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Medium 9781475816426

The Impact of Vocational Education on Economic Development in China

International Journal of Educational Reform Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

I-Ming Wang and Chich-Jen Shieh

Study of the history of developed civilizations reveals that the affluence of a nation depends on its natural resources, economy, and labor force. Although China has an abundance of natural resources, it holds no superiority in this area when the resources are apportioned over the large population. China has not yet reached the conditions necessary to make full and efficient use of its resources. The labor force is its best resource. With 20% of the world’s population, China is often called “a nation of manpower.” However, the education received by most Chinese people is below the average of developed countries, a scenario that has been an important factor contributing to the relative poverty in China.

Since joining the World Trade Organization in 2001, China has made many social and economic reforms aimed at strengthening the nation. These reforms include improving science and technology, improving education systems, and adopting sustainable educational practices. Through its laws of education, China has enacted educational reforms to promote the sustained development of various educational programs and establish and perfect the “whole-life” educational system to better meet the demands for developing the socialist market economy and social progress. Yang (1997) points out that China is transitioning from a traditional planned economy to a socialist market economy. This transition has a crucial impact on the labor market, and its success depends very much on the quality of the labor force. Vocational education is an important part of the whole-life educational system and is important in the strategy of both building a labor force and strengthening China in science and education.

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Medium 9781475816419

Why Do Fewer Women Than Men Pursue the Superintendency?

International Journal of Educational Reform Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Mary J. FeKula

Laura Roberts

In education today, there is an increasing call for quality leadership. Despite this need for highly competent individuals, the candidate pool of aspiring administrators is shrinking significantly. This appears to be especially true of the top administrative position in a school district, the superintendency (McAdams, 1998). Pennsylvania is experiencing this shortage of candidates even though the number of educators receiving their superintendent’s letter of eligibility has increased dramatically in recent years. According to J. C. Rose, assistant executive director for school board and management services from the Pennsylvania School Boards Association (personal communication, February 28, 2003), the number of candidates for each superintendent’s position is drastically down from 10 years ago—creating a crisis situation in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.

This problem is likely to grow even larger, as the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics projects a 10% to 20% increase in all levels of school administrative openings through the year 2005. Most of the positions will result from retirements (Keller, 1998). Paul D. Houston, the executive director of the American Association of School Administrators, reports receiving numerous examples in the past few years of districts having no applications submitted for a superintendent opening. School boards and search firms are recognizing that the number of viable candidates is not enough to fill the need (Houston, 1998). Quite often openings for superintendents continue with no candidates.

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Medium 9781475824209

School Public Relations and the Principalship: An Interview With Barbara Chester, President of the National Association of Elementary School Principals

Relations, Journal of School Public Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub


Founded in 1921, the National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP) is a professional organization serving elementary and middle school principals and other administrators and professors throughout the United States, Canada, and other countries. One of NAESP’s core beliefs is that the progress and well-being of the individual child must be a primary consideration in the planning and operating of schools. The organization’s philosophy also espouses that the principal is instrumental in creating the learning environment, affecting student achievement, and influencing long-term school improvement efforts (see

As the current president of NAESP, Barbara Chester has the responsibility of representing the organization’s members in their efforts as advocates for children. Principal Chester’s answers to the interview questions reflect the challenges facing our schools and the role that principals need to play in addressing them.

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Medium 9781475811995

Using Teacher Instructional Leadership as a Predictor of Principal Leadership



ABSTRACT: Untold numbers of professional educators hold administrative certificates or licenses but do not use them, never taking formal administrative roles in schools. Why do so many of the graduates of our principal-preparation programs forego taking school-leadership positions and simply stick with teaching or assume other, nonadministrative-leadership positions in schools? Is the time and effort spent preparing potential administrators with such small success and great cost worth it? Informal discussions with those who pursue formal leadership positions—and with some who do not—suggest that some graduates who start their program with school-leadership experience were more likely to seek and accept formal leadership obligations. To examine this anecdotal evidence more rigorously, we undertook a three-university analysis of past graduates’ preprogram school-leadership activities. Through exploratory, secondary analyses of existing data at three institutions as well as postprogram-position information, we generally found that program participants who (1) expressed commitment to becoming formal leaders, (2) had already held responsible leadership roles in their schools working with adults, or (3) had earned an advanced degree before entering a preparation program were more likely to take administrative posts. These tentative findings have implications for the recruitment and selection of participants for principal-preparation programs, potential for raising the quality of these programs, and possibilities for decreasing costs while increasing benefits of preparation programs.

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Medium 9781442229341

Signa Unitatis: Communion and Scriptural Exegesis in the Thought of Geoffrey Wainwright

Pro Ecclesia Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Signa Unitatis : Communion and Scriptural Exegesis in the Thought of Geoffrey Wainwright

William Glass

They said, “You have a blue guitar,

You do not play things as they are.”

The man replied, “Things as they are

Are changed upon the blue guitar.”

And they said then, “But play, you must,

A tune beyond us, yet ourselves,

A tune upon the blue guitar

Of things exactly as they are.”

—Wallace Stevens, “The Man with the Blue Guitar”

The long ecumenical twentieth century saw voices both Catholic and Protestant calling for a return to Scripture as the book of the church. “Before greater visible unity can be achieved,” wrote John Paul II in the justly famous encyclical Ut Unum Sint, “fuller study” must be done on “the relationship between Sacred Scripture, as the highest authority in matters of faith, and Sacred Tradition, as indispensable to the interpretation of the Word of God.”1 These words both expressed the Roman Church’s irrevocable commitment to ecumenism in general and diagnosed quite a large pothole in the road toward it.2 Along similar lines, then cardinal Joseph Ratzinger observed and applauded in Vatican II’s reflection upon the Scriptures a “hermeneutic of unity” (Hermeneutik der Einheit), made possible in our own day by “new understanding” of the Scriptures in the light of biblical criticism, and necessitated by the ecumenical agenda if “apparently irreconcilable elements” are to “be fused together into the wholeness of the one truth.”3 By applauding such a hermeneutical development, Ratzinger implicitly suggests a problem of incompleteness in the absence of it. Interpretation of the Scriptures, however carefully done in the case of a divided church, was discovered to be (at best) the shining up of some element in the whole that remains to be put together. The Catholic Church has come to recognize the need for a fusion of hermeneutical horizons. And from the Protestant side, in answer to that summons, Geoffrey Wainwright has advanced a powerful, as yet largely unnoticed proposal on just how the Scriptures might be read together across traditions. Specifically, he appropriates medieval exegesis (traditionally shunned in many Protestant circles) via a powerful argument about the liturgical origins and nature of scriptural text, allowing exegesis of this kind to sidestep Protestant suspicion while receiving into itself many of the most powerful insights of modern (mostly Protestant) critical methodologies. The multiple senses of Scripture, it will be seen, open hermeneutical space in which disagreeing ecclesial communities can articulate worthwhile differences while remaining connected to one another as worshippers of God and receivers, in their common worship, of His Word.

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