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Medium 9781475816013

The Internationalist

International Journal of Educational Reform Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Peter McLaren

Associate Professor of Education

University of California, Los Angeles

College of Education

Los Angeles, CA 90024-1521

Concepción M. Valadez has been involved with scholarly, technical, and policy aspects of bilingual education for the past twenty-five years. A graduate of Stanford University in linguistics and education, she is on the faculty of the University of California, Los Angeles, where she is the coordinator of the Bilingual/Cross-cultural teacher credential program. Her primary personal, professional, and scholarly agenda is promoting equitable access to quality educational services for students marginalized for reasons of race, language, ethnicity/culture, or economics. In addition to the extensive work she does in the United States, with its Indian Nations, and its territories, she also works with schools, parent groups, and government agencies in a wide range of other countries, including Mexico, Paraguay, Brazil and Spain. A current project is the study of language policies in new and developing democracies. Among the many leadership positions she has held in professional associations is that of Vice Chair of the Division Social Context of Education, American Educational Research Association.

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Medium 9781475824377


Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Matthew K. Burns
Amanda Kimosh

Incremental rehearsal (IR; Tucker, 1989) can be used with students with and without disabilities from various age groups. Previous research utilized an individual model in which there was one student and one teacher during instructional sessions. Thus, a one-on-one instructional model should be used. Procedures can be conducted within a classroom as long as a tutorial approach is used in which the student and teacher are seated together away from distractions and interruptions.

Target Behavior

The study on which these guidelines are based used sight-word acquisition as the target behavior, as has previous research (MacQuarrie, Tucker, Burns, & Hartman, 2002). However, IR could be used for almost any material that requires rote memorization, such as multiplication facts, spelling words, vocabulary words, and so forth.


The following procedures can be used to rehearse material that requires retention to automaticity. These procedures will use reading sight words as the example, but this technique could be used with other stimuli.

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Medium 9781475819540

Editorial: Preservice Teacher Preparation—A Search for Who We Are as Teacher

Teacher Education and Practice R&L Education ePub


We resolved to look inside ourselves, to retrace as many of the important twists and turns of the evolution of our species as we were able. We made a compact with each other not to turn back, no matter where the search might lead. . . . There was a chance that one or both of us might have to give up some of those beliefs we considered self-defining.

—Sagan and Druyan (1992, p. xiv)

“Who we are as teacher?” is a both a philosophical and a practical question, a question situated in the midst of complex societal issues and political, cultural contexts defining the larger geography of education. Philip W. Jackson, in The Practice of Teaching (1986), argued the point that “despite the ubiquity of teaching as an activity, there is no uniformity of opinion about it” (pp. 2–3). Upon first entering the classroom, the preservice teacher is all too often confronted by cultural patterns of the school, imprinted with dominate ideologies, unbalanced by the asymmetrical nature of power and knowledge, and challenged by the issues of difference, equity, and social justice. Very early in the preservice teacher’s experiences, he or she recognizes just how “unforgivingly complex” (Cochran-Smith, 2003, p. 4) teaching is. And early on, the preservice teacher recognizes that simple “isomorphic equations between teaching quality and test scores and between student learning and test scores” (p. 5) are prevalent and antithetical to how teaching had been envisioned early in the preparation program experience.

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Medium 9781475821253

Online Communities of Practice

JOURNAL OF SCHOOL LEADERSHIP Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

S. Kim MacGregor

Cynthia B. Vavasseur

Online Communities of Practice

A Story of Principal–Teacher Interaction in Two Middle Schools

ABSTRACT: This mixed-method study examined the ways that principals and teachers coparticipated in discipline-focused online communities of practice designed to foster instructional improvement in two middle schools. Findings derived from interviews and content analysis of the online discussion threads revealed the emergence of a shared language about learning between principals and teachers, as well as how the scaffolding of knowledge development among those teachers was supported. Principal participation allowed teachers to gain insights about their principals’ priorities, values, and beliefs about learning and was found to influence the quality of teacher-developed instructional units and teaching efficacy. Participative and directive leadership styles were represented by the principals, and their influence on the communication process and performance outcomes is discussed.

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Medium 9781475817423

Autobiographical Stories of Rites of Passage of Caucasian and African-American Female Doctoral Students in Educational Administration

JOURNAL OF SCHOOL LEADERSHIP Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub


ABSTRACT: This paper focuses on the autobiographical stories of one Caucasian and three African-American female doctoral students during their rites of passage in departments of educational administration. A rite of passage has been defined as the student’s journey toward the completion of the dissertation. While not generalizable, the four stories offer different perspectives and experiences of nontraditional doctoral students and may provide new insights for those who advise and teach diverse graduate students.

We learn from stories. More important, we come to understand—ourselves, others and even the subjects we teach and learn. (Witherell and Noddings, 1991, p. 279)

Our stories, those of one Caucasian and three African-American female nontraditional doctoral students, during our rites of passage in departments of educational administration, are told and discussed herein. For the purposes of this article, we created a stipulative definition for a rite of passage that includes a student’s journey through the doctoral process to the period immediately following the completion of the dissertation. We also created a category called nontraditional doctoral students, containing those who are dissimilar from the majority because of their gender, race, social class, age, or other variables of difference.

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