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Medium 9781442229112

SUB TUUM PRAESIDIUM: THE THEOTOKOS IN CHRISTIAN LIFE AND WORSHIP BEFORE EPHESUS

Pro Ecclesia Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Maxwell E. Johnson

Thanks, in large part, to Joseph Jungmann’s classic essay, “The Defeat of Teutonic Arianism and the Revolution in Religious Culture in the Early Middle Ages,” it has become common to treat the question of the Theotokos as only a Christological-doctrinal issue with little or no attention to its wider context or possible prehistory.2 A summary statement by Elizabeth Johnson in her recent study, Truly Our Sister: A Theology of Mary in the Communion of Saints, well illustrates this point:

[T]he school of Alexandria argued for a stronger, ontological form of union in which the divine Son of God personally united himself to human nature. While safeguarding the unity of natures in the person of Christ, this notion tended to dilute his humanity, seeing it as somehow mixed with or swallowed up by transcendent divinity. In this school, the passionately preferred title for Mary was Theotokos, or God-bearer, meaning that she was the mother of the one who is personally the Word of God. Although the essence of the controversy was Christological, the Marian title itself bore the brunt of the dispute. When the Council of Ephesus in 431 opted for the title Theotokos, it spread like wildfire, keeping its original form in the East and being transmuted into the more colloquial “Mother of God” in the West. According to most scholars, the impetus from this council allowed the development of the Marian cult to go public in the church. Although discourse about Mary had been in play to express Christological truths, it opened up the later trajectory where attention was focused on Mary herself.3

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Medium 9781475836806

Do Bulgarian Schools Effectively Communicate with Their School Communities?

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Do Bulgarian Schools Effectively Communicate with Their School Communities?

MILEN FILIPOV

DIANA POPOVA

MARIA ALEXIEVA

ABSTRACT: The article maps the state of educational public relations (PR) in Bulgaria and explores how Bulgarian public educational institutions (PEIs) (kindergartens, primary schools, and secondary schools (general, language and vocational ones)) effectively communicate with their school communities. The purpose of this study is to research how Bulgarian PEIs’ administrative and teaching staff understand and practice educational PR to build their school communities. It addresses Bulgarian public educational institutions’ ability to effectively communicate with their communities their achievements, attract external funding to improve their physical environment, and to solve problems and overcome crisis.

KEYWORDS: educational public relations, school community, effective communication, educational PR

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Medium 9781475815948

Toward Reflective Teacher Education: The University of Connecticut Experience

International Journal of Educational Ref Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

TIMOTHY G. REAGAN, CHARLES W. CASE and KAY A. NORLANDER

School of Education, Office of the Dean
The University of Connecticut
Room 228, Box U-64
249 Glenbrook Road
Storrs, CT 06269-2064

. . . Reflective teachers are never satisfied that they have all the answers. By continually seeking new information, they constantly challenge their own practices and assumptions. In the process, new dilemmas surface and teachers initiate a new cycle of planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. (Ross et al., 1993, p. 337)

An important facet of educational reform efforts in the United States in recent years has been attempts to reconceptualize the way in which classroom teachers are prepared (see Beyer et al., 1989; Gideonse, 1992; Goodlad, 1991a; Holmes Group, 1986, 1990; Soltis, 1987; Sykes, 1992). Although such efforts have been manifested in a variety of ways, in major research institutions, the most significant reforms of teacher education have been guided, at least in part, by the recommendations of the Holmes Group (see Case et al., 1986; Holmes Group, 1986, 1990; Sykes, 1992) and the work of John Goodlad and his colleagues (see Goodlad, 1988a, 1988b, 1991a, 1991b; Goodlad and Field, 1993). In this article, we will provide an overview of the reform of the teacher preparation curriculum at one such institution, the University of Connecticut, where we adopted the goal of “reflective practice” not only as an objective for our students, but also for our own professional practice (see Brubacher et al., in press; Clift et al., 1990; Ross, 1990; Schön, 1983, 1987; Valli, 1992). We believe that the reform of the teacher education program at the University of Connecticut constitutes a compelling example of the sort of on-going effort toward the improvement of practice guided by reflective and action-based inquiry about which Ross and her colleagues were speaking in the above passage.

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Medium 9781475830569

Improving the Internship Model: Instructional Coaches for Teacher Candidates

Teacher Education and Practice Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Instructional Coaches for Teacher Candidates

JUDITH J. SMITH, JOY N. STAPLETON, KRISTEN C. CUTHRELL, JASON BRINKLEY, AND VIVIAN M. COVINGTON

ABSTRACT: Meeting the challenge of increased accountability for novice teachers requires colleges of education to facilitate meaningful improvements in field-based internship. In this article, the authors posit that adding instructional coaches to the traditional internship is a model that can positively impact the effectiveness of teacher candidates. Situated within the pedagogies of practice framework of Grossman et al. (2009), researchers developed an instructional coaching model and conducted an efficacy study. The study was guided by the following research question: What impact does instructional coaching have on teacher candidates’ use of effective instructional practices? Using results from observations, researchers found that teacher candidates who received instructional coaching significantly increased their use of instructional practices while also notably improving levels of student engagement during their yearlong internship.

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Medium 9781475811841

Cultivating Students of Color: Strategies for Ensuring High Academic Achievement in Middle and Secondary Schools

JOURNAL OF SCHOOL LEADERSHIP Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

ANYSIA P. MAYER

SHUANA K. TUCKER

ABSTRACT: Opportunity gaps are not just a phenomenon that exists among low-achieving and average students; they are a significant feature among high-performing students as well. We present a review of research-based practices that support students of color such that they achieve at high levels in middle and secondary schools. We identify five key strategies for success: close monitoring of students’ academic and social growth, access to high-quality curriculum, appropriate scaffolding to ensure academic success, academically oriented supportive peer groups, and opportunities for social and emotional growth.

Promoting urban school reform requires urban principals to account for a complex array of impediments, including a lack of resources to execute unfunded mandates, overcrowded schools, teacher and administrator attrition, the cultural mismatch between schools and urban communities, generational community poverty, and the needs of linguistically diverse learners (Kimball & Sirotnik, 2000; Kincheloe, Hayes, Rose, & Anderson, 2005). Researchers have suggested the following patterns occur among the least effective reform initiatives: teachers with low expectations, teachers with a low sense of efficacy, teachers’ beliefs that counter new reform ideas, lack of teachers’ knowledge in content areas, and school administration that does not support reform efforts (Bray, 2007; Leggett, 2007; Muncey & McQuillan, 1996). Given the state of urban school reform, traditional modes of leadership have not provided urban school leaders with the critical insights and competencies necessary to promote systemic reform. Social justice leadership represents a promising framework to allow educational leaders to reimagine the foundations of leadership in urban schools (Marshall & Oliva, 2009; Theoharis, 2007). According to scholars and practitioners (Bell-McKenzie et al., 2007), principals working for social justice must use their leadership skills:

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