know there will be a conversion and that it will likely require death. And the whole will be uproariously funny in a macabre, guilt-inducing way. O’Connor is the perfect cure for the common confusion that says being Christian is about being nice (especially a problem in Canada—where people no longer think they need the church even to be nice).

Dialectic and Analogy in Balthasar’s “The Metaphysics of the Saints”

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Dialectic and Analogy in Balthasar’s “The Metaphysics of the Saints”

Andrew L. Prevot

There is an ongoing ecumenical conversation about the most appropriate Christian “thought-form” (Denkform), whether dialectic or analogy—or, more precisely, about how best to understand and relate these two options, since only the most extreme partisan would wish to exclude one or the other entirely. A number of recent publications have reexamined the “enigmatic rift” between Erich Pryzwara and Karl Barth, two twentieth-century theological friends and sparring partners who continue to be interpreted as figures representing the distinct transcendental commitments of Catholicism and Protestantism respectively.1 Hans Urs von Balthasar’s The Theology of Karl Barth (1951) is widely acknowledged to be a key entry in this discussion, even by scholars who dispute his reading of Barth. I do not attempt to summarize or, for that matter, to settle this debate in this brief article. More particularly, I do not wish to make any historical or exegetical arguments concerning when, or if, any decisive shifts occurred in Barth’s or Przywara’s careers and how this may or may not challenge Balthasar’s narrative in his Barth book. At least for the span of this paper, I would like to encourage a step back from this controversial interpretive terrain in order to focus on the more essential, constructive question about what Christian theologians are to do now with the ideas of dialectic and analogy. Having turned in this forward-looking direction, I do not promise anything like a comprehensive solution. My modest aim is merely to point the discussion toward a neglected text that may help us think through this question and to consider new—and yet perhaps very ancient, forgotten—possibilities for rapprochement.

Ivan Illich, Catholic Theologian (Part II):

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Ivan Illich, Catholic Theologian (Part II):

Illich And Catholic Social Teaching

Colin Miller

In a previous essay in these pages,1 I argued that for Ivan Illich the modern world is at its heart the doxological betrayal of Catholicism, an idolatrous technocratic liturgy prohibiting the true cultus from which it is ultimately derived. Like all cults, modern tools seek to subsume all of life into their rites, and yet, perhaps as never before, these rites mask their character as foreign with a new set of fundamental certainties feigning Christian truth. So the trusting, hopeful, fleshy, useless eucharistic liturgy is replaced by various systems expected to deliver a terrestrial salvation in the cathedrals of medicine, education, transport, and cybernetics. The Church’s irreducible personalism—the contingent particularity of embodied existence in space and time—is abstracted into possibilities and risk management and explained by behaviorism as the way things have to be. Persons become manipulatable concepts. The body becomes a chartable system in need of upkeep, its once salutary suffering first taxonomized and then reduced to a minimum. The pursuit of truth is separated from a tradition-bound way of life and replaced with bare, un-situated nominalist “information,” and a moral order reducible to the play of power. In this world, subsistence work or gendered practice dissolves under economic analysis into interchangeable units of “activity” always vulnerable to being unmasked as inequitable instances of the will to power and the violation of rights. This, for Illich, is the corruption of the best, which is the worst.

Grace and Gratitude: A Reply to Bruce Marshall

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Grace and Gratitude: A Reply to Bruce Marshall

Michael Allen

“The spirits divide in manifold ways, and the division reaches even to the description of Protestantism’s iconic founding incident.” These words of Professor Bruce Marshall not only help us realize the challenge as we assess the events of October 1517, but, more broadly, as we consider the persona and witness of Martin Luther. Some take Luther’s significance to be political, and Marshall alludes to the significance of his support by “the Elector of Saxony Frederick the Wise” for turning him from a mere reformer to a founder of German Protestantism. Others highlight the ways in which Luther confronted the economic exploitation of German peasants for the aristocrats and the foreign powers of Rome, to which Marshall also nods in his comments on the popular awareness of the ways in which indulgences could fleece the least of these. While treating the political and the economic aspects of reform as bearing significance, however, Marshall reminds us of the abiding theological character of his witness and the specifically pastoral shape of his reforms.

