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Medium 9781475816174

Standards and In-Service Teachers: Learning to Own the Concept of Reform

International Journal of Educational Ref Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

NANCY B. COTHERN

Associate Professor, School of Education, 250 Neff Hall, Indiana University-Purdue University, Fort Wayne, IN 46805

In 1983, the profession of education was officially “given notice” to improve or bear the consequences. This groundswell occurred as a result of A Nation at Risk, a report written by the US National Commission on Excellence in Education. Since that time, reform suggestions have surfaced from varied sources: churches, parent groups, business and industry, universities, special interest groups, and politicians, to name a few. Interestingly, it is the history of the present education system that has been the major stumbling block to true reform, as the system in place always holds more power than the one being proposed (Sarason, 1990).

Theorists believe that the most effective way to facilitate change is to provide a “skeleton” on which instruction should be based. This would allow state level educational leaders to tailor their programs to meet their needs (Goodlad, 1991). The “skeleton” has been named: standards. Given the promise they hold, national and state level professional teaching standards are here—perhaps to stay. To some this is a good idea, for others a bad idea, and for the majority in-between, a confusing idea (Johnston, Afflerbach, and Weiss, 1991; Purves and Hawisher, 1991).

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Medium 9781442267862

Archaeological Curation and the Research Value of Archaeological Collections A Case Study from California

Collections Altamira Press ePub

Edward M. Luby

Professor of Museum Studies, Director, Museum Studies Program, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94132; email: emluby@sfsu.edu

Kent G. Lightfoot

Professor of Anthropology, Curator of North American Archaeology, Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720; email: klightfoot@berkeley.edu

Victoria Bradshaw

Head of Collections, Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720; email: vlbmuse@berkeley.edu

Abstract In this paper, we examine the curatorial and collections management-related efforts undertaken to establish the research value of an “old” archaeological collection housed in a museum in California for over one hundred years. The archaeological collection assessed is associated with one of the most important archaeological sites in the region, the Ellis Landing shell mound, a site excavated in 1906 by one of North America’s leading archaeologists. First, after core issues in archaeological curation are examined, basic features of the site and its excavation are outlined. Next, the process of curating, reanalyzing, and establishing the research potential of the collection is described, recent archaeological analyses of the curated collection are presented, and the implications of this work for the museum profession and the research community are explored. Finally, to best manage these “old” archaeology collections, it is concluded that it is critical to recognize how much their research value has changed.

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Medium 9781475816846

Did the Teachers Destroy the School? Public Entrepreneurship as Creation and Adaptation

JOURNAL OF SCHOOL LEADERSHIP Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Robert Maranto

Did the Teachers Destroy the School? Public Entrepreneurship as Creation and Adaptation

ABSTRACT: This article is based on a case study to explore a model of teacher governance and illustrate the distinct challenges of entrepreneurship in public education. In the Sedona Charter School, each classroom principal educator serves as instructional leader and resource leader. Principal educators adjust curricula, hire their teachers, determine salaries (including their own), and purchase classroom materials within the constraints of state funding. By conventional measures of market, financial, and performance accountability, the school succeeds, suggesting that this model can be replicated. Yet the school founders severed their relationship with the school and lobbied state authorities to close it, since, in their view, it violated its charter (process accountability). This case suggests that most innovative entrepreneurs may have difficulty adjusting to educational realities and must themselves be held accountable by parents and state authorities. The study further suggests that, as educational principals, parents and state regulators are more influenced by performance and financial accountability than by process accountability.

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Medium 9781442267763

Measured and Drawn: Techniques and Practice for the Metric Survey of Historic Buildings

Collections Altamira Press ePub

by David Andrews, Jon Bedford, Bill Blake, Paul Bryan, Tom Cromwell, and Richard Lea. Edited by Jon Bedford and Heather Papworth. Second Edition. Swindon: English Heritage. 2009. 70 pp. ISBN: 9781848020474

Reviewed by Craig A. Reynolds, Doctoral Student, Department of Art History, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA; email: reynolds.ca2@vcu.edu

English Heritage, the official government body charged with protecting England’s historic built environment, has recognized that emerging technologies have created an “interdependency” between computer based tools for recording history and the manner by which we evaluate history. With the ubiquity of computers and computer-based tools, it is nearly impossible to escape technology. Furthermore, it is undeniable that technology will continue to influence how we approach and evaluate history. It is only logical that we adapt these emerging tools to assist in our understanding of the past, particularly in aiding the preservation of historic buildings. The merging of technology and traditional academic fields such as history and art, however, is not always an easy one. For example, the sheer abundance of technological survey tools creates a situation where it may be difficult to determine which technique is appropriate to the chosen research methodology.

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Medium 9781475811209

Reshaping Urban Education: A School—Community—University Collaborative Initiative

JOURNAL OF SCHOOL LEADERSHIP Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

DAVID A. ERLANDSON1

LINDA SKRLA1

DARLENE WESTBROOK2

SYLVIA HORNBACK2

ALEJANDRO MINDIZ-MELTON2

ABSTRACT: This article describes the planning phase and first year implementation of a doctoral cohort program for urban principals that is a collaborative effort of the Department of Educational Administration at Texas A&M University and the Austin Independent School District. The guiding vision, organization, and curriculum of the program are discussed, as well as the involvement of multiple other contributing groups and individuals. Recommendations are offered for other universities and/or school districts considering similar collaborative doctoral programs focused on the improvement of urban schooling.

Two of the most perplexing problems in American education have been the continuing failure of schools to serve fully the needs of all students regardless of their race or socioeconomic status and the frustration of attempts to bring together separate stakeholders to collaboratively address educational issues in which they have a mutual interest (Bliss, 1993; Cibulka, 1992; Forsyth, 1993; Lomotey, 1997; Trueba, 1991; Valencia, 1991). These two problems are closely related in urban environments. The complexity of large cities often brings the agendas of schools, universities, government, and social agencies into conflict over matters in which they ought to be partners (Shirley, 1997). Interest in addressing and resolving the problems of U.S. urban schools and the communities they serve is increasing as “urban education issues re-emerge as a central concern of researchers and policy makers. High rates of school failure and under-achievement, particularly for poor children and those of color, have focused attention on how to improve urban schools” (Cibulka, 1992, p. 27).

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