A Spirituality of the Word: The Medieval Roots of Traditional Anglican Worship

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A Spirituality of the Word: The Medieval Roots of Traditional Anglican Worship

Jesse D. Billett

Jesse D. Billett, Trinity College, University of Toronto, 6 Hoskin Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1H8. Email: jesse.billett@utoronto.ca

The title of this paper1 is perhaps not one that would have been chosen by the priest and scholar in whose memory it is offered. Fr. Robert Darwin Crouse (1930–2011), Professor of Classics at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia, and several times Visiting Professor of Patrology at the Institutum Patristicum Augustinianum of the Pontifical Lateran University in Rome, was indeed deeply learned in the history and theology of the Middle Ages, that is, the millennium following the collapse of the Roman Empire in the West (conventionally dated ca. 500–1500). But I imagine that he would be disappointed that I was not going to show how Anglican liturgical spirituality could be traced right back to the Fathers of the early Christian centuries. No doubt that could be done. But the Middle Ages made their own distinctive contribution to Anglican worship that invites our attention. This paper addresses just one aspect of Anglican worship, the Divine Office, the daily services of Mattins and Evensong. The Divine Office has arguably been more important for Anglicans than it has been for any other Christian denomination. Until very recently, the offices of Mattins and Evensong, not the Eucharist, were for Anglicans the principal act of Sunday worship. And from the time of the Reformation the daily offices were proposed not just as a clerical or monastic discipline (as, for example, in the Roman communion), but as the joint prayer of the whole worshipping community, lay and ordained.

A Personal Tribute to Robert William Jenson (1930–2017)

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A Personal Tribute to Robert William Jenson (1930–2017)

Carl E. Braaten

My best friend, Robert Jenson, died September 5, 2017. His friends call him Jens. He is widely acclaimed as the most creative American systematic theologian of all time. It was my incredible privilege to work side by side with Jens for the last sixty years. We coauthored and coedited eighteen books. Together we founded and edited two theological journals, first, Dialog: A Journal of Theology, and second, Pro Ecclesia: A Journal of Catholic and Evangelical Theology. In 1991, we founded and directed the Center for Catholic and Evangelical Theology in Northfield, Minnesota, the publisher of Pro Ecclesia.

When I heard that Jens had passed away, I commented to a friend that “they don’t make theologians like him anymore.” Jens took no shortcuts on the way to becoming a complete theologian of the church. He was a classics major in college and also studied philosophy, a discipline Thomas Aquinas called the “handmaid of theology.” He became proficient in the biblical languages, Hebrew and Greek, as well as in Latin and German. Jens knew that it is impossible to be a modern Christian theologian worth his salt without a working knowledge of at least those four languages. The modern theological curriculum was traditionally divided into four departments—biblical, historical, doctrinal, and practical. A quick survey of Jenson’s bibliography shows that Jens wrote books and articles in every area of theology.

Being With George Lindbeck’s Being-With

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Being With George Lindbeck’s Being-With

Peter Ochs

A reminiscence. I have written much about George Lindbeck, of blessed memory, the postliberal scholar and theologian whose work has stimulated and informed much of my work on rabbinic pragmatism/semiotics, postliberal Abrahamic theologies, and Scriptural reasoning. But I write here about George the person in the thinker. Of this person, in the thinker, the image that comes first to mind is his stretching his hand out to be with someone. It makes me think of the biblical passage where Moses was in the ark in the reeds and Batyah, daughter of Pharaoh, sent her handmaid to fetch it: v’tishlach et-amata (Exod. 2:5). In Talmud Sota 12b, Rabbi Yehudah reads “et amah-ta” to mean that she stretched it (her hand, not her maid) a cubits-length to meet the baby. In Freema Gottlieb’s gentle words, the hand of God is seen, for example, in the way the hand of Batyah reached for the baby. This is then a typological image: reaching one’s hand to someone as a type, to fill in which someone is to specify an instance—in this case, I speak of the ones George was with. We might think, within the realm of academic-spiritual partnerships, a prototypical someone was Hans Frei, of blessed memory: George with Hans, intimately interrelated in their work, historian and theologian, ecclesiologist and hermeneut, the Jew-Christian and the Christian who extends his scholarly hand to be with Judaism. That being-with has been a powerful force in contemporary theology, for wherever we encounter their theology, I believe we encounter their relationality (with many others), and through their theo-relationality, we might also discover our own relationality with others and with God.

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